Muth Jr D.J.,Praxik LLC |
Langholtz M.H.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory |
Tan E.C.D.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory |
Jacobson J.J.,Idaho National Laboratory |
And 9 more authors.
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2014
The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the conversion facility. © 2014 The Authors. Biofuels, Bioproducts, Biorefining published by Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source
Yennamalli R.,Rice University |
Arangarasan R.,Raj Organization |
Bryden A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Bryden A.,Praxik LLC |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2014
Visualization of protein structures using stereoscopic systems is frequently needed by structural biologists working to understand a protein's structure-function relationships. Often several scientists are working as a team and need simultaneous interaction with each other and the graphics representations. Most existing molecular visualization tools support single-user tasks, which are not suitable for a collaborative group. Expensive caves, domes or geowalls have been developed, but the availability and low cost of high-definition televisions (HDTVs) and game controllers in the commodity entertainment market provide an economically attractive option to achieve a collaborative environment. This paper describes a low-cost environment, using standard consumer game controllers and commercially available stereoscopic HDTV monitors with appropriate signal converters for structural biology collaborations employing existing binary distributions of commonly used software packages like Coot, PyMOL, Chimera, VMD, O, Olex2 and others. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography. Source
Searcy E.,Idaho National Laboratory |
Hess J.R.,Idaho National Laboratory |
Tumuluru J.S.,Idaho National Laboratory |
Ovard L.,Idaho National Laboratory |
And 7 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Energy | Year: 2014
Global demand for lignocellulosic biomass is growing, driven by a desire to increase the contribution of renewable energy to the world energy mix. A barrier to the expansion of this industry is that biomass is not always geographically where it needs to be, nor does it have the characteristics required for efficient handling, storage, and conversion, due to low energy density compared to fossil fuels. Technologies exist that can create a more standardized feedstock for conversion processes and decrease handling and transport costs; however, the cost associated with those operations often results in a feedstock that is too expensive. The disconnect between quantity of feedstock needed to meet bioenergy production goals, the quality required by the conversion processes, and the cost bioenergy producers are able to pay creates a need for new and improved technologies that potentially remove barriers associated with biomass use. Because of their impact on feedstock cost, feedstock location and raw physical format are key barriers to industry expansion and intercontinental trade. One approach to reducing biomass cost is to emulate the commodity fossil-fuel-based feedstocks that biomass must compete with in terms of logistics, quality, and market characteristics. This requires preprocessing the biomass to improve density, flowability, stability, consistency, and conversion performance. Making the biomass format compatible with existing high-capacity transportation and handling infrastructure will reduce the need for new infrastructure. Producing biomass with these characteristics at costs conducive to energy production requires the development of new technologies or improvements to existing ones. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014. Source
Software; software for use in design and development; computer graphics software; rendering software; mapping software; planning software; consulting software.
Praxik LLC | Date: 2013-05-21
Software for use in data management, record keeping and data acquisition using three-dimensional photographs in conjunction with cloud storage and real-time syncing across multiple devices for use in industrial applications, compliance, insurance and audits and interior design.