Stewart D.,James Hutton Institute |
Stewart D.,Postbox Inc. |
McDougall G.,James Hutton Institute
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014
Oats are undervalued in comparison with wheat, rice and barley, despite their unique composition that includes many of the nutrients required for health and a reduced risk of degenerative disease incidence. Furthermore, oats as whole grain and some of their associated products also contain β-glucan, a complex polysaccharide that has an approved health claim to reduce blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of CHD incidence if consumed at ≥ 3 g/d. At the agronomic level, oats exhibit optimal growth in regions of moderate temperature and long day length. In addition, they can tolerate wet weather and acidic soils more effectively than other cereals, such as wheat. Studies have shown that there is diversity in the content and composition of nutrients and health-beneficial components within the available wild and cultivated germplasm and that these are amenable to be enhanced by different agronomic practices as well as are susceptible to climatic variation. The advances in modern plant genetics, developed in sister cereals such as wheat, rice and barley, mean that oat development and exploitation should see an acceleration in the coming decade as they are adopted and applied. These advances include approaches such as genome sequencing, genotyping by sequencing and the allied next-level analytical approaches of RNA sequencing, transcriptome profiling and metabolomics. The collation and coordination of these approaches should lead to the generation of new, tailored oat varieties that are nutritionally enhanced and contain a greater proportion of health-beneficial components that can be translated through into a wide(r) range of consumer products with the ultimate hope of associated benefits to human health and nutrition. Copyright © 2014 The Authors.
van der Ploeg F.,University of Oxford |
Poelhekke S.,Postbox Inc.
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2010
Brunnschweiler and Bulte (2008) [1,2] provide cross-country evidence that resource curse is a "red herring" once one corrects for endogeneity of resource exports and allows resource abundance to affect growth. Their results show that resource exports are no longer significant while value of subsoil assets has a significant positive effect on growth. But the World Bank measure of subsoil assets is proportional to current rents, and thus is also endogenous. Furthermore, their results suffer from an unfortunate data mishap, omitted variables bias, weakness of instruments, violation of exclusion restrictions and misspecification error. Correcting for these issues and instrumenting resource exports with values of proven reserves at the beginning of the sample period, there is no evidence for resource curse either and subsoil assets are no longer significant. However, the same evidence suggests that resource exports or rents boost growth in stable countries, but also make especially already volatile countries more volatile and thus indirectly worsen growth prospects. Ignoring the volatility channel may lead one to erroneously conclude that there is no effect of resources on growth. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Boer J.,Postbox Inc. |
Jemec G.B.E.,Copenhagen University
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2010
Background. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by abscess formation localized to apocrine sweat gland-bearing skin. The most important factor in patients' overall assessment of disease severity is pain. The duration of abscesses takes days to weeks and are always painful. Aim. To assess the efficacy of self-treatment with topical 15% resorcinol in an open study. Methods. The case notes of 12 women with stage 1 or 2 HS treated with topical resorcinol and followed up for at least 1 year were reviewed. The patients rated the efficacy of treatment on global maximum pain of nodules and abscesses on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by self-report of the mean duration (days) of a painful lesion. Results. All patients experienced a significant decrease in pain as assessed by VAS and reported a reduction in mean duration of the painful abscesses. Conclusions. Topical treatment with 15% resorcinol reduced pain from painful nodules in all patients with HS. Further trials are warranted to confirm these results. © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.
Heesterbeek P.J.C.,Development and Education |
Keijsers N.L.W.,Development and Education |
Wymenga A.B.,Postbox Inc.
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2010
This prospective study investigated whether ligament releases necessary during total knee replacement (TKR) led to a higher varus-valgus laxity during intraoperative examination after implantation of the prosthesis and after 6 months. The laxity values of TKR patients were also compared to healthy controls. Varus-valgus laxity was assessed intra- and postoperatively in extension and 70° flexion in 49 patients undergoing TKR, implanted using a balanced gap technique. Knees were catalogued according to ligament releases performed during surgery. Postoperative varus-valgus laxity and laxity after 6 months had not increased following release of the posteromedial capsule, iliotibial tract, and the superficial medial collateral ligament. The obtained postoperative laxity compares well with a healthy equally aged control group. It can be concluded that the balanced gap technique results in stable knees and that releases can safely be performed to achieve neutral leg alignment without causing postoperative laxity. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Hofvind S.,Postbox Inc. |
Skaane P.,University of Oslo
RoFo Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Rontgenstrahlen und der Bildgebenden Verfahren | Year: 2012
Purpose: The German mammographic screening program is very similar to the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), which started about 10 years earlier. This study analyzes the stage distribution of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening and screening period, and evaluates the overall mortality in women aged 55 - 74 in the pilot and non-pilot counties of the NBCSP. Materials and Methods: The NBCSP invites women aged 50 - 69 to participate in two-view mammography biennially. Chi-square statistics were used to compare percentages of the stage and treatment of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in women residing in the four pilot counties in the pre-screening (1984 - 1995) and screening (1996 - 2007) period. An ecological approach was used to analyze the age-specific mortality in the pilot and non-pilot counties for the period 1970 - 2007. Results: 50 % of the breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening period, 70 % of the cases detected with screening, 43 % of the interval cancers, and 52 % of the cancers diagnosed outside the NBCSP were stage I. Stage III + was present in 11 % of the cancers in the pre-screening period, and in 1 % of the cancers detected with screening. In the screening period, the breast cancer mortality rate decreased substantially more in the pilot counties than in the non-pilot counties. Conclusion: The stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed in the NBCSP is prognostically favorable compared to cancers diagnosed outside the screening program. The reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate was more pronounced in the four pilot counties compared to the non-pilot counties. It is necessary to evaluate the program based on individual data. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG · Stuttgart · New York.