Rāwalpindi, Pakistan
Rāwalpindi, Pakistan

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Mukhtar N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Khan S.H.,Poultry Research Institute
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2012

Many cues for selection exist in poultry breeding, giving important insights into the future selection of elite progeny. Among these cues, the comb is an important reliable parameter for selection within variety or breed. The development of the comb is associated with hormone levels in the body which affect both productive and reproductive parameters. Comb affects the mating behaviour of birds and may be used as an indicator for selection by examining its impact on performance. Strong selection for increased comb size has been shown not to affect male mortality but is linked to increased female mortality. The production traits of layers have a positive correlation with comb size. The following paper provides a review of the comb as an important ornamental trait, including its morphology, development, use as a selection tool and the effect of comb size on productive and reproductive traits. Copyright © 2012 World's Poultry Science Association.


Khan S.H.,Poultry Research Institute | Iqbal J.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2016

In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of organic acids as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters because of the fear of antibiotic resistance and the implications for human health. Organic acids and their salts have been used in poultry diets and drinking water for decades and seem to elicit a positive response in growth performance. An important objective of dietary acidification is the inhibition of intestinal bacteria competing with the host for available nutrients, and a reduction of possible toxic bacterial metabolites resulting in the improvement of nutrient digestibility, thereby ameliorating the performance of birds and enhancing the specific and non-specific immunity in poultry. Literature shows that short-chain fatty acids, medium-chain fatty acids and other organic acids have more or less pronounced antimicrobial activity, depending on both the concentration of the acid and the bacterial species that is exposed to the acid. The possible mechanisms contributing to these effects and the factors thought to explain the variability in these responses are discussed. This paper provides a review of the use of organic acids in the prevention of enteric disease in poultry, the effect on the gastrointestinal tract, nutrient digestibility, immunity and performance of broiler and laying hens. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Anjum M.A.,Poultry Research Institute | Khan S.H.,Poultry Research Institute | Sahota A.W.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Sardar R.,Poultry Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

A total of 487samples (77 and 410 of poultry feed ingredients and poultry feed, respectively) received from various parts of the country were analysed for detection of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Overall incidence of AFB1 in feed ingredients was 60 percent. The average contamination and maximum levels of AFB1 were 37.62 and 56 μg/kg, respectively, whereas, the incidence in poultry feed samples was 44.39 percent with average contamination and maximum levels of 23.75 and 78 μg/kg, respectively. However, maximum level of AFB1 was higher (78μg/kg) in poultry feed samples as compared to feed ingredients (56μg/kg). Furthermore, higher incidence and average contamination level of AFB1 were recorded in mash feeds (49.68 percent and 25.12μg/kg, respectively) than in crumb feeds (41.32 percent and 22.37μg/kg, respectively). A higher incidence of AFB1 was observed during the rainy months i.e. July & August in 2009 (53.85 & 60.86 percent, with contamination levels of 56 & 56 μg/kg, respectively) and in 2010 (68.18 & 69.44 percent with contamination levels of 78 & 56 μg/kg, respectively) than in other months of these years.


Naeem F.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Khan S.H.,Poultry Research Institute
Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants | Year: 2013

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea; Portulacaceae) is an herbaceous plant that is a source of nutrients and biologically active compounds including free oxalic acids, alkaloids, omega-3 fatty acids, coumarins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone, protein, α-linolenic acid and β-carotene, mono terpene glycoside, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, and vitamin C. It has been reported to possess potent pharmacological activities as antioxidant, anti-kinetic fatigue, antidiabetic, neuronal, hypocholesterolemic, skeletal muscle relaxant, antimicrobial, nephrotoxicity, hepato protection, anti-inflammatory, and a cosmetic ingredient. Phytochemical constituents isolated from this plant include steroids, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, alkaloids, and saponins. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Awais M.M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akhtar M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Iqbal Z.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Muhammad F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anwar M.I.,Poultry Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The present paper reports the prevalence of coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the occurrence of different species of Eimeria in the area and to assess their correlation with the environmental conditions including temperature, humidity and rainfall. The study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2010. Examination of chicken guts revealed 43. 89% (n = 3,283/7,480) prevalence of coccidiosis. The highest prevalence (27. 04%) was recorded of Eimeria tenella followed by Eimeria maxima (22. 42%), Eimeria acervulina (19. 89%) and Eimeria necatrix (4. 02%). The prevalence of disease was significantly higher (P<0. 05) in autumn (60. 02 ± 4. 38) followed by summer (47. 42 ± 2. 92), spring (36. 92 ± 2. 27) and winter (29. 89 ± 3. 43). Likewise, prevalence of different species of Eimeria also varied (P<0. 05) in different seasons of the year except that of E. necatrix. A strong correlation (P<0. 05) of environmental conditions with the overall and species-wise prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded except E. necatrix. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Bozkurt M.,Poultry Research Institute | Kucukyilmaz K.,Poultry Research Institute | Catli A.U.,Poultry Research Institute | Cinar M.,Poultry Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

In total, 432 thirty-six-week-old laying hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with man-nan-oligosaccharide (MOS) or an essential oil mixture (EOM) from 36 to 51 wk of age. Hens were divided into 3 equal groups replicated 6 times with 24 hens per replicate. No significant difference was observed among the dietary treatments in terms of performance indices. Different from the dietary manipulation, high environmental temperatures negatively influenced all of the laying performance traits except the feed conversion ratio in association with the diminished feed consumption. The MOS, and particularly the EOM, tended to alleviate the deleterious effect of heat stress on BW gain. Mortality was higher in MOS-fed hens than with other treatments. A supplementation diet with MOS or EOM provided increments in eggshell weight (P < 0.01). Relative albumen weight was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in response to EOM or MOS supplementation; however, this was not the case in the yolk weight rate. The MOS decreased albumen height and Haugh unit (P < 0.05). High environmental temperatures hampered entire egg quality characteristics except for the eggshell breaking strength and egg yolk weight. These results indicated that heat stress adversely affected both productive performance and egg quality. As for the results of this study, neither MOS nor EOM was efficacious in improving efficiency of egg production and stimulating humoral immune response in laying hens reared under moderate and hot climatic conditions. However, the ameliorative effect exerted by MOS and EOM on eggshell characteristics is conclusive. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


A limited number of studies have tested the effect of diets supplemented with black cumin seed (BCS) on the performance of laying hen. To determine the effects of various levels of dietary BCS on the performance of laying hen. BIRDS AND METHODS: Three hundred 40-week-old rural Leghorn (White Leghorn males X F1 females of Fayoumi male X Rhode Island Red female) crossbred hens were randomly assigned to four groups with five replicates of 15 birds each (75 laying hens per group), and fed diets supplemented with 0%, 3%, 4% or 5% BCS for 60 days. Statistical analysis was performed by means of ANOVA. BCS at all levels revealed greater egg production, egg weight and egg mass than the control group. Similarly, feed conversion was improved by 0.50, 0.55 and 0.36 points compared to controls with the addition of 3%, 4% or 5% levels of BCS, respectively. Haugh units and yolk weights of eggs from hens that were fed diets containing 3%, 4% and 5% BCS were significantly greater than those from the control group. Supplementation of 4% or 5% BCS significantly increased shell thickness and decreased serum LDL cholesterol and egg yolk cholesterol concentration as compared to other groups. Mean hemagglutination inhibition titers against Newcastle disease virus were higher than in controls. BCS at levels of 4% or 5% positively influenced egg production, egg weight and shell quality. Furthermore, it decreased the concentration of serum LDL cholesterol and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations and enhanced immunity against Newcastle disease virus.


Goger H.,Poultry Research Institute
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2016

Background and Objective: In Turkey, study on egg-laying hens has been performed by Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Poultry Research Institute which was established in 1930. Many genetic selection projects have been successfully completed at the Institute. The project mentioned in this study has been conducted since 1995 with six brown and five white layer pure lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selection data of two brown egg shell layer pure lines between the years 2005 and 2014. Methodology: Data on age and body weight at first egg, egg number and egg weight upto 43 weeks age were collected from 12,904 Barred Rock-1 and 11,821 Rhode Island Red-1 pure lines for 10 years. Data were analyzed by Multiple Trait Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood. Results: Estimated heritabilities were 0.46 and 0.40 for age at first egg, 0.49 and 0.43 for body weight at first egg, 0.36 and 0.33 for egg number, 0.55 and 0.50 for egg weight in Barred Rock-1 and Rhode Island Red-1 lines, respectively. Genetic correlations were 0.45 and -0.33 between age at first egg and body weight at first egg, 0.22 and -0.35 between age at first egg and egg number, -0.34 and -0.23 between age at first egg and egg weight, -0.49 and -0.38 between body weight at first egg and egg number, 0.17 and 0.26 between body weight at first egg and egg weight, -0.15 and -0.23 between egg number and egg weight in BAR-1 and RIR-1 lines, respectively. Means of 43 weeks egg production traits between two lines were statistically significant (p≤0.05). Conclusion: As a result of implementing the selection while, egg number was increasing, age at first egg and body weight at first egg were decreasing and egg weight was remaining almost at the same level. © 2016 Huseyin Goger.


Ozek K.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research | Ozek K.,Poultry Research Institute | Wellmann K.T.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research | Ertekin B.,Poultry Research Institute | Tanm B.,Poultry Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2011

In this study, the effects of essential oil mixture, organic acid and essential oil mixture + organic acid supplementation in diets in summer season on egg production traits, egg quality parameters, some digestive system characteristics, some blood parameters and immune response of laying hens were investigated. One hundred ninety two laying hens, 52 wk-old, were divided into 4 treatment groups. There were 48 hens in each treatment group, and each hen was housed individually. The dietary treatments were as follow: 1. basal diet (negative control), 2. basal diet + 36 mg/kg essential oil mixture, 3. basal diet + 2 g/kg organic acid, 4. basal diet + 36 mg/kg essential oil mixture + 2 g/kg organic acid. Laying hens were fed with one of the dietary treatments until 68 wk of age. The treatments had not a significant effect on egg productivity traits but it tends to increase egg weight. However, essential oil mixture supplementation in diet significantly increased albumen height and Haugh unit. No significant differences were observed in serum total cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels, and in antibody titer level of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) among the treatments, however, supplementing essential oil mixture and organic acid in layer diet tend to improve antibody responses against NDV and IBDV.


Sandhu M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Mirza F.Q.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Afzal F.,Poultry Research Institute | Mukhtar N.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to judge against the association of high dietary levels of α-tocopherol supplementation during heat stress on the immune response of meat type birds. Peritoneal macrophages (MΦ) were isolated and their in vitro cytotoxic activity was assessed against opsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBC) along with their nitric oxide (NO) production, blood heterophil to the lymphocyte ratio (H:L), mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P), antibody production to SRBC together with IgM and IgG titers and serum cortisol concentration. Two groups of broilers were maintained at 41±3. °C without and with supplementation of α-tocopherol (3. g/Kg feed) and sampling was carried out on 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days of age. The supplementation of α-tocopherol significantly (P≤0.05) enhanced the capacity of MΦ to engulf unopsonized SRBC after 14 and 21 days of treatment. However, the MΦ engulfment of opsonized SRBC and engulfment/cell remained significantly more (P≤0.05) during the whole experiment. Macrophage NO production was increased in all the treatments with the increase in age of birds while the NO production was maximum with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation, when birds were under supplementation of α-tocopherol. The H:L and PHA induced toe web thickness both were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in α-tocopherol fed group as compared to control. We found a dose-dependent boost in antibody titer production in response to SRBC at 35th and 42nd. d of age of α-tocopherol supplemented group. Serum IgG titer remained same after the 28th. d of age irrespective of the treatment while there was a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the serum IgM titer. Serum cortisol concentration was significantly lower (P≤0.05) in α-tocopherol supplemented group rather than control. Our study validates the use of increased α-tocopherol level supplementation to achieve better immunomodulation during stress conditions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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