Burbank, CA, United States
Burbank, CA, United States

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Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2012

Most original equipment manufacturers recommend or specify oil drain intervals and the type of oil. In many cases, oil drain intervals can be extended beyond the maximum level recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. Aside from the real possibility of being able to extend drain intervals, oil analysis can be a powerful predictive maintenance tool. A discussion covers the benefits of predictive maintenance; types of maintenance approaches; trend analysis vs. individual reports; recommended oil drain interval extensions; considerations why predictive analysis is more important in some industries than in other; oil degradation standards and newer tests; and common user pitfalls regarding predictive maintenance programs.


Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2010

Wind turbines produce a significant amount of energy for a relatively small cost and with very little disruption to the environment. Modern wind turbines are designed to work most efficiently at wind-speeds of about 25 mph. A 1.5-mw wind turbine will annually displace about 3,000 tons of carbon dioxide generated by nonrenewable energy sources like coal. From an environmental perspective, the fact that wind turbines do not create any carbon-dioxide emissions puts them miles ahead of all nonrenewable energy sources. Most industrial gearboxes work by converting high speed and low torque to low torque and high speed, but wind turbine gearboxes work the opposite way by converting low speed and high torque to low torque and high speed. High loads due to wind gusts and inner-turbine vibrations are the norm. Intermediate bearing bodies vibrate against the outer and inner-rings causing the grease to squeeze out of highly loaded contact areas.


Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2010

Ionic liquids (IL) hold so much promise as lubricants because they do not evaporate like most other liquids. A discussion covers the benefits of using IL as lubricants; studies carried out to examine surface interactions to unlock the lubrication potential of IL, i.e., study on ammonium and imidazolium IL as titanium lubricants; tribological applications for IL; IL as additives; why IL have excellent tribological properties as additives; basic properties of IL; additives for IL; unique properties of IL; and promising applications of IL.


Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2015

Contact mechanics is a critical aspect of tribology, though it doesn't have the status of being the same. It lays the foundation for race-way profile design and surface roughness specifications. Contact mechanics includes compressive, adhesive and frictional forces, but tribology is mostly concerned with frictional mechanics, which is a sub-discipline of contact mechanics. It is the study of the deformation of objects in the presence of frictional forces. Surface engineering, as a method of improving the friction and lubrication performance of mechanical components, is a relatively new direction for tribology. Micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) concepts and models are now being used not only to understand the simple interaction of fluid and surface, but also as a tool to model the service life of mechanical components.


Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2013

All-electric vehicles such as the Nissan Leaf do not use engine oil because the motor's maintenance-free bearings are sealed for life. But hybrids like the Toyota Prius do have conventional internal-combustion engines that require and use oil just like any other car with a similar engine. The difference between a conventional car and a hybrid, though, is that hybrid engines turn off and on frequently during use. Natural gas cars use the same type of oil as their conventional counterparts, but the oil tends to degrade in different ways. Because there is no fuel dilution, the oil gets thicker over time. Natural gas engines also tend to run hotter, increasing oxidation rate. A final consideration is that some types of natural gas create acidity. In addition to a specialty oil, periodic oil analysis is almost a necessity.


Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2011

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is adopting requirements to reduce emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and air toxics from off-road diesel engines. The Tier 4 rule includes emission standards for new off-road diesel engines, now in effect for many of these engines. Diesel exhaust is a particular concern because, when inhaled, it is likely carcinogenic to humans. It also poses a hazard from non-cancerous respiratory effects. At the Tier 1-3 stages, the sulfur content in off-road diesel fuels was not limited by environmental regulations. Because the required Tier 4 emission-control devices can be damaged by sulfur, EPA adopted a limit to decrease the allowable level of sulfur in off-road diesel fuel by more than 99%. Specified emission standards must be met over the entire useful life of the engine. EPA requires the application of deterioration factors to all engines covered by Tier 4.


Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2013

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a regulation, which phases in from 2013 to 2018, that limits greenhouse gases and for the first time requires fuel economy improvements for medium and heavy-duty trucks. The CJ-4 oil specification, introduced in October 2006, has been the standard longer than nearly all diesel engine oil categories. But since October 2006, engine designs have changed significantly. One will be increased engine protection at traditional viscosities, and the other will be new oils at lower viscosity which meet the same performance requirements. Two separate designations are sought for the two distinct specifications. PC-11 is scheduled for API licensing by January 1, 2016. The second aim of the aeration test is to develop a method of measuring the aeration of the oil that is independent of the operator, more consistent and produces a population of data points.


Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2011

The use of advanced ultra high strength steel (A-UHSS) by automobile makers is revolutionizing the automotive industry due to its ability to provide reduced product weight, reduced cost, better crash performance and streamlined manufacturing process consolidation. While A-UHSS allows parts to be thinner, some parts, like exterior panels, are already so thin - less than a millimeter or 1/25 of an inch -that lack of rigidity becomes an issue. In other words, no matter how strong the steel is, there is a thinness threshold. As A-UHSS becomes the new standard for auto manufacturing, understanding how well the lubricant works with the material and tooling design becomes critical. Using lubricants designed for A-UHSS grades is important for a number of reasons, not the least of which is that high press forces lead to higher temperatures that can cause some lubricants to break down or burn.


Van Rensselar J.,PR Smart
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2011

A discussion on fuel-efficient lubricants covers the three types of basestock; main classes of synthetic material used to blend lubricants; API classifications of basestocks; basic functions of engine oil; main sources of lubricant-related energy losses on a typical piece of mechanical equipment; 10 categories of performance of additives; how additives work; basestock and additives; types of oil lubricants consumed by industry and the corresponding additives used in these lubricants; and sequence VID engine test.


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