Postgraduate College

Montecillo, Mexico

Postgraduate College

Montecillo, Mexico

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Sharma N.K.,Postgraduate College | Tiwari S.P.,Poorvanchal University | Tripathi K.,Banaras Hindu University | Rai A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2011

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are widely distributed Gram-negative oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes with a long evolutionary history. They have potential applications such as nutrition (food supplements and fine chemicals), in agriculture (as biofertilizer and in reclamation of saline USAR soils) and in wastewater treatment (production of exopolysaccharides and flocculants). In addition, they also produce wide variety of chemicals not needed for their normal growth (secondary metabolites) which show powerful biological activities such as strong antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, antitumoral and anti-inflammatory activities useful for therapeutic purposes. In recent years, cyanobacteria have gained interest for producing biofuels (both biomass and H2 production). Because of their simple growth needs, it is potentially cost-effective to exploit cyanobacteria for the production of recombinant compounds of medicinal and commercial value. Recent advances in culture, screening and genetic engineering techniques have opened new ways to exploit the potential of cyanobacteria. This review analyses the sustainability of cyanobacteria to solve global problems such as food, energy and environmental degradation. It emphasizes the need to adopt multidisciplinary approaches and a multi-product production (biorefinery) strategy to harness the maximum benefit of cyanobacteria. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ali N.,University of Peshawar | Ullah A.,University of Peshawar | Ullah A.,Postgraduate College | Wahid S.,University of Peshawar | And 2 more authors.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate the diversity of sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) and the incidence of leishmaniasis in three villages of North Waziristan Agency, Pakistan. Sandflies were sampled monthly during 2012, at dusk and dawn, in selected indoor habitats including both bedrooms and animal sheds using a knock-down spray catch method. A total of 3687 sandflies were collected, including 1444 individuals in Drezanda, 1193 in Damdil and 1050 in Dattakhel. This study revealed 14 species of two genera, Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus caucasicus, Phlebotomus kazeruni, Phlebotomus alexandri and Phlebotomus salehi) and Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia dentate, Sergentomyia baghdadis, Sergentomyia babu, Sergentomyia theodori, Sergentomyia sumbarica, Sergentomyia dreyfussitur kestanica, Sergentomyia hogsoni pawlowskyi and Sergentomyia fallax afghanica) (both: Diptera: Psychodidae). Phlebotomus sergenti was the most abundant species (42.1%), followed by S. dentata (17.7%) and S. baghdadis (17.4%). The number of males collected represented about twice that of female flies, and the maximum number was collected in July, followed by August. The determination of the species composition of sandfly populations, seasonal variations, relative abundances and estimations of infection in the vector population may provide information about the dynamics of leishmaniasis transmission that is useful in planning vector control activities. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.


Yang K.,No107 Hospital Of Pla | Wang Y.-S.,No107 Hospital Of Pla | Zhao T.-D.,Postgraduate College
Chinese Journal of Cancer Prevention and Treatment | Year: 2012

To investigate the effect of euphorbia fischeriana steud (LDE) on apoptosis and expression of Caspase-9 mRNA in Lewis lung carcinoma. Lewis cells were exposed with LDE of different concentration (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) for 24 hours. Annexin-V/PI double label staining was applied to detect the change of apoptosis rate. Flow cytometry was applied to detect the change of cell cycle. The mRNA level of Caspase-9 was detected by Real-time PCR. By Annexin-V/PI double label staining to examine apoptosis of control and low, middle and high LDE dose group (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL), and the rate respectively was (0.331 ± 0.012)%, (8.27 ± 0.067)%, (28.19 ± 0.270)%, (32.96 ± 0.14)%. Flow cytometry showed that the G0/G1 phase rate of the control and low, middle and high LDE dose group were (50.3 ± 0.77) %, (44.2 ± 1.82)%, (34.1 ± 1.56)%, (25 ± 0.72)%. Real-time PCR showed that Caspase-9 mRNA expression level of the control and LDE group were 1.00 and 1.64. LDE can effectively induce apoptosis of Lewis cells through blocking the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and increase the expression of Caspase-9 mRNA level.


Gonzalez E.G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Panteleeva O.V.,Postgraduate College | Olvera A.L.R.,Postgraduate College
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2011

In this paper, a general model is proposed to extend generalized linear models to non-monotonic link functions. In order to determine the best model, different link function families are analysed, and through AIC, the best model is chosen. Moreover, using asymptotic properties of maximum likelihood estimates are calculated with confidence intervals and hypothesis tests for each of the parameters. Lastly, one example of regression extension is proposed for the Bernoulli distribution applied to in vitro germination of Leucocoryne coquimbensis seeds. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2011.


Arce-Cervantes O.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Mendoza G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Miranda L.A.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Meneses M.,Postgraduate College | Loera O.,Metropolitan Autonomous University
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by the thermotolerant Fomes sp. EUM1 was determined in solid cultures using corn stover (CS) as a sole substrate or supplemented with 20 % wheat bran (CS+WB). This supplementation increased (P< 0.05) enzymatic activity per gram of initial dry matter (gdm) for xylanases and cellulases: 160 IU g dm-1 and 37 IU g dm-1, respectively; while laccases reached a similar yield (3.3 IU g dm-1) for both cultures. Nevertheless, laccases showed different stability patterns at 39°C and pH 6: half-life time (t1/2) was doubled in extracts from CS+WB (23.5 h); whereas t1/2 for the other enzymes from both cultures showed no difference. Both extracts by Fomes sp. EUM1 and a commercial enzymatic product were used on forages: corn stover, (CS), sugarcane bagasse (SCB), and alfalfa hay (AH). The fractional rate of gas production (FR; ml g-1 h-1) increased (P< 0.05) at 9 hours in CS compared to the sample without enzymes. The use of any enzymes favoured higher maximum gas volume (Vm; h-1) on SCB. The in vitro digestibility (IVD) of CS after using the commercial product was 12% higher, while our extracts from CS and CS+WB showed 16 and 21% improvements (P< 0.05), respectively, suggesting a higher specificity of these enzymes produced on the same substrate (CS). In addition to the proven stability, the versatility of extracts from CS and CS+WB was confirmed by the increase in IVD values for SCB (up to 100%) in relation to the control without enzymes.


Cruz-Monterrosa R.G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Resendiz-Cruz V.,Postgraduate College | Rayas-Amor A.A.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Lopez M.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | la Lama G.C.M.-D.,Metropolitan Autonomous University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

In emergent economies and developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the major cause for carcass rejection from the international market is bruising; nevertheless, many of these carcases are destined to local markets and meat processing industries for human consumption. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of bruised meat on pH, microbiologic count and biogenic amine (BA) profiles along 21 days of ageing (sampling 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day) with two packaging method (plastic bag vs vacuum) at 4 °C. A total of 50 bruised carcasses were sampled from 1000 young bulls (Brown Swiss X Zebu) of 18–24 months old and an average live weight of 450 ± 66 kg. The results showed significant differences between packaging systems and bruised vs non-bruised meat. The bruised meat caused higher biogenic amine concentrations than did non-bruised meat. We conclude that bruised meat favoured increments of biogenic amine concentrations, even more than did non-bruised meat. The plastic bag + vacuum system limited the increments of BA concentration during storage time therefore it improved shelf life of meat. These results emphasized the importance of implementing best management practices during pre-slaughter operations of cattle in order to reduce a possible risk factor for bruised meat. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Casado N.A.R.,CINVESTAV | Horcasitas M.D.C.M.,CINVESTAV | Vazquez R.R.,CINVESTAV | Garcia F.J.E.,CINVESTAV | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1- C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process. Copyright: © 2015 Rivera Casado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Ortiz-Laurel H.,Postgraduate College | Rossel-Kipping D.,Postgraduate College
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

Mexico is the major global producer of cactus prickly pear fruit, harvesting 510,000 tonnes per year. Insufficient technology to bridge the gaps on production chain halts this agroindustry to reach its full potential. Hand harvesting of cactus fruit is greatly inefficient; it is slow and expensive, field conditions are arduous, unsafe and risky. Cactus plant is entirely covered with thorns, while cactus fruit has easily detachable microscopic hairs that stuck in bare skin; scaring off untrained workers. Inexpert handling of cactus fruit encourage injuries and yield losses amount up to 10 %. During hand harvesting, ripe fruits are grabbed by workers wearing rubber or leather gloves. Fruits are detached from the cactus plant by sliding a knife through the fruit's pedicel and then be dropped into buckets, conveyed from plant to plant until filled and then unloaded into pallet boxes for transport to storage. An innovative mechanism was designed which is assisted by a pneumatic system for creating a vacuum pressure inside a hose. When sucking, a yielding doughnut made of a thin flexible rubber placed at hose's end performs a gentle but firm grabbing rounding of the fruit, so bending tunas for cutting is easier and safer. Labourer does not touch the fruit at all. Glochids, although imperceptible they are vacuumed through the hose and trapped in a filter. All gears were installed over a trailer and the apparatus can couple four harvesting mechanisms without affecting pressure, allowing unrestrained movement of workers, simultaneously and independently of each other, and released them from the burden of carrying the bucket the whole harvesting day. Since apparatus is pulled between rows; workers walk along both sides of row, so labour productivity is increased up to four times. Mechanised harvesting of prickly pear cactus fruit, secures a safer work environment for labourers, increase labour producctiviy and higher income resulting in better quality fruit-being is delivered to the market.


PubMed | Postgraduate College and Metropolitan Autonomous University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

In emergent economies and developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the major cause for carcass rejection from the international market is bruising; nevertheless, many of these carcases are destined to local markets and meat processing industries for human consumption. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of bruised meat on pH, microbiologic count and biogenic amine (BA) profiles along 21days of ageing (sampling 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day) with two packaging method (plastic bag vs vacuum) at 4C. A total of 50 bruised carcasses were sampled from 1000 young bulls (Brown Swiss X Zebu) of 18-24months old and an average live weight of 45066kg. The results showed significant differences between packaging systems and bruised vs non-bruised meat. The bruised meat caused higher biogenic amine concentrations than did non-bruised meat. We conclude that bruised meat favoured increments of biogenic amine concentrations, even more than did non-bruised meat. The plastic bag+vacuum system limited the increments of BA concentration during storage time therefore it improved shelf life of meat. These results emphasized the importance of implementing best management practices during pre-slaughter operations of cattle in order to reduce a possible risk factor for bruised meat.


PubMed | CINVESTAV, Postgraduate College and Biochemical Engineering
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

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