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Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Agrawal V.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Agarwal P.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Narasimhan S.R.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Thomas M.S.,Jamia Millia Islamia University
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine | Year: 2015

The Indian electricity grid is among one of the largest power grids in the world, with an installed generating capacity of 259 GW as of February 2015. The Indian power sector started its consolidation and expansion in early 1990 with the establishment of a central utility, Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. (PGCIL). India's power system is managed by the five regional load dispatch centers (RLDCs), one for each regional power system. The implementation of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and energy management systems (EMSs) took place from 2002 to 2006. The national load dispatch center (NLDC), which coordinates operations of the five RLDCs, started operations in 2009. Interconnections among the five Indian regional grids started in the early 1990s, and all regional grids have been synchronized since 31 December 2013. Currently, the five RLDCs and the NLDC are managed by the Power System Operation Corporation (POSOCO), a subsidiary of PGCIL. The Indian grid has been able to maintain a reasonable degree of stability over the years, despite the exponential expansion of loads and renewables integration. © 2015 IEEE.

Mukhopadhyay S.,NCR | Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. | Joshi R.,North Delhi Power Ltd
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2011

With smart grid typically characterized by attributes like, reliable and secure, efficient and economic, environment friendly and safe to the extreme extent as feasible, it calls for quality transmission and distribution operation backed by generation with optimum utilization of assets considering expected level of commitment from all stakeholders. Latter encompass investors, owners, traders, service providers, operators, and consumers of different categories. Such being the concept plant operation and control assumes an important, but difficult task at every instant of time to go. With Indian grid still growing to meet demand along with expansion of network whether from new generation or strengthening intermediate power systems, stabilization of the process would definitely take some more years. But aspiration of consumers nevertheless is not going to stop from the point of view of quality, besides quantitative adequacy at every instant of time. This calls for on the one hand smart grid to adjust with generation and its possible storage with availability whenever and wherever called for, self-healing mechanism in the face of disturbance, optimum utilization of assets achieving high level of efficiency in operation, while at the other hand consumer getting quality electricity as per quantitative requirement, through successfully enabled provision of services, products marketed, etc. Extensive usage of digital technology in terms of communication and information technology on real-time basis is an essential feature for achieving success in the matter considering the demand-supply scenario accurately at every instant. Depending upon the same means of automatic or intelligent operation and control within smart grid concept has been deliberated in the paper. © 2011 IEEE.

Mukhopadhyay S.,University of Delhi | Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Joshi R.,Power-One | Rajput A.K.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2012

With more than 21,000 MW installed capacity of renewable energy sources as of now out of an estimated potential of about 189,000 MW, in the years to come it is really a challenge to integrate the same into the smart grids in a country like India. This is basically on account of unevenly distributed renewable resources. With 5 regional grids gradually getting connected, formation of national grid in totality is a reality. Of course with major sources of generation being thermal with availability up to certain distant future, entire thrust has been put in recent years on the development of renewable resources that would be the source of energy to run side by side to the conventional ones. At the same time vast assets created in transmission and distribution will also continue to be gainfully used, may be in conjunction other form of value addition to the same for proper functioning. Under this condition, keeping in mind the eventualities, regulations have been framed and so also the certification process has been made effective to handle the situation particularly on grid connectivity front. Expectations from smart grids by the consumers and suppliers as well of course may lead further refinement to the existing protocols in the process in the years to come as and when harnessing of renewable resources progresses to attain a very high level. © 2012 IEEE.

Mukhopadhyay S.,Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of Technology | Agrawal V.K.,REGEN Energy | Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Agarwal P.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | And 2 more authors.
19th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC 2016 | Year: 2016

Indian National Grid formed with the connection of Southern Grid to the rest of India in the last phase on December 31, 2013 ushered in having improved frequency regime of operation as well as large inter-regional power transfer for optimal operation. But problems of Low Frequency Oscillations continued to be observed in several parts. Wide-Area Monitoring System with large-scale deployment of Phasor Measurement Units, made it possible to detect such oscillations at specific locations and evolve remedial measures to be undertaken. Under long-term strategy investment-oriented strengthening of transmission system is the choice. But to deal with such problems for day-to-day operation, tuning or retuning of Power System Stabilizers, controllers associated with Flexible AC Transmission Systems and HVDC Systems, etc. are considered as the best option. Commensurate Regulatory Framework too is expected to be made for handling such issues from the point of view of Plant-Grid Interaction. © 2016 Power Systems Computation Conference.

Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation | Agrawal V.K.,National Load Despatch Center | Garg M.,National Load Despatch Center
Water and Energy International | Year: 2013

The Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) Mechanism has proved to be quite successful across the globe and is prevalent in many countries including the U.S., the U.K., Japan, Australia, etc. It is expected to play similar role in promoting the renewable energy technologies in India. India has launched its REC Mechanism in November 2010. It is a pan India market based instrument and has been introduced to meet 'Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO)' and 'Voluntary' purchase of the RECs. REC Mechanism provides two different markets to the RE Generators - one from sale the electricity component as 'conventional electricity' and the other for the associated environmental attributes in the form of REC(s) and expected to bring about a paradigm shift for the renewable based electricity in future. The REC framework has been established and about 3400 MW capacity has been registered under the Mechanism. In March 2011, in the first trading session for RECs, the issuance of RECs was just 532. In February 2013, the twenty fourth trading session was held which witnessed the issuance of RECs crossing the 5 millionth mark. Though the RECs continue to hold promise, the market's performance has been weak in recent months. This paper presents a brief overview in terms of the concept, salient features, status, trends, issues and the way forward in the Indian Renewable Energy Certificate(s) Mechanism.

Kumar T.M.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Raghuram P.R.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Anbunesan G.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Kumar S.P.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd
2016 - Biennial International Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy, PESTSE 2016 | Year: 2016

Grid event analysis at the Load Dispatch Centers in India is done with the help of synchrophasor data, SCADA Sequence of Events records, analogue data from SCADA/EMS and information from Operator log book records. Protection relay flags, Station Disturbance record and Event logger data record forwarded by the respective transmibion substations are used for detailed analysis of an event. This paper discubes a few case studies wherein multiple tripping, complete outage of grid sub-station/ power station which had occurred in southern grid were analysed and remedial actions were proposed to overcome the shortcoming found during analysis. © 2016 IEEE.

Baba K.V.S.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Porwal R.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Yadav N.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Gupta A.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd
Water and Energy International | Year: 2015

Blackouts, Brownouts do occur in power systems around the world despite all the precautions, engineering. A blackout or brownout proof system is difficult in today’s world. However, in order to minimize the impact of such unfortunate blackouts and brownouts, planning, preparation, readiness for speedy revival of the system is very essential. Mock Black Start Exercises are carried out for this purpose. These exercises familiarize the operators with the system recovery procedures; build their confidence to meet actual contingencies and also to address systemic deficiencies detected during the exercise. The time taken during actual system restoration can be sufficiently reduced by these drills. This paper discusses an approach followed in Northern Region of India for such Black Start Exercises and also discusses some actual Black Start Exercise carried out in recent past. © 2015, Central Board of Irrigation and Power. All rights reserved.

Agrawal V.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Agarwal P.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Rathour H.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Sharma A.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Singhal A.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd
2014 18th National Power Systems Conference, NPSC 2014 | Year: 2015

Indian power system is one of the largest Power System Networks in the world. It has installed capacity of about 245 GW. Indian power system has complex transmission network and many cross border connections. It is monitored by a multilevel integrated SCADA/EMS installed at many control centers dispersed all over India. SCADA/EMS of National control center is integrated with SCADA/EMS systems of five regional control centers. SCADA/EMS systems of regional control centers in turn are integrated with SCADA/EMS systems lower 32 state control center. National control center was established in 2009. Purpose of national control center is to watch inter-regional and international transfer of power for best utilizing the generating resources by balancing deficit/surplus, diversity in peaking times and seasonal variations in demand of different regions. SCADA/EMS system of NLDC and regional control centers has different manufacturers. Integrated operation of SCADA system of NLDC has been a unique experience and has imparted many learning to the system operator and SCADA engineers at NLDC. This paper is an attempt to consolidate these experiences and learning. © 2014 IEEE.

Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. | Garg M.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. | Saxena S.C.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. | Prakash S.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd.
44th International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2012 | Year: 2012

India's grid connected installed capacity as on 31.10.2011 was about 182 GW with renewable capacity of about 21 GW which constitutes about 11% of total installed capacity. India has a huge renewable energy potential, which is estimated at 85, 000 MW for non-solar sources and more than 100, 000 MW for solar. Electricity Act 2003 mandates the promotion of efficient and environmentally benign policies. National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) has been formulated at the National policy level and clearly states that the National RPO must be set at 5% at the beginning of 2009-10, which is to be increased by 1% each year for the next ten years. By 2015, every state in India will need to source at least 10% of its energy from green sources. Government of India has also announced the National Solar Mission, which mandates 20 GW of solar energy in the Country by 2022. To promote renewable resources, various policy initiatives have been taken. One such policy tool is Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) specified by the Appropriate Regulatory Commissions, under which the States have been obligated to prescribe a portion of power to be purchased from renewable sources. In India, wind, solar, biomass, co-generation and small hydro plants with capacity of less than 25MW are considered as renewable energy sources. Both non-market and market based mechanisms are in operation in India for promotion of renewable energy sources. Various initiatives taken in the form of non-market based instruments for promotion of renewable energy are tax waivers, accelerated depreciation (80% in the first year), Preferential Tariff for Electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources, Generation Based Incentive, etc. Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) Mechanism, a market based instrument, has been introduced in India on 18 th November 2010. REC Mechanism provides a means to address the dispersed availability of renewable energy sources across various States in the Country separates the 'green' component from the 'electricity' component and facilitates meeting of the RPO by the obligated entities. A pan-India market has been created for trading in RECs through the Power Exchanges. A unique attribute of RECs is that it is fungible and facilitates interstate transaction of renewable energy with least cost and technicality involved. One REC represents one MWh of energy generated from renewable sources. The paper discusses the regulatory framework, various aspects associated with the implementation of REC Mechanism in India, experience gained so far.

Mukhopadhyay S.,Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of Technology | Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Agrawal V.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Narasimhan S.R.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Saxena S.C.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2014

On October 12 and 13, 2013 devastating super-cyclone (also known as hurricane) Phailin struck the east coast of peninsular India, mainly the state of Odisha and then to some extent Andhra Pradesh lying on the western side of Bay of Bengal. With accurate forecast by the Indian Meteorological Department, wide-scale damage to properties and loss of life could be prevented by timely massive evacuation. Adequate preventive measures were taken for the power supply system as a whole with the availability of online monitored data including those received from Phasor Measurement Units. Even deployment of large-scale portable Diesel-Generating sets on the power generation front and Emergency Restoration System for the transmission system helped to minimize supply disruption time and in post-super-cyclone period in coming back to normalcy. © 2014 IEEE.

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