Prathima Institute of Medical science

andhra Pradesh, India

Prathima Institute of Medical science

andhra Pradesh, India

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Ramana K.V.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Rao R.,Apollo Health City
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2013

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the family Lentiviruses, which are responsible for chronic and long-lasting infections including the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in monkeys. Since 1981, when the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases were reported, HIV poses a challenge to human beings, and the UNAIDS global estimate reveals that currently more than 33.2 million people are living with HIV infection worldwide. HIV infection leads to variable disease course in different people. The biological basis of this variability in the disease progression is still unknown. Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) although reduced the mortality, morbidity arising from antiretroviral side effects was a cause of concern. HIV-infected patient care has now shifted from complications arising from opportunistic infections to other causes attributable to HIV pathogenesis and toxic effects of HAART. Monitoring the disease progression and the response to HAART is traditionally carried out using TCD4+ cell counts and HIV/RNA viral load. Many clinical and laboratory markers have been used to estimate disease progression in HIV1 infection. HIV/AIDS after introduction of HAART has taken a different course where people infected with HIV have been considerably living longer due to reduced incidence of opportunistic infections and other AIDS-related conditions. HIV patient care should be multifaceted involving specialist HIV primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and emergency physicians considering the ways by which HIV and HAART have changed treatment and management of HIV-infected individuals.


Srikanth S.,Prathima Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Introduction: The present study was done to know the various histopathological variants in cervical lesions, to know the age incidence and to know the preventive measures and early detection of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective and prospective study done on all the hysterectomy specimens and on punch biopsy samples sent for histopathology. We studied a total of 500 cases for a period of 3 years. Results: Out of the 500 cases, 395 cases were non-neoplastic and 105 cases were neoplastic lesions. Chronic cervicitis was the most common non-neoplastic lesion and large cell non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignant lesion. Conclusion: The main aim of presenting this study is to highlight the various histopthological variants, age incidence and to educate about the preventive measures and early detection of cervical cancer.


Bele S.D.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Bodhare T.N.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Valsangkar S.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Saraf A.,Prathima Institute of Medical science
Psychology, Health and Medicine | Year: 2013

Although mental health research in India has gained momentum in recent years and several epidemiological studies have begun to quantify psychiatric morbidities, there are few community-based epidemiological studies focusing specifically on prevalence and associated risk factors of emotional and behavioral disorders among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh among 370 children selected by simple random sampling. Strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) was used to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorder. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the social predictors of the condition, health-seeking behavior, and its impact on educational status of the children. Maternal depression was evaluated using Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Eighty-three (22.43%) children had an abnormal score on at least one domain of SDQ. Logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender (odds ration (OR) = 5.51), under-nutrition (OR = 2.74), low socioeconomic status (OR = 3.73), nuclear family (OR = 1.89), working status of the mother (OR = 2.71), younger age of the mother at the birth of the child (OR = 3.09), disciplinary method (OR = 2.31), financial problem at home (OR = 13.32), alcoholic father (OR = 11.65), conflicts in family (OR = 7.29), and depression among mother (OR = 3.95) were significant predictors. There was a significant impact on educational performance (p = 0.008) and parents had little awareness regarding the condition. The high frequency of emotional and behavioral problems, its impact on educational performance of the children, associated adverse social factors, poor knowledge, and treatment-seeking behavior of the parents in an urban slum warrants immediate attention. The interrelation of all these factors can be utilized to plan a continuum of comprehensive services that focus on prevention, early identification, and effective intervention strategies with community involvement. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Reddy C.K.,Prathima Institute of Medical science
Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ | Year: 2010

Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract system are common. The ectopic pelvic kidney is a rare anomaly about 1:2500 live births, left side being more common. Here we are reporting a case of left ectopic kidney with non rotation and morphologically normal right kidney. The case was found during routine dissection in the department of anatomy in an adult male cadaver. There were no other anomalies observed.


Bodhare T.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Valsangkar S.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Bele S.,Prathima Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Urology | Year: 2010

Background: There have been few community-based epidemiological studies on urinary incontinence (UI) evaluating the risk factors and impact on quality of life (QOL) in India. Objectives: This study was designed (1) to estimate age-specific prevalence and risk factors of UI among women aged 35 years and above in a rural area and (2) to analyze the impact of UI on the QOL of incontinent women. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, severity and type of incontinence, and obstetrical and other risk factors along with impact on QOL was administered in two clusters (villages) in Karimnagar district through multistage cluster sampling. Results: In a sample of 552 women, 53 (10%) reported episodes of UI. The prevalence of UI showed significant association with increasing age (P < 0.01). Fifty-seven percent of the women had symptoms of stress incontinence, 23% of urge, and 20% mixed symptoms. Obstetrical factors associated with UI included high parity (P < 0.003), young age at first childbirth (P < 0.01), forceps delivery (P < 0.001), and prolonged labor (P < 0.001). Chronic constipation, chronic cough, and history of urinary tract infection were predictors of UI in regression analysis (Nagelkerke R 2 = 0.7). Women with stress incontinence had the severest perceived impact on QOL on a five-point scale questionnaire, mean 24.87 (95% CI 21.26-28.47). Conclusion: One in 10 women reported episodes of UI with impaired QOL. The outcome is predicted both by obstetric and other risk factors.


Background: Spiritual aspect of health is not a new concept and it has been an integral part of health care systems even before evidence based medicine has taken a lead role in the management of health and diseases. However the extent of spiritual component in medical practice in India still remains a mystery. To assess the existing knowledge and attitude regarding role of spirituality in current medical practice among medical professionals; a cross sectional analytical study was conducted among sample 300 medical professionals of various specialties in Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences; Karimnagar. Pretested structured questionnaire was sent with self administered envelope among study sample and collected back. Statistical analyses were made using Statistical Products and Service Solutions (SPSS) version 19 software with help of Community Medicine department. Descriptive statistics obtained were percentages, proportions and frequencies. Inferential statistics obtained were tests of significance including chi square test and Fischer's exact test wherever applicable. Out of 300 participants, 200 belonged to clinical, 70 Para clinical and 30 preclinical specialties. In the Study sample 70% were males, 40% of the participants belonged to 4th decade of life and Hinduism (80%) was the most commonly practiced religion. Regarding the assessment of knowledge vast majority of participants of all three specialties (94%, P value=0.00003) were aware of spiritual dimension in medical practice, distinguished spirituality from superstitions and 95% of the participants considered spirituality contributes to beneficial effects of medical treatment. With respect to attitude component, 70% considered meditation as the major spiritual practice, 80% cited social disorders as a possible area where spirituality may be helpful and 69.5% opined in favor of inclusion of spirituality in medical curriculum. Conclusion: Medical professionals of clinical, para clinical and preclinical specialties had a good knowledge about spiritual component in medical practice and its impact on health.In spite of this, a comprehensive report on concept and application of spirituality in medical education and health care system is lacking. There is further need to undertake research work in this field before introducing into medical curriculum and also to redefine the role of spirituality in the current medical practice.


Venkataramana V.,Prathima Institute of Medical science
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2016

Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs) assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs. © 2016 Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health.


Kandi V.,Prathima Institute of Medical science
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2015

Microorganisms possess many virulence factors that are usually decided by their genetic makeup. Not many virulence determinants of bacteria are phenotypically expressed. Capsule is one such bacterial organelle, which displays many functions that include adherence, resistance to immune clearance, protection against environmental factors, and many others including the typing of bacteria based on their specific capsular antigen and rapid diagnosis of capsulated bacterial infections using monoclonal/polyclonal anticapsular antibodies.


Vinay Kumar M.S.,Prathima Institute of Medical science
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2015

The demand for organs is ever increasing globally and even after coming out with many innovative measures to deal, the scarcity of organs continues to be of major concern for both developing and developed nations. This is a review research article wherein articles were searched using 'Google' search engine and hard copies available in the library of medical college. The articles were selectively filtered based on full text availability and access to references and a total of 20 articles were reviewed to study various ethical and legal complications arising out of required request for organ donation. Required request though initially seemed to be a very effective measure to overcome the shortage of organs, it has its issues which are highly debatable with respect to conflicts of treating doctor, psychological aspects of family members of patient, economic constraints and rights of donor. It is better to adopt strategies which are widely accepted and are less controversial before going for required request.


Valsangkar S.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Bodhare T.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Bele S.,Prathima Institute of Medical science | Sai S.,Prathima Institute of Medical science
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2011

Background : The effect of infertility on marital and sexual functioning, health-related quality of life (QoL) and the acceptability of the treatment modalities is a poorly researched area in India. Aims and Objectives : To measure and compare the impact of infertility on marital adjustment, sexual functioning, QoL and the acceptability of various treatment modalities in infertility. Design and Setting : Hospital-based cross-sectional controlled study. Materials and Methods : Data regarding infertility, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment acceptability was obtained via a semi-structured questionnaire. validated, standardized scales were used to measure marital adjustment (abbreviated dyadic adjustment scale), sexual functioning (abbreviated sexual functioning questionnaire) in cases and controls, and quality of life (FertiQol) in cases. Data from 106 women attending tertiary infertility centers who met the definition of primary infertility and 212 controls attending the medical outpatient department in the same centers was obtained. Results : Body mass index and socioeconomic status were significant (P < 0.006 and < 0.0001 respectively) for infertility. Fertility-enhancing regimens and adoption had the highest acceptability with a wide dispersion of range for adoption and least acceptance for sperm, egg, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect size of infertility on marital adjustment (Nagelkerke R 2 0.725, Cohen′s D 0.86) and sexual functioning (Nagelkerke R 2 0.73, Cohen′s D 0.815). QoL showed a decrease in mean scores on the FertiQol scale similar to normative data. Conclusions : Effective counseling, reassurance and measures to reduce the impact of the condition on marital and sexual life, overall QoL are needed to impart a holistic treatment in infertility.

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