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Santiago, Chile

Background: Recently, it has focused the role of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the etiology of dental caries, so we plan to evaluate the association between environmental tobacco smoke inhalation and caries experience in 10-15-years old children. Methods: A transversal descriptive study was designed. Carried out in the Primary Dentistry Unit. 9th Health Depart ment. Valencian Country (Spain). 380 children random sample was selected (following the inclusion criteria). Each participant was clinically explored, then answered a self-administered opi nion test about contact with tobacco smoke. Measurements: DMF-T and df-t indexes and their components, plaque and gin gival indexes, contact with tobacco smoke frequency (at home or not), own opinion about tobacco effects and present or future tobacco consumption. Results: Children living with smokers at home showed a decayed teeth average of 1,9 2,34, while those not living with smokers had 1,03±1,46 (p< 0,001). df and DMF average inde xes for children exposed and not exposed to tobacco smoke were 0,27 ±0,78 (df)and 1,62±2,21 (DMF) and 0,10 ±0,47 (df) and 0,92 ±1,40 (DMF) respectively (p=0,039 y p<0,001). Conclusions: In our study conditions, coexistence with environmental tobacco smoke is associated with a higher caries prevalence in both deciduous and permanent dentitions in 10 15-years-old children.

Urbina F.,Practica privada | Perez A.,Hospital General Universitario | Requena L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Rutten A.,Dermatohistopathologische Gemeinschaftslabor
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas | Year: 2014

This review of the literature on palmoplantar hypokeratosis, a process that was first indentified only 10 years ago, discusses the current state of our understanding, the therapeutic options available, and the debate about etiology. Forty-four publications reporting 69 cases were found. Palmar or plantar hypokeratosis occurs mainly in women (76.8%) and age at the time of a first visit to a physician ranges from 42 to 84 years. Most cases present between the ages of 51 and 70 years. The majority of patients have had solitary lesions usually located on the right palm, particularly in the regions of the thenar (in 44/79 lesions [55.7%]) or hypothenar eminences (in 11/79 lesions [13.9%]). In only 8 cases was there a history of prior trauma at the site. Studies using polymerase chain reaction techniques to identify human papillomavirus involvement were negative in most cases. These hypokeratotic lesions are localized epidermal depressions formed by an abrupt thinning of the stratum corneum, providing a singular histopathologic feature. This condition can currently be considered a localized keratinization disorder affecting zones where there is a thick stratum corneum. The precipitating cause is unknown and a definitive treatment remains to be found. The mechanism would be the localized failure of a clone of keratinocytes during differentiation toward normal palmoplantar hyperkeratinization. © 2012 Elsevier Espana, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

Ruiz-Leal A.B.,Practica privada | Dominguez-Espinosa A.E.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Dermatologia Revista Mexicana | Year: 2015

Blue nevus is a benign dermic melanocytic proliferation, which could mimic benign or malignant lesions including melanoma. Dermoscopy is a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions, including blue nevus. Its main dermoscopic feature is homogeneous blue pattern or structureless steel blue, nevertheless we can find some other dermoscopic blue lesions, polychromic blue nevus and even dermoscopic structures also seen in melanoma, so the differential diagnosis may be difficult. Blue lesions assessment must be accompanied by both the integration of all clinical data such as dermoscopic features; and the lack of correlation between these and/or suspicion of malignancy makes mandatory the surgical excision.

The restoration of the breast is an essential component in the curative treatment of cancer after mastectomy, as a scar or reconstruction with a poor cosmetic outcome translates into constant reminder of the disease. We propose a model of aesthetic subunits of the breast for mammary reconstruction, since the breast itself has different volume distribution that are characteristic of each patients body habitus, and avoiding in the reconstruction a single focal point in the perfectible breast. A total of 32 abdominally base flap reconstructions were performed for the restoration and integration of the subunits, as the abdominal flaps offers the advantage of being molded according to need, a characteristic not met by the use of alloplastic materials, for soft transition of the chest wall to the observer. The reconstruction of the nipple areola complex, procedures for symmetrization of healthy native breast, such as reduction or mastopexy, were performed 6 months after the initial procedure, where we can use the same subunits to assess the outcome and improve areas of continuity with lipoinjection application of fat or scar revision. Twenty-eight of the reconstructions, had a good contour of the flap in continuity with the chest wall, and proper positioning of the breast groove with good symmetry with the contralateral breast. Four reconstructions failed to unifiy the subunits of the breast, 2 of them with an appearance of patch flap, and 2 with a low positioning of the new inframamary fold. The proposed subunit principle approach to breast reconstruction may be used effectively in preoperative planning and second staged procedures, to obtain superior aesthetic outcomes in breast reconstruction, with a good flap positioning, volume distribution and incision placement and direction, having as a result the unification of the subunits as a whole.

Purpose: To demonstrate the utility, safety and performance of the Malyugin ring during phacoemulsification in patients with poor pharmacologic mydriasism synechiae and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome. Patients and Methods: Phacoemulsification was performed in 21 eyes of 19 patients with poor pupil dilation, using the Malyugin ring to maintain mechanical mydriasis during surgery; all intraoperative events and complications were registered. Results: The safety of the Malyugin ring was reproducible in all cases, there were no significative complications associated with its use. A constant mydriasis of 6 mm was maintained without the interference of the ring during surgery. In 8 patients were observed micro tears in the pupil sphincter and in 3 patients were observed micro bleedings. Discussion: The Malyugin ring is a useful device for the anterior segment surgeon, facilitating the development of phacoemulsification in patients with small pupils, improving the postoperative results and avoiding common complications in such cases.

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