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Matalia H.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Swarup R.,Swarup Eye Center
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Diagnosis of keratoconus has greatly improved from simple clinical diagnosis with the advent of better diagnostic devices like corneal topographers based on placido disc, elevation based topographers and lately optical coherence tomography (OCT). These instruments are quite sensitive to pick up early keratoconus, which could help refractive surgeons to avoid serious complications like ectasia following keratorefractive surgeries. Each of these instruments has their advantages and disadvantages; in spite of that each one of them has its own place in the clinical practice. Currently, placido disc based topographers are the most commonly used topographers all over the world. There are many different companies making such devices, which follow the different techniques and color for the display. Due to these differences they are not directly comparable to each other. Various quantitative indices based on these topographers have been suggested and validated by different authors to aid in the diagnosis and quantification of keratoconus. OCT with its higher resolution and deeper penetration has created its place in the diagnostic armamentarium for keratoconus.

Roy A.S.,Biomechanics and Mathematical Modeling Solutions | Shetty R.,Biomechanics and Mathematical Modeling Solutions | Kummelil M.K.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Keratoconus (KC) is progressive disease of corneal thinning, steepening and collagen degradation. Biomechanics of the cornea is maintained by the intricate collagen network, which is responsible for its unique shape and function. With the disruption of this collagen network, the cornea loses its shape and function, resulting in progressive visual degradation. While KC is essentially a stromal disease, there is evidence that the epithelium undergoes significant thinning similar to the stroma. Several topographical approaches have been developed to detect KC early. However, it is now hypothesized that biomechanical destabilization of the cornea may precede topographic evidence of KC. Biomechanics of KC has been investigated only to a limited extent due to lack of in vivo measurement techniques and/or devices. In this review, we focus on recent work performed to characterize the biomechanical characteristics of KC.

Dhume K.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Paul K.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Aims : To derive a reliable estimate of the frequency of pupillary involvement and to study the patterns and course of anisocoria in conjunction with ophthalmoplegia in diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective analytical study, standardized enrolment criteria were employed to identify 35 consecutive patients with diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy who were subjected to a comprehensive ocular examination. Standardized methods were used to evaluate pupil size, shape, and reflexes. The degree of anisocoria, if present and the degree of ophthalmoplegia was recorded at each visit. Results: Pupillary involvement was found to be present in 25.7% of the total number of subjects with diabetic oculomotor nerve palsy. The measure of anisocoria was < 2 mm, and pupil was variably reactive at least to some extent in all cases with pupillary involvement. Majority of patients in both the pupil-involved and pupil-spared group showed a regressive pattern of ophthalmoplegia. Ophthalmoplegia reversed much earlier and more significantly when compared to anisocoria. Conclusions: Pupillary involvement in diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy occurs in about 1/4 th of all cases. Certain characteristics of the pupil help us to differentiate an ischemic insult from an aneurysmal injury to the 3 rd nerve. Ophthalmoplegia resolves much earlier than anisocoria in diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies.

Sengupta S.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Chang D.F.,University of California at San Francisco | Gandhi R.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Kenia H.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Venkatesh R.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery | Year: 2011

Purpose: To determine the incidence and long-term outcomes of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) at a single institution. Setting: Aravind Eye Hospital, Pondicherry, India. Design: Case series. Methods: The records of all eyes developing TASS during a 1-year period after cataract surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes, including corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intraocular pressure, and complications, were recorded at the 1-month and 6-month follow-up visits. Results: Toxic anterior segment syndrome occurred in 60 eyes (0.22%) in 26408 consecutive cataract surgeries. Although there were 2 identifiable clusters of TASS, 52% of cases were sporadic. The mean duration until resolution of severe iridocyclitis was 6.11 days ± 2.19 (SD). Of the 24 eyes (40%) with a follow-up of at least 6 months (mean 11.24 ± 2.3 months), 6 (24%) had atrophic iris changes, 1 (4%) had cystoid macular edema, 3 (12.5%) developed anterior capsule phimosis, and 4 (16%) had posterior capsule opacification (PCO). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean CDVA at 1 month (0.08 ± 0.06 logMAR) (n = 60) and the mean final CDVA (0.11 ± 0.1 logMAR, minimum 6 months; n = 24) (P=.42). Conclusions: Although it is impossible to generalize for all etiologies, this study found that TASS is uncommon but not rare, responded to intensive topical antiinflammatory medication, and was usually associated with a good visual outcome. Anterior capsule contraction and PCO were the principal delayed-onset complications beyond those present 1 month postoperatively. Financial Disclosure: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.© 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS.

Sengupta S.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Thiruvengadakrishnan K.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Ravindran R.D.,Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Vaitilingam M.C.,Aravind Eye Hospital
Ophthalmic Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To report changing trends in referral patterns of microbial keratitis evidenced by laboratory results of culture-positive cases from a tertiary eye-care hospital in south India. Methods: All patients presenting with microbial (nonviral) keratitis to the cornea services of Aravind Eye Hospital from 2003 to 2009 were identified from a computerized database. Microbiologic characteristics were recorded and annual distributions of causative organisms over the 7-year study period were compared. Results: Out of a total of 3059 cases of presumed microbial keratitis, 1756 had positive cultures (57.4%). Among the culture-positive cases, fungal pathogens were isolated from 1224 cases (70%), 488 (27.7%) showed bacterial growth, 18 (1.03%) grew acanthamoeba species and 26 (1.5%) demonstrated mixed bacterial and fungal growth. The percentage of fungal isolates in culture-positive cases increased gradually over the study period from 59% in 2004 to 78% in 2009. This increase in frequency of fungal keratitis was statistically significant (P = 0.023). A proportionally decreasing trend was seen in the number of bacterial isolates ranging from 31% in 20032005 to 22% in 2009 (P = 0.04). Conclusions: An incremental increase was seen in the number of fungal keratitis cases referred to our institute during the study period. Bacterial keratitis showed a decline. This disconcerting trend may lead to an increase in the incidence of corneal blindness in the developing world and thus warrants further research. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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