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Koohi-Kamali S.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Rahim N.A.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Mokhlis H.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Mokhlis H.,University of Malaya | Tyagi V.V.,Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

This paper presents a comprehensive review on mathematical modeling methods of photovoltaic (PV) solar cell/module/array which can be used for power system dynamic modeling purpose. The intermittent and non-linear properties of PV solar cells necessitate accurate modeling of such elements for power system studies. Large scale integration of photovoltaic distributed generation (PVDG) systems into the smart power grid can adversely affect the stability of whole network if the solar plant is not designed properly. A model of solar cell which can predict the PV system output precisely would be helpful to improve reliability and stability of the intelligent utility network. For the smart grid applications which integrate the rapidly growing technologies together with renewable resources, the suitable dynamic model of PV plant is very essential at preliminary evaluation steps. In this paper, a new classification is presented on existing PV cell/module/array modeling methods. Modeling techniques are categorized in two main classes, namely, circuitry based methods and equation based methods. The former class encompasses two sub-classes i.e. embedded function blocks (EFBs) and piecewise linear circuit (PLC) techniques. The second class also consists of two sub-classes i.e. analytical and numerical techniques. The characteristics of each class and its sub-classes are also analyzed and compared to others. Comparison between the methods in both categories indicates that the former class is easy to implement in power system simulation software. The latter class can be exploited to estimate parameters of solar cell in collaboration with EFBs method and vice versa. The second class is more accurate than the first although its computational burden is further. It is envisaged that this paper can serve researchers and designers who work in the field of solar power plant dynamic modeling as useful source of information. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Koohi-Kamali S.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Koohi-Kamali S.,University of Malaya | Rahim N.A.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Rahim N.A.,King Abdulaziz University | And 2 more authors.
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

Integration of utility scaled solar electricity generator into power networks can negatively affect the performance of next generation smartgrid. Rapidly changing output power of this kind is unpredictable and thus one solution is to mitigate it by short-term to mid-term electrical storage systems like battery. The main objective of this paper is to propose a power management system (PMS) which is capable of suppressing these adverse impacts on the main supply. A smart microgrid (MG) including diesel, battery storage, and solar plants has been suggested for this purpose. MG is able to supply its local load based on operator decision and decline the power oscillations caused by solar system together with variable loads. A guideline algorithm is also proposed which helps to precisely design the battery plant. A novel application of time domain signal processing approach to filter oscillating output power of the solar plant is presented as well. In this case, a power smoothing index (PSI) is formulated, which considers both load and generation, and used to dispatch the battery plant. A droop reference estimator to schedule generation is also introduced where diesel plant can share the local load with grid. A current control algorithm is designed as well which adjusts for PSI to ensure battery current magnitude is allowable. MG along with its communication platform and PMS are simulated using PSCAD software. PMS is tested under different scenarios using real load profiles and environmental data in Malaysia to verify the operational abilities of proposed MG. The results indicate that PMS can effectively control the MG satisfying both operator and demand sides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zanil M.F.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Zanil M.F.,University of Malaya | Norhuda A.M.,University of Malaya | Hussain M.A.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2014

This paper proposes a hybrid model to identify the on-line pH characteristic of a neutralization plant. The hybrid model is the combination between neuro-fuzzy identification technique and first principle model. The neuro-fuzzy identification technique used training dataset to map the neutralization response curve in full ranges. The first principle model is based on material balances and chemical equilibrium equation. The objective of the proposed model is to extend the robustness effect for the on-line titration characteristic without having to re-design the model if the plant undergoes different conditions. In the experiment, the proposed model's dynamic response was compared with the on-line pH data. It showed the best fit for hybrid model with dynamic weight adjustment in nominal condition (RSME = 0.1013) and in altered condition (RMSE = 0.5616) proved it capability in capturing the additional variations to a pH neutralization plant. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Tan C.Y.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Tan C.Y.,University of Malaya | Abd. Rahim N.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Abd. Rahim N.,University of Malaya | And 2 more authors.
IET Seminar Digest | Year: 2014

One of the common drawback of hill climbing method is the wrong direction of perturbation under sudden change of irradiance. Where, the MPPT controller has mistaken the sudden power increase or decrease is caused by step perturbs instead of irradiance level change. The MPPT controller will perturbs at least one step to wrong direction before getting back on correct direction to the tracking to maximum power point (MPP). This paper introduces a simple irradiance detection method to eliminate the wrong direction of perturbation. The proposed method is simple and does not require heavy processing algorithm so it could be applied on low cost control system. The performance of proposed method is compared with conventional hill climbing method and it is verified in experiment.

Shariff F.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Shariff F.,University of Malaya | Rahim N.A.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Hew W.P.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center
IET Seminar Digest | Year: 2014

For grid-connected photovoltaic system, performance monitoring plays an important role in ensuring efficient power delivery. Performance monitoring is needed to observe the system and provide counter measures should any failure occurs. This paper outlined the monitoring insights on gridconnected photovoltaic systems in terms of data communication methods used as well as the important characteristics in designing or choosing monitoring systems. A list of monitoring characteristics have been highlighted, i.e. data transfer mechanism; system controller; monitored parameters; sampling interval; monitoring method; and management software. Monitoring characteristics that have been listed provide the framework in developing or choosing the correct monitoring device for grid-connected photovoltaic system. Cost analysis for photovoltaic system was also being investigated in this study.

Mansouri M.,University of Malaya | Aghay Kaboli S.H.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Selvaraj J.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Rahim N.A.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center
CEAT 2013 - 2013 IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology | Year: 2013

The demand for solid state A.C.-D.C. converters to enhance power quality in the expression of P.F.C. (Power Factor Correction) impels the proposal of miscellaneous topologies. These converters are expected to reduce the total harmonic distortion (T.H.D.) at A.C. input and accurately regulate D.C. output in Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost and multi-level models considering both unidirectional and bi-directional power flows. This paper presents an exhaustive review of I.P.Q.C.s (improved power quality converters) configurations, design features, and selection for specific. The paper is aimed to present a broad perspective on the status of I.P.Q.C. technology to researchers, designers and application engineers working on clean energy and smart grid fields. © 2013 IEEE.

Tan C.-Y.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Rahim N.A.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Selvaraj J.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center
CEAT 2013 - 2013 IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology | Year: 2013

This paper proposed a modified hill-climbing method which enable fast convergence while maintaining ease of implementation. The hardware controller is constructed using low cost microcontroller to prove the simplicity of algorithm. Experiment result is presented and compared with conventional hill-climbing. Proposed method's convergence time under different irradiances is shown and explained in detail. © 2013 IEEE.

Osman S.R.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Rahim N.A.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Selvaraj J.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center
CEAT 2013 - 2013 IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology | Year: 2013

In this paper a low cost microcontroller-based solar battery charging system with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) features is presented using 220 Watt solar panel as power source and buck converter as power converter. PIC18F4550 is used as the main controller to realize the system to charge 12V battery with 80Ah capacity. Experimental results shows that throughout charging process, charging voltage has not exceeded the over charge voltage set by the manufacturer and in low irradiance condition MPPT algorithm is applied to utilize energy generated by photovoltaic (PV) without exceeding allowable charging current. © 2013 IEEE.

Modiri-Delshad M.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Modiri-Delshad M.,University of Malaya | Aghay Kaboli S.H.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Taslimi E.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | And 2 more authors.
CEAT 2013 - 2013 IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology | Year: 2013

This paper proposes an iterated-based algorithm to solve economic dispatch (ED) problem. The algorithm aims to determine the schedules of generating units in order to minimize the total generation cost. The problem is formulated mathematically as an optimization problem including objective function and constraints. Also the network loss as an important element for economic dispatch in power systems has been considered in the problem. The proposed method applied on 3-unit power system and the results were obtained and compared to classical and intelligent optimizations methods. The results clearly show that the proposed algorithm is capable of solving ED problem as well as other optimization methods. © 2013 IEEE.

Shariff F.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Rahim N.A.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center | Ping H.W.,Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center
CEAT 2013 - 2013 IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology | Year: 2013

In remote area, the need for monitoring PV system is crucial to ensure stable PV power delivery. This paper describes the hardware and software design for PV monitoring system in remote area. The monitoring system is equipped with voltage sensor, current sensor, temperature sensor and irradiation sensor and GSM modem for data transmission. Real time clock chip is used for real time recording. The designed system is built and has been applied on field and satisfactory results are obtained. © 2013 IEEE.

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