Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute

Portage la Prairie, Canada

Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute

Portage la Prairie, Canada
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Khan M.M.R.,University of Manitoba | Chen Y.,University of Manitoba | Lague C.,University of Ottawa | Landry H.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute | Zhong W.,University of Manitoba
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2013

The development of effective hemp decortication methods has been considered as an emerging need by the bio-composites and other fiber industries. In this study, the drop weight method was used for hemp decortication. Tests were conducted using a laboratory-scale impactor (consisting of a hammer and a mold). In the tests, a 40-g sample of hemp stalk was placed in the mold where it was subjected to various impact intensities from different numbers of hammer drops. These different impact intensities corresponded to different energy inputs onto the given mass of hemp sample. The energy inputs were expressed as specific energy levels and they were 4.5, 9.1, 13.6, 18.2, 22.7, and 27.2 MJ Mg -1. Two types of hemp sample, named as hemp A (unretted hemp) and hemp B (retted hemp), were used in the tests. Two different sieving scenarios (without-sieving and with-sieving between hammer drops) were also applied in the tests. The results showed that using higher specific energy to impact hemp stalk, higher fiber yield, and fiber detaching efficiency could be achieved. Sieving the chaff (particles smaller than 20 mm) out between hammer drops could further improve the fiber yield and detaching efficiency. The best performance of the drop weight method was observed for the treatment of the hemp B with sieving at the highest specific energy level. This treatment gave a fiber yield of 24% and a detaching efficiency of 0.89. © 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ISSN 0883-8542.

Kumaragamage D.,University of Winnipeg | Akinremi O.O.,University of Manitoba | Grieger L.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2013

Solid-liquid separation is a manure management option whereby P-rich solid is separated from N-rich liquid, allowing the separated liquid to be used as a fertilizer without oversupplying P. Little information is available on how the different P fractions in manures are partitioned to solid and liquid during separation. We examined the distribution of various P fractions in liquid and solid separates of swine manure, separated using different techniques, to gain information useful for making choices regarding the optimum use of manure separates. Samples of raw manure (RM) and their separated solid (SS) and liquid (SL) were obtained using three different separation techniques: (i) centrifugation without flocculant (CNF), (ii) centrifugation with a flocculant (CFL), and (iii) rotary press with a flocculant (RFL). These were subsequently analyzed for P using a modified Hedley fractionation scheme. Only a small proportion of RM, ranging from 5 to 12%, was recovered in SS, an advantage if SS is to be transported off-site. Concentrations of molybdatereactive P and total P in all P fractions were less in SL than in the corresponding RM on a fresh-weight basis. The separation index (percentage partitioned to SS) for total labile P (water-extractable + NaHCO3-extractable P) was 63, 81, and 75% for CNF, CFL, and RFL, respectively. The proportion of total P in labile form was significantly lower in SL than in RM. Therefore, using SL as a fertilizer instead of RM may help to avoid excessive buildup of soil test P with manure applications. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Olatuyi S.O.,University of Winnipeg | Kumaragamage D.,University of Winnipeg | Akinremi O.O.,University of Manitoba | Grieger L.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2014

Accumulation of metals is a concern with continuous application of swine slurry to agricultural soils. Solid-liquid separation is a promising approach for reducing phosphorus and total metal loadings with swine manure application to farmlands. However, very little work has been performed on the partitioning of different metal fractions in swine slurry to separated solids and liquids. This study examined the distribution of various metal fractions in raw manures (RM), their separated liquids (SL), and separated solids (SS). The three separation techniques used were centrifuge without flocculant (CNF), centrifuge with flocculant (CFL), and rotary press with flocculant (RFL). Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Se in manure and separates were determined by a modified Sposito's sequential chemical fractionation scheme to extract water-soluble, exchangeable, organically bound, carbonateprecipitated, and residual fractions. The greatest concentrations of metals were recovered in the residual fraction, with the organically bound and carbonate-precipitated concentrations much greater than water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. Separation index (Et) (i.e., percentage partitioned to SS) ranged from 13 to 66%, 9 to 87%, 16 to 93%, and 23 to 96% for watersoluble, exchangeable, organically bound, and carbonateprecipitated fractions, respectively. The Et values in general, were significantly (P < 0.05) greater for flocculant-based separation techniques than for CNF. For organically bound and carbonateprecipitated fractions, the greatest Et was obtained with the RFL for most metals. Our results suggest that applying the SL from RFL separation would minimize metal loading to farmlands compared with SL from CNF and CFL techniques. However, further validation is required using more sources of manure and different flocculants. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Mooleki S.P.,Agriculture Knowledge Center | Malhi S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Lemke R.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Schoenau J.J.,University of Saskatchewan | And 5 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2010

Mooleki, S. P., Malhi, S. S., Lemke, R. L., Schoenau, J. J., Lafond, G., Brandt, S., Hultgreen, G. E., Wang, H. and May, W. E. 2010. Effect of form, placement and rate of N fertilizer, and placement of P fertilizer on wheat in Saskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci. 90: 319-337. On the Canadian prairies, the one-pass seeding and fertilizing no-till system is very common. However, the close proximity of the fertilizer to the seed can cause damage to the emerging seedlings due to a combination of a salt effect and/or ammonia toxicity. Manufacturers have responded by developing openers that allow placement of seed and fertilizer in separate bands. A 3-yr study was initiated in 2000 to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) form [urea (U) and anhydrous ammonia (AA)], placement [broadcast (Br), side-band (SB) or mid-row band (MRB)], timing (fall or spring) and rate (0to 90or 120kg N ha-1), and phosphorus (P) placement (7 to 10kg P ha-1) on plant density, seed and straw yield, seed protein content, and N uptake of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under no-till at four sites representing different agro-ecological zones in Saskatchewan. Rate of applied N had the most dominant effect on agronomic variables, while form, placement, and timing of application of N had minor effects. Generally, SB and MRB were comparable in terms of seed yield, N uptake and seed protein content. From a practical perspective, SB and MRB could be used with equal success with either U or AA. Side banding P produced responses similar to seed-placed P, except under very dry conditions where side banding was superior. In general, placement of urea in soil in a band was more effective than broadcasting, while fall banding can be less effective than spring banding.

Sadek M.A.,University of Manitoba | Guzman L.,University of Manitoba | Chen Y.,University of Manitoba | Lague C.,University of Ottawa | Landry H.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2014

Tensile strength is an important property of hemp fibre, because it determines the mechanical strength of fibre-based products such as biocomposites. Commercial discrete element software, Particle Flow Code in Three Dimensions (PFC3D), was used to develop a numerical model which simulates tensile tests of hemp fibre. The model can predict the tensile properties (such as strength and elongation) of a hemp fibre. In the model, a virtual hemp fibre was defined as a string of spherical balls, held together by cylindrical bonds implemented in PFC3D. To calibrate the model, tensile data was collected for both unretted and retted hemp fibres using a commercial Instron testing system. The average fibre diameter was 0.34 mm for the unretted fibre and 0.30 mm for the retted fibre. The average tensile strength measured was 358 MPa for the unretted fibre and 343 MPa for the retted fibre. The corresponding average elongations for the two types of fibres were 0.88 and 0.80 mm, for an original fibre length of 25 mm. The bond modulus, the most sensitive microproperty of the model was calibrated. The calibrated value was 1.02×1010 Pa for unretted fibre and 1.05×1010 Pa for retted fibre. Using the calibrated bond modulus, elongations of fibre were simulated using the model. The simulation results showed that the elongation increased linearly with the increasing fibre length; whereas the elongation was not affected by the fibre diameter.

Parvin S.,University of Manitoba | Chen Y.,University of Manitoba | Chen Y.,University of Ottawa | Lague C.,University of Ottawa | And 3 more authors.
AES-ATEMA International Conference Series - Advances and Trends in Engineering Materials and their Applications | Year: 2015

Demand of hemp fibre is rising for industrial uses in various fields, such as biocomposites. However, most existing fibre decortication (mechanically processing hemp for fibre) equipment is ineffective to obtain fibre with high purity, i.e. the fibre product contains a significant amount of hemp straw (also referred as to core or hurds). The main goal of this study was to investigate potential methods for post-decortication cleaning of hemp fibre to improve the fibre purity. Three cleaning methods were investigated: pneumatic, carding, and floatation methods. Prior to the use of these methods for fibre cleaning, the relevant fundamental behaviours of fibre and core particles were experimentally studied. Results of aerodynamic experiments showed that core particles had significantly higher terminal velocities than fibre particles. The terminal velocity ranges were 1.28 - 3.52 m/s for core particles and 0.56 - 1.36 m/s for fibre particles, demonstrating that fibre and core particles could be separated by means of air flow. However, the pneumatic method failed to do so due to the problem of fibre and core entanglement. Results of floatation experiment showed that fibre particles sunk and core particles floated in water, which is desired for separation of fibre and core. The floatation method improved the fibre purity up to 90% when used to clean a decorticated hemp material with an original fibre purity of 55%. Carding improved the fibre purity of the same hemp material up to 70%. Both floatation and carding methods caused some losses in fibre yield. © 2015, Advanced Engineering Solutions [AES.COM], Ottawa, Canada. All rights are reserved.

Sadek M.A.,University of Manitoba | Chen Y.,University of Manitoba | Lague C.,University of Ottawa | Landry H.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute | And 2 more authors.
Transactions of the ASABE | Year: 2011

Processing of hemp for fiber involves mechanical separation of the outer fiber layer from the inner core of the hemp stem. Existing processing equipment is often not effective due to lack of information on the mechanical properties of hemp fiber and core. In this study, direct shear tests of hemp fiber and core were performed to measure the yield strength, cohesion, and internal friction of these two materials. The materials were ground into small particles before the tests. A numerical model was developed to simulate the direct shear tests using PFC 3D (Particle Flow Code in Three Dimension), a discrete element program. The model consisted of an assembly of spherical particles (2 mm diameter) that represented ground fiber and core particles. The particle assembly was virtually sheared under different normal loads to obtain the shear properties (yield strength, cohesion, and internal friction) of the model particles. The microproperties (particle friction and stiffness) of the model particles were calibrated using the measurements from the direct shear tests. The calibrated values of normal stiffness and shear stiffness were 5e4 N m -1 for the ground fiber and 8e4 N m -1 for the ground core, and the calibrated friction coefficient of the particles was 1.0 for both the ground fiber and core. The shear properties simulated with the model were validated with the measurements, and they agreed well with the measurements in most cases. © 2011 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Khan M.M.R.,University of Manitoba | Chen Y.,University of Manitoba | Lague C.,University of Ottawa | Landry H.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute | And 2 more authors.
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2010

Compressive behaviour of hemp (Cannabis Sativ L.) stems is important for the design of hemp handling and processing machines. Experiments were carried out to measure the compressive properties of stems from two hemp varieties: Alyssa (grown for fibre only) and Petera (grown for both fibre and seed), produced in Manitoba, Canada. The physical properties of the hemp specimens were measured. For each variety, an air-dried hemp stem was divided into three height sections along the stem: upper, middle and lower. For each section, the hemp stem was further cut into 25.4 mm long specimens. Individual specimens were compressed in the axial and lateral directions using a universal testing machine. The load-displacement curves were recorded, and compressive properties were derived from the load-displacement curves. The outer diameter of the hollow hemp specimens varied from 6 to 17 mm; the linear density varied from 10 to 37 g m-1. Diameter and linear density were greater for Petera than Alyssa, and at the lower height section than the higher section for both varieties. The compression tests showed that the maximum compressive load varied from 58 to 1425 N, and the energy requirement varied from 23 to 1809 mJ, depending on the variety, height section and diameter of stem, and compression direction. In general, the maximum compressive load and the energy requirement were greater in the lower section and for larger diameters; higher loads and energy were observed for Petera than for Alyssa and for the axial compression direction than for the lateral direction. © 2010 IAgrE.

Gillis C.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute | Agnew J.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute | Pratt D.,University of Saskatchewan
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014 | Year: 2014

The seed potato industry in Saskatchewan generates roughly 8, 500 tonnes of culled potatoes every year. Culled potatoes can sometimes be sold to processors for the cost of shipping; however, they are often piled and spread on land used for potato production. This can cause issues due to nutrient buildup and odour emissions or the propogation of fungal diseases such as late blight. Providing potato producers with an alternative culled potatoes management strategy will be environmentally and economically beneficial and may allow expansion of the industry. Therefore, PAMI, in collaboration with True North Seeds Potato Company and the University of Saskatchewan, conducted trials to determine if solid-state anaerobic digestion could add value to potato waste. Anaerobic digestion of potato waste has the potential to generate "green" energy and generate a homogenous, stable fertilizer while providing an environmentally sustainable way to dispose of culled potatoes. A pilot-scale trial for the anaerobic digestion of cull potatoes with beef cattle manure was initiated in September 2013. Based on the results from a bench-scale trial that generated information on the the optimum potato-to-manure ratio, each of two reactors were loaded with approximately three tonnes of potatoes and six tonnes of solid feedlot manure. In one reactor, the leachate was recirculated once every two weeks during the four-week trial. In the second reactor, the leachate was not recirculated as a control. The recirculated reactor generated more biogas (210.7 L/kg volatile solids) than the non-recirculated reactor (124.2 L/kg volatile solids) at approximately 41% average methane content over the length of the trial. This positive effect of leachate recirculation was also noted in the bench-scale trial for culled potatoes. However, previous work suggested that recirculation of leachate did not increase biogas production from solid feedlot manure alone.

Landry H.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute | King T.,University of Saskatchewan | Schoenau J.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Lague C.,University of Ottawa | Agnew J.M.,Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2011

The only readily available land application method for solid organic fertilizers (e.g. manure, compost) is surface broadcast application. However, the practice of injecting liquid manure directly under the soil surface is widely used and has demonstrated benefits in terms of reduced odor and ammonia emissions as well as decreased losses of nutrients by runoff or evaporation. The objective of the work reported herein was to develop an implement to apply solid organic fertilizers directly under the soil surface. The design criteria for the injection system included a maximum application rate of 19.8 Mg/ha at a travel speed of 4.8 km/h and a 406-mm injector spacing. The final configuration of the injection system features a feeding screw conveyor (168-mm diameter and 171-mm pitch) that is tapered to join a flexible screw conveyor 89 mm in diameter. The flexible screw conveyor runs in a flexible plastic hose (102-mm inside diameter) that brings the product to a coulter opener. The system was capable of outputting 1.9 kg/s of beef cattle manure with straw bedding compared to a target rate of 1.1 kg/s. The hydraulic power requirements were found to be 5.1 kW-s/kg per injection unit. A three-year agronomic evaluation of the technology was performed. The results indicated that there was evidence of slightly increased recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus in the manure when it was placed in the soil. In the last year of the study, there appear to be some additional benefit of the injection on crop yield. This may be explained by the injection enhancing the decomposition of the manure to plant-available inorganic forms of nutrients that plant roots can access better. Complementary results suggest that the injection of solid manure is an effective way of reducing odors from land application. However, the overall results obtained for beef cattle manure at the test site indicated that the agronomic benefits of in-soil placement of the solid manure were relatively limited and may not justify the additional associated costs.

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