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Krawczyk P.,Pracownia Immunologii i Genetyki | Dziadziuszko R.,Katedra i Klinika Onkologii i Radioterapii | Jassem J.,Katedra i Klinika Onkologii i Radioterapii | Krzakowski M.,Klinika Nowotworow Pluca i Klatki Piersiowej | And 3 more authors.

Testing for EGFR gene mutations and ALK gene rearrangement is routinely used in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer for adequate patient selection to molecularly targeted therapies. We present Polish methodological recommendations for molecular analysis of EGFR and ALK genetic abnormalities. Recommendations specify clinical indications for testing, sample types and handling, as well as requirements for laboratories performing molecular diagnostics. © Polskie Towarzystwo Onkologiczne. Source

Homa I.,Pracownia Immunologii i Genetyki | Wojas-Krawczyk K.,Pracownia Immunologii i Genetyki | Mlak R.,Pracownia Immunologii i Genetyki | Krawczyk P.,Pracownia Immunologii i Genetyki | Milanowski J.,Pracownia Immunologii i Genetyki
Onkologia Polska

The main task of a normally functioning immune system is the defence of the organism against pathogens and cancer cells. The effector cells of the immune system are lymphocytes T (they show the expression of antigens specific receptors) and lymphocytes B (they produce antibodies). These cells are capable of identifying and reacting with antigens. Depending on the microenvironment, lymphocytes T CD4-positive can differentiate into helper T cells (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22), regulatory T cells (Tregs, Tr1) or follicular T helper cells (Tfh). Each of the subpopulation produces and is sensitive to specific cytokines. Their diversity conditions the roles of the lymphocytes and the mutual interactions result in the activation of an appropriate cell-mediated or humoral immune response. The main cells which take part in the antican-cer immune response are lymphocytes Th1, which activate specific cytotoxic T cells, non-specific macrophages and natural killer cells. In rare types of cancers can observe humoral immune response aimed against cancer-specific antigens, which depends on the activation of plasmocytes to produce antibodies by lymphocytes Th2. Pleiotropic effect of the cytokines produced by lymphocytes Th17 is responsible both for inhibition and stimulation of cancer. Latest reports connect higher concentration of IL-17 with the growth, metastasis and fast progression of cancer mainly due to pro-angiogenic influence of IL-17. Lymphocytes Tregs are part of a mechanism protecting from autoimmunisation; with the help of secreted cytokines they hamper the immune response and by doing so they promote the development of tumour. Modern immunology and oncology see a chance in investigation of immune mechanisms which could help in prognosis of disease course, predict response to immunotherapy and monitor its effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Cornetis. Source

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