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Muller A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Riedl M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Wessel N.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Kurths J.,Humboldt University of Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Somnologie | Year: 2012

The analysis of effects from coupling within and between systems plays an important role in data-driven investigations as practiced in many scientific fields. It allows deeper insights into the mechanisms of interactions emerging between individual smaller systems when forming complex systems as in the human circulatory system. In this work, several existing coupling measures are briefly introduced and summarized. Special attention is paid to the application to cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory data measured during sleep. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Creutzig F.,Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change | Creutzig F.,TU Berlin | Goldschmidt J.C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Lehmann P.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 13 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The threat of climate change and other risks for ecosystems and human health require a transition of the energy system from fossil fuels towards renewable energies and higher efficiency. The European geographical periphery, and specifically Southern Europe, has considerable potential for renewable energies. At the same time it is also stricken by high levels of public debt and unemployment, and struggles with austerity policies as consequences of the Eurozone crisis. Modeling studies find a broad optimum when searching for a cost-optimal deployment of renewable energy installations. This allows for the consideration of additional policy objectives. Simultaneously, economists argue for an increase in public expenditure to compensate for the slump in private investments and to provide economic stimulus. This paper combines these two perspectives. We assess the potential for renewable energies in the European periphery, and highlight relevant costs and barriers for a large-scale transition to a renewable energy system. We find that a European energy transition with a high-level of renewable energy installations in the periphery could act as an economic stimulus, decrease trade deficits, and possibly have positive employment effects. Our analysis also suggests that country-specific conditions and policy frameworks require member state policies to play a leading role in fostering an energy transition. This notwithstanding, a stronger European-wide coordination of regulatory frameworks and supportive funding schemes would leverage country-specific action. Renewed solidarity could be the most valuable outcome of a commonly designed and implemented European energy transition. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Eberhardt G.,Leibniz Institute fur Agrartechnik Potsdam Bornim e.V. | Odening M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Lotze-Campen H.,Potsdam Institute For Klimafolgenforschung Pik | Erlach B.,TU Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2011

This article is about the profitability of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), a process for converting biomass into biocoal on an industrial scale. The analysis is based on an ex-ante evaluation of production costs and an estimation of the biomass potential of straw, wood chips from short-rotation forestry and wood chips from forest residues in the German federal state of Brandenburg. A multi-stage location model is developed in order to investigate the influences of the transportation costs on the profitability of a hydrothermal carbonization plant. The location model makes it possible to quantify expected transportation flows and to minimize the overall costs. The model determines the intake radius of biomass for different locations as well as the amount of HTC coal that can be produced from different feedstock. Furthermore, costs and possible revenues of an HTC plant are calculated. Uncertainties regarding the available quantity of biomass are considered by investigating different scenarios. The main finding of the study is that under present conditions the production of HTC coal from straw and wood is not profitable in Brandenburg. However, in the event of a price rise of CO 2 emission certificates the break-even point could be reached.

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