Donnelly A.,Trinity College Dublin |
Donnelly A.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee |
Caffarra A.,Research and Innovation Center |
Caffarra A.,University of Burgundy |
And 12 more authors.
Climate Research | Year: 2012
There are numerous reports in the literature of advancing trends in phenophases of plants, insects and birds attributed to rising temperature resulting from human-driven climate warming. One mechanism that enables a population to respond rapidly to changes in the environment is termed phenotypic plasticity. This plasticity grants a degree of flexibility to enable the timing of developmental stages to coincide with resource availability. If, however, environmental conditions exceed the plastic limits of an organism, evolutionary change may be necessary in order to ensure continued survival of their populations. We review evidence for phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation in phenological characteristics associated with climatic warming. We focus this review on examples from trees, insects and birds. We found many reports of direct observations of phenotypic plasticity but fewer studies providing conclusive evidence of genetic adaptation. Evidence for changes in genes linked with adaptive traits associated with a warming climate was stronger in insects, that have a relatively short life-cycle, than in longer-lived birds and trees. Further research is required to identify both appropriate long-term data sets for a range of species and traits and suitable analytical methods, which will permit the study of the complex interaction between phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation of organisms and their populations in response to climatic change. © Inter-Research 2012.
Zalewski M.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Sienkiewicz P.,Pozna University of Life science |
Kujawa K.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Hajdamowicz I.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities |
Ulrich W.,Nicolaus Copernicus University
Annales Zoologici Fennici | Year: 2012
Neutral theory focuses on random dispersal and species equivalence, and challenges views on the ecological importance of life history traits and habitat properties in explaining community assembly and the spatial distribution of species. Ground beetles are a popular model taxon to test predictions of contrasting macroecological theories. Here we investigate the effects of habitat properties and life history on the occurrence and community structure of 71 carabid beetle species inhabiting 15 lake islands in NE Poland. Island properties, particularly area and habitat quality, were positively linked to the occurrences of 42% of the species and correlated with species richness and β-diversity. Life history traits (hibernation type, dispersal ability and average abundances) significantly influenced species occurrences. Thus, site and species properties influence the spatial distribution of species and macroecological patterns on islands. © 2012 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board.
Niedziallkowska M.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Koczak J.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Koczak J.,Pozna University of Life science |
Czarnomska S.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Jdrzejewska B.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Ecoscience | Year: 2010
We studied factors shaping the diversity and abundance of small mammals in temperate woodlands in northeastern Poland at local (within the forests) and regional (among the forests) scales. We compared diversity and abundance of rodents and insectivores in habitats covering the widest possible range of forest productivity in Central Europe, from dry coniferous to wet deciduous forests. Small mammals were live-trapped during summer (20042006) on 206 circular plots. On the regional scale, the number of small mammal (rodent and shrew) species positively correlated with the proportion of deciduous stands in the woodland's area. In all forests, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) dominated, and their joint proportion in the community increased with share of deciduous forest habitats. On the local scale, the number of species increased significantly with productivity of both capture site and the whole woodland. Variation in rodent abundance was influenced mainly by forest productivity at the capture site, productivity of the whole woodland, and month of capture. Only a minor part of the variation in shrew abundance was explained by habitat productivity. The relationship between forest productivity and small mammal diversity was linear and positive on both local and regional scales. The different responses of rodents and insectivores to increasing productivity could be due to a wider ecological niche of shrews and their competition for space with rodents.
Wojciechowicz T.,Pozna University of Life science |
Skrzypski M.,Pozna University of Life science |
Koodziejski P.A.,Pozna University of Life science |
Szczepankiewicz D.,Pozna University of Life science |
And 4 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2015
Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, which regulates food intake, body weight and insulin sensitivity. Obestatin influences glucose and lipid metabolism in mature adipocytes in rodents. However, the role of this peptide in rat preadipocytes remains to be fully understood. The current study characterized the effects of obestatin on lipid accumulation, preadipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and leptin secretion in rat primary preadipocytes. Obestatin enhanced lipid accumulation in rat preadipocytes and increased the expression of surrogate markers of preadipocyte differentiation. At the early stage of differentiation, obestatin suppressed lipolysis. By contrast, lipolysis was stimulated at the late stage of adipogenesis. Furthermore, obestatin stimulated the release of leptin, a key satiety hormone. Overall, the results indicated that obestatin promotes preadipocyte differentiation. Obestatin increased leptin release in preadipocytes, while the modulation of lipolysis appears to depend upon the stage of differentiation.