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Belo Horizonte, Brazil

The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of acromegaly in adults with diabetes mellitus (DM) or glucose intolerance (GI) and to estimate its prevalence in the general population. A total of 2,270 patients with DM or GI and age from 20 to 70 years were studied. Patients with known pituitary disease and pregnant women were excluded. Serum IGF-1 was measured in all subjects and, if elevated, a new measurement was obtained together with the measurement of GH in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Patients with persistently elevated IGF-1 and inadequate suppression of GH were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Acromegaly was not suspected by the assistant physician in any of the patients. Six patients had persistently elevated IGF-1 and inadequate suppression of GH in the OGTT (without other conditions associated with GH or IGF-1 elevation). Pituitary adenoma was detected by MRI in three patients, and two subjects presented an acro-megalic phenotype. Two patients were submitted to trans-sphenoidal surgery, with immunohistochemistry confirming immunoreactivity for GH. Another patient was treated with octreotide LAR which resulted in the normalization of IGF-1 and GH. Considering a prevalence of DM or GI of 20% in adults and the occurrence of these co-morbidities in 55% of patients with acromegaly, the frequency of 3/2,270 found in this study permits to estimate 480 cases/1,000,000 adults. The present results suggest that the prevalence of acromegaly is underestimated and further studies are needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of biochemical screening in certain groups of patients. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Rosario P.W.,Postgraduation Program | Purisch S.,Endocrinology Service
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Objective. To evaluate the frequency of elevated TSH in pregnant women of low risk for thyroid dysfunction. Subjects and methods. TSH was measured in 838 pregnant women during the first trimester of gestation (from 6 to 14 weeks, median 9 weeks) and who were considered to be of low risk for thyroid dysfunction because they did not meet any of the following criteria: known or clinically suspected thyroid disease; history of head and neck radiotherapy; personal history of autoimmune diseases; family history of thyroid disease; history of abortion or prematurity. Results. The frequency of elevated TSH was 0.25%, 1.2% and 5.5% at cut-off values of 4, 3 and 2.5 mIU/l, respectively. These rates increase to 1.43%, 2.4% and 6.2% if cases of TSH > 2 mIU/l with TPOAb are included. TSH was undetectable in 18 women (2.1%), but only six (0.71%) had elevated T4. Conclusions. The definition of a TSH cut-off that defines subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) should precede the decision of screening pregnant women without any risk factors for thyroid dysfunction. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Mourao G.F.,Postgraduation Program | Mourao G.F.,Institute Ensino E Pesquisa Da Santa Casa Of Belo Horizonte | Rosario P.W.,Postgraduation Program | Rosario P.W.,Institute Ensino E Pesquisa Da Santa Casa Of Belo Horizonte | Calsolari M.R.,Institute Ensino E Pesquisa Da Santa Casa Of Belo Horizonte
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the recurrence rate in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) who had low nonstimulated thyroglobulin (Tg), measured with a second-generation assay, after total thyroidectomy and who were not submitted to ablation with 131 I. The objective was to define whether low postoperative nonstimulated Tg can be used as a criterion to spare patients with PTC from therapy with 131 I. This was a prospective study including 222 patients with PTC (except for microcarcinoma restricted to the thyroid and tumor with extensive extrathyroid invasion (pT4), aggressive histology, extensive lymph node (LN) involvement, or known residual disease). After thyroidectomy, all patients had nonstimulated Tg!0.3 ng/ml, negative antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and neck ultrasonography (US) showing no anomalies. Because of this finding, the patients were not submitted to ablation with 131 I. The time of follow-up ranged from 15 to 102 months (median 62 months). Of the 222 patients, 217 (97.7%) continued to have nonstimulated Tg !0.3 ng/ml and negative US. Tg was undetectable in the last assessment in 185 of these patients and detectable in 32. Five patients (2.2%) exhibited an increase in Tg, and LN metastases were detected in 4 (structural recurrence). One patient progressed to an increase in Tg, but disease was not detected by the imaging methods (biochemical recurrence). The results obtained here suggest that patients with PTC who have low nonstimulated Tg (measured with a second-generation assay and in the absence of TgAb) and negative neck US after thyroidectomy do not require ablation with 131 I. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

Rosario P.W.,Postgraduation Program | Xavier A.C.M.,Postgraduation Program | Calsolari M.R.,Endocrinology Service
Thyroid | Year: 2011

Background: This study investigated the value of postoperative stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) combined with neck ultrasonography for the prediction of the posttherapy whole-body scanning (RxWBS) and the efficacy of ablation with 30 mCi 131I in patients with thyroid cancer and low risk of recurrence to identify those who do not require ablation or only need a low 131I activity. Methods: A total of 237 consecutive patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer and low risk of recurrence who were initially treated by total thyroidectomy followed by remnant ablation with 1.1 or 3.7 GBq (30 or 100 mCi) 131I were studied. Neck ultrasonography, Tg after levothyroxine withdrawal, and anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb) were obtained before, and RxWBS was performed 7 days after 131I administration. Patients with TgAb were excluded. Results: Postoperative ultrasonography revealed lymph node metastases in 5/237 (2%) patients. RxWBS showed ectopic uptake in 3/232 (1.3%) patients with negative ultrasonography. The negative predictive value of postoperative stimulated Tg <1 ng/mL (n = 132) or <10 ng/mL (n = 213) combined with negative ultrasonography was 100%. Among patients with detectable postoperative stimulated Tg <10 ng/mL and negative ultrasonography, 50 received 1.1 GBq 131I and 31 received 3.7 GBq. In the control assessment, stimulated Tg <1 ng/mL and neck ultrasonography without anomalies were achieved in 47/50 (94%) and in 29/31 patients (93.5%). All patients with stimulated Tg ≤1 ng/mL, negative TgAb, and normal ultrasonography before ablation continued to show the same results 8-12 months after initial therapy as expected, irrespective of the administration of 1.1 GBq (n = 82) or 3.7 GBq 131I (n = 50). Conclusions: Measurement of stimulated Tg combined with neck ultrasonography after total thyroidectomy may exclude the need for ablation in 56% of low-risk patients without TgAb (Tg <1 ng/mL) and permit the administration of an activity of 1.1 GBq 131I in another 34% with low Tg levels. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011.

The objective of this study was to screen for acromegaly by application of a simple questionnaire in patients seen at primary health care units. A total of 17,000 patients of both genders[18 and<70 years seen by general practitioner were interviewed. Patients with known pituitary disease and pregnant women were excluded. A simple questionnaire was applied to the patients: Has your shoe size increased over the last 5 years? Did you have to change your wedding ring or ring over the last 5 years because it became tight? In one patient, the diagnosis of acromegaly was suspected by the physician. Among the remaining patients, 178 (1%) responded positively to one of the items of the questionnaire and were submitted to IGF-1 measurement. Five patients had persistently elevated IGF-1 and inadequate suppression of GH in the OGTT (without other conditions associated with GH or IGF-1 elevation). One of these patients presented a normal pituitary upon magnetic resonance imaging and adenoma was detected in the other four; two presented the typical facies and two others reported changes in physiognomy (confirmed by the comparison of photographs), in addition to the enlargement of extremities. The present investigation suggests a much higher prevalence of acromegaly in the adult population than that reported traditionally. We propose that screening based on phenotypic alterations is costeffective since these changes occur early and almost universally in acromegaly and are uncommon in the general population. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

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