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Brooklyn, NY, United States

Pratt Institute is a private, nonsectarian, non-profit institution of higher learning located in the Clinton Hill neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, United States, with a satellite campus located at 14th Street in Manhattan. It originated in 1887 with programs primarily in engineering, architecture, and fine arts. Comprising five schools, the Institute is primarily known for its highly ranked programs in architecture, interior design, and industrial design, and offers both undergraduate and Master's degree programs in a variety of fields with a strong focus on research.U.S. News and World Report lists Pratt as one of the top 20 colleges in the Regional Universities North category. Princeton Review recognizes Pratt as being one of the best colleges in the northeast, making it among the top 25% of all four-year colleges and universities in the United States. Wikipedia.

Rubin G.D.,Pratt Institute
Journal of Thoracic Imaging | Year: 2015

Fundamental to the diagnosis of lung cancer in computed tomography (CT) scans is the detection and interpretation of lung nodules. As the capabilities of CT scanners have advanced, higher levels of spatial resolution reveal tinier lung abnormalities. Not all detected lung nodules should be reported; however, radiologists strive to detect all nodules that might have relevance to cancer diagnosis. Although medium to large lung nodules are detected consistently, interreader agreement and reader sensitivity for lung nodule detection diminish substantially as the nodule size falls below 8 to 10mm. The difficulty in establishing an absolute reference standard presents a challenge to the reliability of studies performed to evaluate lung nodule detection. In the interest of improving detection performance, investigators are using eye tracking to analyze the effectiveness with which radiologists search CT scans relative to their ability to recognize nodules within their search path in order to determine whether strategies might exist to improve performance across readers. Beyond the viewing of transverse CT reconstructions, image processing techniques such as thin-slab maximum-intensity projections are used to substantially improve reader performance. Finally, the development of computer-aided detection has continued to evolve with the expectation that one day it will serve routinely as a tireless partner to the radiologist to enhance detection performance without significant prolongation of the interpretive process. This review provides an introduction to the current understanding of these varied issues as we enter the era of widespread lung cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Mark D.B.,Pratt Institute
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2016

The field of quality-of-life (QOL) measurement grew out of attempts in the 1960s and 1970s to connect the ever-increasing levels of public expenditure on technology-based health care for chronic diseases with evidence of the benefits and harms to patients. Most of the concepts, methods, and standards for measuring QOL were derived from psychometrics, but the degree to which current tools adhere to these methods varies greatly. Despite the importance of QOL, patient-reported outcomes are not measured in most cardiovascular clinical trials. Lack of familiarity with QOL measures and their interpretation, and unrealistic expectations about the information these measures can provide, are obstacles to their use. Large clinical trials of revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease and medical treatments for heart failure show small-to-moderate QOL effects, primarily detected with disease-specific instruments. Larger treatment effects, seen in trials of device therapy for heart failure and ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation, have been detected with both generic and disease-specific instruments. A large gap remains between the parameters currently being measured in clinical research and the data needed to incorporate the 'patient's voice' into therapeutic decision-making. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Felker G.M.,Pratt Institute
Heart Failure Clinics | Year: 2011

Despite the continued growth of heart failure as a major public health problem, the development of new therapies for heart failure has slowed and recent studies have been neutral, suggesting the need for a reappraisal of the clinical research enterprise. Surrogate end points, defined as measurements that are used as substitutes for the more clinically meaningful end points, can play a valuable role in clinical trials by accelerating the timeline for determining appropriate dosages, efficacy, and safety. Biomarkers, such as the natriuretic peptides, have many of the characteristics of valid surrogates but have not been sufficiently validated for widespread use. Ongoing research into the role of biomarkers as surrogates may lead to better clinical trial design and more efficient development of new therapies for heart failure. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Rubin G.D.,Pratt Institute
Radiology | Year: 2014

Computed tomography (CT) has had a profound effect on the practice of medicine. Both the spectrum of clinical applications and the role that CT has played in enhancing the depth of our understanding of disease have been profound. Although almost 90 000 articles on CT have been published in peer-reviewed journals over the past 40 years, fewer than 5% of these have been published in Radiology. Nevertheless, these almost 4000 articles have provided a basis for many important medical advances. By enabling a deepened understanding of anatomy, physiology, and pathology, CT has facilitated key advances in the detection and management of disease. This article celebrates this breadth of scientific discovery and development by examining the impact that CT has had on the diagnosis, characterization, and management of a sampling of major health challenges, including stroke, vascular diseases, cancer, trauma, acute abdominal pain, and diffuse lung diseases, as related to key technical advances in CT and manifested in Radiology. Source

Pattuelli M.C.,Pratt Institute
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The use of primary source materials is recognized as key to supporting history and social studies education. The extensive digitization of library, museum, and other cultural heritage collections represents an important teaching resource. Yet, searching and selecting digital primary sources appropriate for classroom use can be difficult and time-consuming. This study investigates the design requirements and the potential usefulness of a domain-specific ontology to facilitate access to, and use of, a collection of digital primary source materials developed by the Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. During a three-phase study, an ontology model was designed and evaluated with the involvement of social studies teachers. The findings revealed that the design of the ontology was appropriate to support the information needs of the teachers and was perceived as a potentially useful tool to enhance collection access. The primary contribution of this study is the introduction of an approach to ontology development that is user-centered and designed to facilitate access to digital cultural heritage materials. Such an approach should be considered on a case-by-case basis in relation to the size of the ontology being built, the nature of the knowledge domain, and the type of end users targeted. © 2010 ASIS&T. Source

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