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Hannah J.F.,University of Georgia | Wilson J.L.,University of Georgia | ox N.A.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit | ason J.A.,Poultry Processing and Swine Physiology Research Unit | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log10 cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log10 cfu/ mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log10 cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log10 cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log10 cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Hiett K.L.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit | Rothrock M.J.,Poultry Processing and Swine Physiology Research Unit | Seal B.S.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit
Plasmid | Year: 2013

The complete nucleotide sequence was determined for a cryptic plasmid, pTIW94, recovered from several Campylobacter jejuni isolates from wild birds in the southeastern United States. pTIW94 is a circular molecule of 3860 nucleotides, with a G. +. C content (31.0%) similar to that of many Campylobacter spp. genomes. A typical origin of replication, with iteron sequences, was identified upstream of DNA sequences that demonstrated similarity to replication initiation proteins. A total of five open reading frames (ORFs) were identified; two of the five ORFs demonstrated significant similarity to plasmid pCC2228-2 found within Campylobacter coli. These two ORFs were similar to essential replication proteins RepA (100%; 26/26 aa identity) and RepB (95%; 327/346 aa identity). A third identified ORF demonstrated significant similarity (99%; 421/424 aa identity) to the MOB protein from C. coli 67-8, originally recovered from swine. The other two identified ORFs were either similar to hypothetical proteins from other Campylobacter spp., or exhibited no significant similarity to any DNA or protein sequence in the GenBank database. Promoter regions (-35 and -10 signal sites), ribosomal binding sites upstream of ORFs, and stem-loop structures were also identified within the plasmid. These results demonstrate that pTIW94 represents a previously un-reported small cryptic plasmid with unique sequences as well as highly similar sequences to other small plasmids found within Campylobacter spp., and that this cryptic plasmid is present among Campylobacter spp. recovered from different genera of wild birds. © 2013. Source


Bartenfeld L.N.,University of Georgia | Bartenfeld L.N.,Poultry Processing and Swine Physiology Research Unit | Fletcher D.L.,University of Georgia | Northcutt J.K.,Poultry Processing and Swine Physiology Research Unit | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological effect of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10-fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated prechill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine-treated carcasses were subjected to a 1-min drench in 500 mL of a 500 mg/ kg chlorine solution (sodium hypochlorite). Waterdrenched carcasses were treated the same way except water was used in place of chlorinated water drench. Control carcasses were not drenched. All carcasses were then subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 450 mL of buffered peptone water, from which 50 mL of the rinsate was removed for enumeration of total aerobic bacteria (APC), Escherichia coli, and total coliforms (TC). The entire carcass was then incubated 24 h at 37°C (whole carcass enrichment, WCE) for recovery of Salmonella. Levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were lower by 0.6 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.8 for E. coli, and 0.9 for TC when carcasses were drenched with water compared with undrenched control levels. Similarly, the levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were further lower by 1.0 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.5 for E. coli, and 0.5 for TC, when carcasses were drenched with 500 mg/kg of chlorine compared with water. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence of Salmonella among the treatments (29% positive for control, 26% positive for water, 38% positive for chlorinated). These results indicate that drenching eviscerated carcasses with water or chlorinated water at 500 mg/kg significantly, but minimally, reduces the numbers of APC, E. coli, and TC bacteria recovered compared with undrenched carcasses. However, neither drenching carcasses with water or high chlorine had an effect on the prevalence of Salmonella that remain with the carcass as determined by WCE. The results of this study confirms the importance of maintaining and replenishing free chlorine for optimal antimicrobial activity, because chlorine at 500 mg/kg was rapidly used within 1 min of exposure to the carcass to <10 mg/kg. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

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