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Akhtar M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Awais M.M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Anwar M.I.,Poultry Research Institute office of Deputy District Livestock Officer Poultry | Ehtisham-ul-Haque S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Quarterly | Year: 2015

Background: Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease of chickens, causing high mortality and morbidity. This morbidity is believed to be correlated with altered population dynamics of blood cells and immunocompromisation.Objectives: This study investigated the effects of mixed Eimeria species (viz., tenella, maxima, acervulina and necatrix) infection on hematology and immune responses following Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) booster vaccination in broilers.Animals and methods: One-day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard; n = 200) were divided into two equal groups A and B. On day 16, group A was infected orally with Eimeria species (7 × 104 sporulated oocysts), whereas group B served as control. Both groups were analyzed for hematological parameters on post-infection days 6–8. Sera from both groups were analyzed for antibody titers against ND and IBD vaccines. On day 8 post-infection, lymphoid organs were also examined.Results: Significantly lower (P < 0.05) levels of plasma proteins, globular volume, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were found in infected chickens compared with non-infected control chickens. In addition, the infected group exhibited significantly increased (P < 0.05) numbers of different leukocytes. Infected chickens also showed significantly lower antibody titers against ND and IBD with decreased relative organ weights of all lymphoid organs except spleen.Conclusion and recommendations: Mixed species of Eimeria adversely affected the hematology and immune efficiency of broilers. Thus, inexpensive immune potentiators and hemotonics along with appropriate anti-coccidial medications are suggested to avoid the complications and subsequent economic losses. © 2015, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

RAZA A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | MUHAMMAD F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | BASHIR S.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | ASLAM B.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2015

Infectious diseases are major constraint that hinders the poultry industry. Among them parasitic diseases are very common and Ascaridia galli is one of the most common parasitic roundworms found in poultry. Haemorrhages, diarrhoea and listlessness are signs of infection. Parasitic infections such as A. galli are treated with chemical anthelmintics (piperazine, albendazole, levamisole, Ivermectin, benzimidazoles and fenbendazole). These synthetic chemicals can promote resistance, so there is need for alternative ways to treat the disease. Medicinal plants have the potential to combat such parasitism and the development of anthelmintic resistance appears to be very slow against such treatment. This review covers the studies related to the screening of plant materials having in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activities against A. galli throughout the world. Medicinal plants showing in vitro anthelmintic activity include Anacardium occidentale, Allium sativum, Tribulus terrestris, Bassia latifolia, Piper betle, Morinda citrifolia L.I, Cassia occidentalis L. and Aloe secundiflora while in vivo studies include the use of Psorelia corylifolia, Piper betle, Pilostigma thonningi, Caesalpinia crista, Ocimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale. In conclusion, medicinal plants appear to have good anthelmintic activities in poultry and may substitute conventionally used synthetic drugs, and their use may moderate drug resistance in endemic pathogen populations and drug residues in poultry meat. Copyright © World's Poultry Science Association 2016

Waheed M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Muhammad F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Javed I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akhtar M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | And 4 more authors.
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2015

Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the dermatoprotective effects of plant extracts (Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, and Ficus racemosa) against known irritants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), atrazine, and petrol. Methods: The study was conducted in adult male rabbits. Ethanol extracts of plants were obtained through Soxhlet. All irritants and Ficus extracts were topically applied to the backs of rabbits daily for 4 days, while pure ethanol served as control. Skin was examined after 24, 48, and 96 h for erythema. Skin biopsies were taken on 5th day for microscopic examination. Results: Erythema produced by irritants reduced significantly with the simultaneous application of Ficus extracts. The mean ± SEM epidermal thickness (micrometer) with SDS was 45.40 ± 1.89, F. religiosa + SDS was 18.60 ± 0.51, F. benghalensis + SDS was 18.40 ± 0.25, F. racemosa + SDS was 18.80 ± 0.37, and mixture of three Ficus species + SDS was 16.80 ± 0.37. Similar findings were revealed after using plant extracts with atrazine and petrol. The mean ± SEM epidermal layer count for SDS was 3.60 ± 0.25, atrazine was 3.40 ± 0.25, petrol was 3.40 ± 0.25, and ethanol (control) was 1.00 ± 0.20. This count reduced to 1.20 ± 0.20 for three Ficus species + SDS, 1.40 ± 0.25 for Ficus species + atrazine, and 1.40 ± 0.25 for Ficus species + petrol. Conclusion: Ficus species demonstrated the potential to block the dermatotoxic effects of topical irritants and could be used successfully to prevent skin toxicity. © 2014 The Author(s).

Kaleem Q.M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akhtar M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akhtar M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Awais M.M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 5 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P<0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. © 2014 Qari Muhammad Kaleem et al.

Muhammad F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Awais M.M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Akhtar M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anwar M.I.,Poultry Research Institute office of Deputy District Livestock Officer Poultry
Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality. © 2013 Muhammad et al.

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