Bells Corners, Canada
Bells Corners, Canada

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Montoya C.A.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Lalles J.-P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beebe S.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Leterme P.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
Food Research International | Year: 2010

This article proposes a new way to improve the protein quality of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is based on the natural variability found in the different types of phaseolin, its main storage protein (40-50% of the total protein). Despite the fact that it is deficient in methionine content, phaseolin still represents the main source of that amino acid in the seed. More than 40 genetic variants, differing in subunit number (2-6) and molecular weight (40-54 kDa) have been analyzed. The similarity of the amino acid composition among phaseolins, suggests that a nutritional improvement cannot be expected from that side. Conversely, important variation in phaseolin susceptibility to proteolysis (ranging from 57% to 96% after cooking) has been observed, increasing the theoretical availability of methionine by up to 37%. Therefore, breeding programs based on highly-digestible phaseolin types could lead to the production of beans with higher protein quality. © 2009.


Beaulieu A.D.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Williams N.H.,PIC | Patience J.F.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Patience J.F.,Iowa State University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among birth weight, birth order, or litter size on growth performance, carcass quality, and eating quality of the ultimate pork product. Data were collected from 98 pig litters and, with the addition of recording birth weight and birth order, farrowing and piglet management were according to normal barn practices. In the nursery and during growout, the pigs received the normal feeding program for the barn and, with the addition of individual tattooing, were marketed as per standard procedure. From 24 litters, selected because they had at least 12 pigs born alive and represented a range of birth weights, 4 piglets were chosen (for a total of 96 piglets) and sent to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lacombe Research Centre (Lacombe, Alberta, Canada) when they reached 120 kg for extensive meat quality and sensory analysis. Individual BW was measured at birth, on the day of weaning, 5 wk after weaning, at nursery exit, at first pull, and at the time of marketing. Litter sizes were divided into 3 categories: small (3 to 10 piglets), medium (11 to 13 piglets), and large (14 to 19 piglets). There were 4 birth-weight quartiles: 0.80 to 1.20, 1.25 to 1.45, birth weight, carcass quality, 1.50 to 1.70, and 1.75 to 2.50 kg. Increased litter size resulted in reduced mean birth weight (P < 0.05), but had no effect on within litter variability or carcass quality (P > 0.05) when slaughtered at the same endpoint. Lighter birth-weight pigs had reduced BW at weaning, 5 and 7 wk postweaning, and at first pull and had increased days to market (P < 0.05). Birth weight had limited effects on carcass quality, weight of primal cuts, objective quality, and overall palatability of the meat at the same slaughter weight (P > 0.05). In conclusion, increased litter size resulted in decreased mean birth weight but no change in days to market. Lighter birth-weight pigs took longer to reach market. Despite some differences in histological properties, birth weight had limited effects on carcass composition or final eating quality of the pork when slaughtered at the same BW and large litter size resulted in more pigs weaned and marketed compared with the smaller litters. We concluded that based on the conditions of this study, other than increased days to market, there is no reason based on pig performance or pork quality to slow down the goal of the pork industry to increase sow productivity as a means to increase efficiency. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


Turner T.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Mapiye C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Beaulieu A.D.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The potential to increase n. - 3 fatty acid (FA) intake via flaxseed fed pork is underestimated when restricted to pure longissimus muscle, whereas a combination of muscle and adipose tissue is typically consumed. Presently, the FA content of pigs fed 0%, 5% and 10% dietary flaxseed for 11. weeks was measured in loin, picnic and butt primals (lean muscle with epimysium (L), L plus seam fat (LS), and LS plus 5. mm backfat (LSS)). The n. - 3 FA content necessary for an enrichment claim in Canada (300. mg/100. g serving) was exceeded in L from all primals when feeding 5% flaxseed, being 4. fold that of controls (P. <. 0.001), with further enrichment from inclusion of associated adipose tissues (P. <. 0.001). Increasing flaxseed feeding levels in combination with adipose tissue inclusion amplified total long chain n. - 3 FA (P.<. 0.05), particularly 20:5n. - 3 and 22:5n. - 3. Flaxseed-fed n. - 3 FA enriched pork can contribute substantially to daily long chain n. - 3 FA intakes, particularly for societies with typically low seafood consumption. © 2013 .


Bench C.J.,University of Alberta | Rioja-Lang F.C.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Hayne S.M.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Gonyou H.W.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Gonyou H.W.,University of Saskatchewan
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

Group sow housing can be a complex system and facilities come in many forms. At present, there is a lack of research adequately comparing all of the different options available for the group housing of gestating sows. The aim of this review is to assess current research findings and highlight further areas of research that are required to provide producers with information about which group systems best promote sow welfare and productivity. Specifically, the objective of the review was not to compare the use of gestation stalls versus group sow housing, but to take an in-depth look at group sow housing systems which utilize individual feeding methods (protected and unprotected) and to conduct a research needs assessment with particular attention regarding sow welfare. Generally, aggression at mixing and competition for feeder entry are the primary welfare challenges in ESF-fed sows. Increasing group size in an ESF system has different implications than in a system with feeding stalls. Low ranking sows were found to be at a disadvantage in both static and dynamic groups, especially in an ESF system, as these sows received more aggression and injuries, while also exhibiting poorer productivity compared with high-ranking sows. A review of the scientific literature reveals a need for direct comparisons of individual feeder types with consideration for interactions between group size, composition, space allowance and enrichment materials in group housed sows. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Montoya C.A.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Montoya C.A.,Riddet Institute | Leterme P.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of field peas on (1) the digestible energy (DE) content in growing pigs of 11 field pea varieties and (2) the kinetics of starch hydrolysis of five of these field pea varieties measured in vitro. Each field pea variety was ground with three screen opening-sizes: 5.4, 3.28 and 0.74. mm, resulting in a geometric mean particle size (GMPS) of 1035, 649 and 156 μm, respectively. A total of 204 growing pigs (28 ± 2 kg; 34 treatments with 6 pigs/treatment) were fed for 13. d with a basal diet composed of cereals, soybean meal and a premix or 33 pea-based diets (0.3 field pea and 0.7 basal diet) supplemented with Celite (indigestible marker). Faeces were collected by grab sampling for the last 3. d. A sequential in vitro hydrolysis of the starch of five of these field pea varieties at the three GMPS was conducted with pepsin (120. min) and a mixture of pancreatin, isomaltase and maltase enzymes (240. min). The DE concentration of the field peas varied from 13.38 to 16.05. MJ/kg DM (P<0.01). The average DE (16.1, 14.7 and 14.0. MJ/kg DM) decreased linearly with increasing GMPS (P<0.001). The differences in the degree of starch hydrolysis were influenced by the interaction "field pea variety × GMPS" (e.g. for 1035 and 649 μm of GMPS, the hydrolysis for the Acer variety was 0.90 and 0.49 vs. 0.47 and 0.40 for the Pekoe variety, respectively; P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the DE and the degree of starch hydrolysis (r= 0.62; P=0.02). In conclusion, the DE of ground field pea varieties in growing pigs increases linearly as GMPS decreases. The differences in DE observed between field pea varieties can be explained by differences in starch hydrolysis and GMPS. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Moreno L.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Moreno L.,University of Saskatchewan | Predicala B.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Predicala B.,University of Saskatchewan | Nemati M.,University of Saskatchewan
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The effects of manure age on emission of H2S and required level of nitrite or molybdate to control these emissions were investigated in the present work. Molybdate mediated control of H2S emission was also studied in semi-pilot scale open systems, and in specifically designed chambers which simulated swine production rooms. With fresh 1-, 3- and 6-month old manures average H2S concentration in the head-space gas of the closed systems were 4856 ± 460, 3431 ± 208, 1037 ± 98 ppm and non-detectable, respectively. Moreover, the level of nitrite or molybdate required to control the emission of H2S decreased as manure age increased. In the semi-pilot scale open system and chambers, average H2S concentration at the surface of agitated fresh manure were 831 ± 26 and 88.4 ± 5.7 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, 0.1-0.25 mM molybdate was sufficient to control the emission of H2S. A cost study for an average size swine operation showed that the cost of treatment with molybdate was less than 1% of the overall pro- duction cost for each market hog. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li Y.Z.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Gonyou H.W.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

A variety of management options exist for group-housed sows and these may affect animal welfare and performance. A study was conducted to examine the effect of two management options on the performance and chronic injuries of gestating sows group-housed with electronic sow feeders (ESF). The management options examined were social management (static vs. dynamic groups) and stage of gestation at mixing (pre-implantation vs. post-implantation of embryos), with sows in stalls serving as reference. Multiparous sows (n = 1569 sow records, parity 1 to 9, PIC genetics) from 100 contemporary breeding groups were used. Group-housed sows (n = 1112 sow records) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of management treatments. Each static group consisted of 35 to 40 sows that were grouped simultaneously and no further sows were added to the group. Dynamic groups consisted of 105 to 120 sows, with 35 to 40 sows being added to the group every 5 wk after the same number of sows had been moved out for farrowing. Results indicate that social management did not affect farrowing rate and weight change during gestation. However, sows in static pens sustained fewer (P = 0.01) skin lesions (cuts, swellings, and wounds) and had fewer incidences (P = 0.01) of lameness before farrowing than sows in the dynamic pen. Pre-implant sows had a lower farrowing rate (82.3% vs. 86.7%, P = 0.05), but had fewer skin lesions before farrowing (P <0.01) compared with post-implant sows. Neither social management nor stage of gestation at mixing affected total born, born alive or stillborn litter sizes. In general, sows group-housed with ESF performed similar to sows in stalls, but sustained fewer skin lesions before farrowing. These results demonstrate that management options can affect the reproductive performance and injuries of gestating sows in the ESF system.


Jha R.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Jha R.,University of Saskatchewan | Leterme P.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
Animal | Year: 2012

To study the fermentation characteristics of different non-conventional dietary fibre (DF) sources with varying levels of indigestible CP content and their effects on the production of fermentation metabolites and on faecal nitrogen (N) excretion, an experiment was conducted with 40 growing pigs (initial BW 23 kg) using wheat bran (WB), pea hulls (PH), pea inner fibres (PIF), sugar beet pulp (SBP) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The diets also contained soya protein isolate, pea starch and sucrose, and were supplemented with vitamin-mineral premix. Faecal samples were collected for 3 consecutive days from day 10, fed with added indigestible marker (chromic oxide) for 3 days from day 13 and pigs were slaughtered on day 16 from the beginning of the experiment. Digesta from the ileum and colon were collected and analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia (NH 3) content. The apparent total tract N digestibility was the lowest (P < 0.001) in diets based on DDGS (74%), medium in diets with WB and SBP (76% each) and highest in those with PIF and PH (79% and 81%, respectively). Expressed per kg fermented non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), faecal N excretion was higher with DDGS and WB diets (130 and 113 g/kg NSP fermented, respectively) and lower with PIF, PH and SBP diets (42, 52 and 55 g/kg NSP fermented, respectively). The PH-based diets had the highest (P < 0.05) SCFA concentrations, both in the ileum and the colon (27 and 122 mMol/kg digesta, respectively). The highest NH 3 concentration was also found in the colon of pigs fed with PH (132 mMol/kg digesta). Loading plot of principle component analysis revealed that the CP : NSP ratio was positively related with faecal N excretion and NH 3 concentration in colon contents, whereas negatively related with SCFA concentration in colon contents. In conclusion, pea fibres and SBP increased SCFA and reduced NH 3 concentration in the pig's intestine and reduced faecal N excretion, which makes pea fibres and SBP an interesting ingredient to use in pig diet to improve the positive effect of DF fermentation on the gastrointestinal tract and reduce faecal N excretion. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.


Alvarado A.C.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Predicala B.Z.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Asis D.A.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Addition of nanoparticles into swine manure was investigated as a possible measure to mitigate the emissions of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia from swine production facilities. Bench-scale experiments were conducted, followed by room-scale tests in controlled environment chambers closely representing actual swine production rooms. Among the 12 types of commercial nanoparticles tested, zinc oxide nanoparticles achieved significant reduction in gaseous hydrogen sulfide and ammonia concentrations when mixed into the manure at a rate of 3 g zinc oxide nanoparticles per liter of manure slurry. Room-scale experiments showed that mean initial hydrogen sulfide concentrations of 596, 57 and 39 ppm measured at the pit, animal and human levels within each chamber, respectively, were reduced significantly to 5, 1 and 1 ppm, respectively, after the addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles into the manure. Effectiveness of the treatment was persistent in maintaining low hydrogen sulfide level up to 15 days after treatment application. Pig performance and manure nutrient properties were not adversely affected by the application of zinc oxide nanoparticles. © 2014, Islamic Azad University (IAU).


A study was conducted to estimate the net energy (NE) content of canola meal (CM) and full-fat canola seeds (FFCS) in growing pigs, and to validate the results through a growth trial. The digestible energy (DE) content of the canola products was measured in a digestibility study by the difference method, with diets containing two-thirds of a basal diet of known digestibility and one-third of the canola products. The NE content was estimated by means of a predictio-nequation based on the DE content and chemical composition of the canola products. The NE was 2.43 and 3.56 Mcal kg-1 DM for CM and FFCS, respectively. For the growth study, 31-kg pigs (18 per treatment) were fed for 35 d with wheat/barley-based diets containing either 0, 5, 10 or 15% FFCS or 0, 7.5, 15 or 22.5% CM. The gain-to-feed ratio was unchanged by the levels of CM or FFCS (P>0.05), but the highest level of FFCS decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and thus increased the gain-to-feed ratio (P>0.05). In conclusion, the NE content was correctly estimated for CM, but slightly underestimated for FFCS. Also, growing pigs can tolerate diets containing up to 22.5% CM or 10% FFCS. © 2010 Agricultural Institute of Canada.

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