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Yeh H.-Y.,Aquatic Animal Health Research Unit | Yeh H.-Y.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit | Klesius P.H.,Aquatic Animal Health Research Unit
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Tetraspanins, a large cell surface protein superfamily characterized by having four transmembrane domains, play many critical roles in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report the identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the channel catfish tetraspanin 3 and tetraspanin 7 (CD231) transcripts. The full-length nucleotide sequences of tetraspanin 3 and tetraspanin 7 cDNA have 1,453 and 1,842 base pairs, respectively. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences reveals that each has one open reading frame (ORF). The ORF of tetraspanin 3 appears to encode 241 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 26.8 kDa, while the ORF of tetraspanin 7 potentially encodes 251 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 27.9 kDa. By comparison with the human counterparts, the channel catfish tetraspanin 3 and tetraspanin 7 peptides have four transmembrane domains, three intracellular domains and two (small and large) extracellular domains. In addition, several characteristic features critical for structure and functions in mammalian tetraspanins are also conserved in channel catfish tetraspanin 3 and tetraspanin 7. The transcripts were detected by RT-PCR in restrictive organs. These results with those from our previous studies on other channel catfish tetraspanins provide important information for further investigating the roles of various tetraspanins in channel catfish infection with microorganisms. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA). Source

Yeh H.-Y.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yeh H.-Y.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit | Klesius P.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT), has recently emerged as an important modification in the regulation of gene expression. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish orthologs to human PRMT 1, 3, 4 and 5, and PRMT4 like. Each PRMT nucleic acid sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) and 3′-untranslated regions. Each ORF appears to encode 361, 587 and 458 amino acid residues for PRMT1, PRMT4 and variant, respectively. The partial ORF of PRMT3 and PRMT5 encode 292 and 563 amino acids, respectively. By comparison with the human counterparts, each channel catfish PRMT also has conserved domains. For expression profile, the channel catfish PRMT1 transcript was detected by RT-PCR in spleens, anterior kidneys, livers, intestines, skin and gills of fish examined. Except in liver, the PRMT3 transcript was detected in all catfish tissues examined. However, the PRMT4 cDNA was detected in livers from all three catfish and gills from two fish, but not other tissues. This information will enable us to further elucidate PRMT functions in channel catfish. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA). Source

Zsak L.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory | Day J.M.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory | Oakley B.B.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit | Seal B.S.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit
Virology Journal | Year: 2011

The genomic DNA sequence of a novel enteric uncultured microphage, φφCA82 from a turkey gastrointestinal system was determined utilizing metagenomics techniques. The entire circular, single-stranded nucleotide sequence of the genome was 5,514 nucleotides. The φCA82 genome is quite different from other microviruses as indicated by comparisons of nucleotide similarity, predicted protein similarity, and functional classifications. Only three genes showed significant similarity to microviral proteins as determined by local alignments using BLAST analysis. ORF1 encoded a predicted phage F capsid protein that was phylogenetically most similar to the Microviridae MH2K member's major coat protein. The φCA82 genome also encoded a predicted minor capsid protein (ORF2) and putative replication initiation protein (ORF3) most similar to the microviral bacteriophage SpV4. The distant evolutionary relationship of φCA82 suggests that the divergence of this novel turkey microvirus from other microviruses may reflect unique evolutionary pressures encountered within the turkey gastrointestinal system. © 2011 Zsak et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Hiett K.L.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit | Rothrock M.J.,Poultry Processing and Swine Physiology Research Unit | Seal B.S.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit
Plasmid | Year: 2013

The complete nucleotide sequence was determined for a cryptic plasmid, pTIW94, recovered from several Campylobacter jejuni isolates from wild birds in the southeastern United States. pTIW94 is a circular molecule of 3860 nucleotides, with a G. +. C content (31.0%) similar to that of many Campylobacter spp. genomes. A typical origin of replication, with iteron sequences, was identified upstream of DNA sequences that demonstrated similarity to replication initiation proteins. A total of five open reading frames (ORFs) were identified; two of the five ORFs demonstrated significant similarity to plasmid pCC2228-2 found within Campylobacter coli. These two ORFs were similar to essential replication proteins RepA (100%; 26/26 aa identity) and RepB (95%; 327/346 aa identity). A third identified ORF demonstrated significant similarity (99%; 421/424 aa identity) to the MOB protein from C. coli 67-8, originally recovered from swine. The other two identified ORFs were either similar to hypothetical proteins from other Campylobacter spp., or exhibited no significant similarity to any DNA or protein sequence in the GenBank database. Promoter regions (-35 and -10 signal sites), ribosomal binding sites upstream of ORFs, and stem-loop structures were also identified within the plasmid. These results demonstrate that pTIW94 represents a previously un-reported small cryptic plasmid with unique sequences as well as highly similar sequences to other small plasmids found within Campylobacter spp., and that this cryptic plasmid is present among Campylobacter spp. recovered from different genera of wild birds. © 2013. Source

Hannah J.F.,University of Georgia | Wilson J.L.,University of Georgia | ox N.A.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit | ason J.A.,Poultry Processing and Swine Physiology Research Unit | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log10 cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log10 cfu/ mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log10 cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log10 cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log10 cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

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