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Pilloud M.A.,POW Inc | Hillson S.,University College London
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2012

The present study investigates the utility of cervical measurements in deciduous teeth and how they correlate with traditional measurements of the crown. First, this study establishes definitions by which these measurements could reliably be taken. Next, deciduous cervical and traditional crown diameters were taken on three distinct skeletal samples: a Neolithic assemblage from Central Anatolia (Çatalhöyük, n = 85), a precontact sample from Northern California (CA-ALA-329, n = 34), and a group of intrusive burials interred at Çatalhöyük that date between AD 60 and 1650 (n = 38). Across the dentition there are positive correlations between crown and cervical measurements, which tend to be higher in anterior teeth than in posterior teeth. Both measurements show low correlations with age; however, cervical measurements show fewer negative correlations with age. An intraobserver error study found low levels of error for both types of measurements. On a subset of the Çatalhöyük sample (n = 9), a principal components and biological distance analysis were conducted comparing the two types of measurements. Also, all three samples were subject to a canonical discriminant function analysis and the results from cervical and crown measurements were compared. All analyses produced slightly different results for each type of data suggesting that crown and cervical measurements capture different aspects of tooth shape. While cervical and crown measurements provide different statistical results, cervical measurements can provide information relevant to anthropological studies and may allow for larger datasets to be used by allowing the inclusion of teeth with modified crowns. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Edson S.M.,Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory | Christensen A.F.,POW Inc
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. © 2012. Source

Shiroma C.Y.,POW Inc
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2014

In October 2009, the grave of an unknown World War I (WWI) U.S. service member was exhumed in Rembercourt-Sur-Mad Village, in the Lorraine Region of France. The skeletal remains and material evidence were accessioned into the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command's (JPAC) Central Identification Laboratory (CIL). The personnel records for the associated casualty were requested, received, and reviewed. A dental profile was present among the service member's personal information. There were multiple points of concordance between the dental records of the associated casualty, and the recovered dental remains to include eight restored teeth, 15 unrestored teeth, and three antemortem missing teeth. Distinctive restorations which compared favorably included a porcelain crown and multiple gold foil fillings. All lines of evidence (historical, material evidence/personal effects, anthropological, and dental) and the circumstances of loss compared positively with the associated casualty. On April 1, 2010, the previously unaccounted-for U.S. service member was positively identified and on June 23, 2010, was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A. Source

Megyesi M.S.,POW Inc | Hunt L.M.,Michigan State University | Brody H.,University of Texas Medical Branch
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2011

Summary Racial and ethnic variables are common in research on variation in bone density. This literature review describes some of the common flaws associated with the use of these variables and provides some suggestions for how bone density research may be able to better document and address skeletal health disparities. Introduction Racial/ethnic differences in bone density have been commonly documented in the research literature. While effective identification of the specific factors underlying these trends might go a long way in informing treatment and screening for osteoporosis, this would require careful consideration of exactly what these variables are capturing. However, the basis and implications of what racial/ethnic variables represent have not carefully been examined in bone density research. Methods For this paper, we systematically reviewed 55 articles that included bone density and race/ethnicity as key variables. Our analysis reveals that racial/ethnic terminology in these articles is highly variable, and discussion of how race/ethnicity is determined is often vague and idiosyncratic. Racial/ethnic variables are being used for a wide range of analytical purposes in statistical tests, which may not be appropriate for such a complex and poorly defined variable. Results Many articles attribute racial/ethnic differences in bone mass/bone density to genetic causes, although few studies actually examine genetic data. Conclusion This analysis indicates that more rigorous examination of what race/ethnicity actually captures, more careful definitions of group labels and the procedures for assigning them, and attention to the limitations of how such variables can reliably be used in data analyses is needed to help address the problems and issues outlined in this review. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2010. Source

Thomas R.M.,Trace Evidence Unit | Ubelaker D.H.,Smithsonian Institution | Byrd J.E.,POW Inc
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

A common task in forensic anthropology involves pair-matching of left and right skeletal elements. This can be achieved through visual pair-matching by evaluating similarities in morphology, and through osteometric sorting, a quantitative technique. To simplify the process of osteometric sorting, this article explains the use of a statistic (M), which captures the amount of size variation found between homologous bones from single individuals. A database of skeletal measurements for all major paired postcranial bones is used to calculate values of M from a variety of sources. The maximum value and the 90th and 95th percentiles of M are provided in tabular format, and values of M from forensic cases can be compared to these tables as an objective means for determining whether homologous bones could have originated from the same individual. This simple technique can be combined with visual pair-matching to be particularly effective in cases involving commingling of skeletons. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source

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