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Bells Corners, Canada

Turner T.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Mapiye C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Beaulieu A.D.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The potential to increase n. - 3 fatty acid (FA) intake via flaxseed fed pork is underestimated when restricted to pure longissimus muscle, whereas a combination of muscle and adipose tissue is typically consumed. Presently, the FA content of pigs fed 0%, 5% and 10% dietary flaxseed for 11. weeks was measured in loin, picnic and butt primals (lean muscle with epimysium (L), L plus seam fat (LS), and LS plus 5. mm backfat (LSS)). The n. - 3 FA content necessary for an enrichment claim in Canada (300. mg/100. g serving) was exceeded in L from all primals when feeding 5% flaxseed, being 4. fold that of controls (P. <. 0.001), with further enrichment from inclusion of associated adipose tissues (P. <. 0.001). Increasing flaxseed feeding levels in combination with adipose tissue inclusion amplified total long chain n. - 3 FA (P.<. 0.05), particularly 20:5n. - 3 and 22:5n. - 3. Flaxseed-fed n. - 3 FA enriched pork can contribute substantially to daily long chain n. - 3 FA intakes, particularly for societies with typically low seafood consumption. © 2013 .

Jha R.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Jha R.,University of Saskatchewan | Leterme P.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
Animal | Year: 2012

To study the fermentation characteristics of different non-conventional dietary fibre (DF) sources with varying levels of indigestible CP content and their effects on the production of fermentation metabolites and on faecal nitrogen (N) excretion, an experiment was conducted with 40 growing pigs (initial BW 23 kg) using wheat bran (WB), pea hulls (PH), pea inner fibres (PIF), sugar beet pulp (SBP) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The diets also contained soya protein isolate, pea starch and sucrose, and were supplemented with vitamin-mineral premix. Faecal samples were collected for 3 consecutive days from day 10, fed with added indigestible marker (chromic oxide) for 3 days from day 13 and pigs were slaughtered on day 16 from the beginning of the experiment. Digesta from the ileum and colon were collected and analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia (NH 3) content. The apparent total tract N digestibility was the lowest (P < 0.001) in diets based on DDGS (74%), medium in diets with WB and SBP (76% each) and highest in those with PIF and PH (79% and 81%, respectively). Expressed per kg fermented non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), faecal N excretion was higher with DDGS and WB diets (130 and 113 g/kg NSP fermented, respectively) and lower with PIF, PH and SBP diets (42, 52 and 55 g/kg NSP fermented, respectively). The PH-based diets had the highest (P < 0.05) SCFA concentrations, both in the ileum and the colon (27 and 122 mMol/kg digesta, respectively). The highest NH 3 concentration was also found in the colon of pigs fed with PH (132 mMol/kg digesta). Loading plot of principle component analysis revealed that the CP : NSP ratio was positively related with faecal N excretion and NH 3 concentration in colon contents, whereas negatively related with SCFA concentration in colon contents. In conclusion, pea fibres and SBP increased SCFA and reduced NH 3 concentration in the pig's intestine and reduced faecal N excretion, which makes pea fibres and SBP an interesting ingredient to use in pig diet to improve the positive effect of DF fermentation on the gastrointestinal tract and reduce faecal N excretion. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.

Montoya C.A.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Lalles J.-P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beebe S.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Leterme P.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
Food Research International | Year: 2010

This article proposes a new way to improve the protein quality of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is based on the natural variability found in the different types of phaseolin, its main storage protein (40-50% of the total protein). Despite the fact that it is deficient in methionine content, phaseolin still represents the main source of that amino acid in the seed. More than 40 genetic variants, differing in subunit number (2-6) and molecular weight (40-54 kDa) have been analyzed. The similarity of the amino acid composition among phaseolins, suggests that a nutritional improvement cannot be expected from that side. Conversely, important variation in phaseolin susceptibility to proteolysis (ranging from 57% to 96% after cooking) has been observed, increasing the theoretical availability of methionine by up to 37%. Therefore, breeding programs based on highly-digestible phaseolin types could lead to the production of beans with higher protein quality. © 2009.

Bench C.J.,University of Alberta | Rioja-Lang F.C.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Hayne S.M.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Gonyou H.W.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Gonyou H.W.,University of Saskatchewan
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

Group sow housing can be a complex system and facilities come in many forms. At present, there is a lack of research adequately comparing all of the different options available for the group housing of gestating sows. The aim of this review is to assess current research findings and highlight further areas of research that are required to provide producers with information about which group systems best promote sow welfare and productivity. Specifically, the objective of the review was not to compare the use of gestation stalls versus group sow housing, but to take an in-depth look at group sow housing systems which utilize individual feeding methods (protected and unprotected) and to conduct a research needs assessment with particular attention regarding sow welfare. Generally, aggression at mixing and competition for feeder entry are the primary welfare challenges in ESF-fed sows. Increasing group size in an ESF system has different implications than in a system with feeding stalls. Low ranking sows were found to be at a disadvantage in both static and dynamic groups, especially in an ESF system, as these sows received more aggression and injuries, while also exhibiting poorer productivity compared with high-ranking sows. A review of the scientific literature reveals a need for direct comparisons of individual feeder types with consideration for interactions between group size, composition, space allowance and enrichment materials in group housed sows. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Beaulieu A.D.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Williams N.H.,PIC | Patience J.F.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Patience J.F.,Iowa State University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among birth weight, birth order, or litter size on growth performance, carcass quality, and eating quality of the ultimate pork product. Data were collected from 98 pig litters and, with the addition of recording birth weight and birth order, farrowing and piglet management were according to normal barn practices. In the nursery and during growout, the pigs received the normal feeding program for the barn and, with the addition of individual tattooing, were marketed as per standard procedure. From 24 litters, selected because they had at least 12 pigs born alive and represented a range of birth weights, 4 piglets were chosen (for a total of 96 piglets) and sent to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lacombe Research Centre (Lacombe, Alberta, Canada) when they reached 120 kg for extensive meat quality and sensory analysis. Individual BW was measured at birth, on the day of weaning, 5 wk after weaning, at nursery exit, at first pull, and at the time of marketing. Litter sizes were divided into 3 categories: small (3 to 10 piglets), medium (11 to 13 piglets), and large (14 to 19 piglets). There were 4 birth-weight quartiles: 0.80 to 1.20, 1.25 to 1.45, birth weight, carcass quality, 1.50 to 1.70, and 1.75 to 2.50 kg. Increased litter size resulted in reduced mean birth weight (P < 0.05), but had no effect on within litter variability or carcass quality (P > 0.05) when slaughtered at the same endpoint. Lighter birth-weight pigs had reduced BW at weaning, 5 and 7 wk postweaning, and at first pull and had increased days to market (P < 0.05). Birth weight had limited effects on carcass quality, weight of primal cuts, objective quality, and overall palatability of the meat at the same slaughter weight (P > 0.05). In conclusion, increased litter size resulted in decreased mean birth weight but no change in days to market. Lighter birth-weight pigs took longer to reach market. Despite some differences in histological properties, birth weight had limited effects on carcass composition or final eating quality of the pork when slaughtered at the same BW and large litter size resulted in more pigs weaned and marketed compared with the smaller litters. We concluded that based on the conditions of this study, other than increased days to market, there is no reason based on pig performance or pork quality to slow down the goal of the pork industry to increase sow productivity as a means to increase efficiency. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

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