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Chandigarh, India

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research is a medical and research institution located in Chandigarh, India. It has educational, medical research and training facilities for its students.The founders of the institute are Tulsi Das, Santokh Singh Anand, P N Chuttani, B N Aikat, Sant Ram Dhall and Bala Krishna. PGIMER was conceived and planned in 1960 to provide physical and intellectual milieu for young scientists working in multiple disciplines of medicine, to advance the frontiers of knowledge to render humane service to sick and suffering and to train medical and paramedical manpower, in Chandigarh. The Institute was established in 1962 under the erstwhile state of Punjab. It was declared as an Institute of National Importance by an Act of Parliament w.e.f. 1 April 1967. Wikipedia.


Saha L.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects 9%-23% of the population across the world. The percentage of patients seeking health care related to IBS approaches 12% in primary care practices and is by far the largest subgroup seen in gastroenterology clinics. It has been well documented that these patients exhibit a poorer quality of life and utilize the health care system to a greater degree than patients without this diagnosis. The pathophysiology of IBS is not clear. Many theories have been put forward, but the exact cause of IBS is still uncertain. According to the updated ROME III criteria, IBS is a clinical diagnosis and presents as one of the three predominant subtypes: (1) IBS with constipation (IBS-C); (2) IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D); and (3) mixed IBS (IBS-M); former ROME definitions refer to IBS-M as alternating IBS (IBS-A). Across the IBS subtypes, the presentation of symptoms may vary among patients and change over time. Patients report the most distressing symptoms to be abdominal pain, straining, myalgias, urgency, bloating and feelings of serious illness. The complexity and diversity of IBS presentation makes treatment difficult. Although there are reviews and guidelines for treating IBS, they focus on the efficacy of medications for IBS symptoms using high-priority endpoints, leaving those of lower priority largely unreported. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment to guide clinicians diagnosing and treating their patients. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Dey P.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Diagnostic Cytopathology | Year: 2010

There are many significant morphological alterations of a nucleus of cancer cell that are detectable by light microscopy on routine staining. These changes are often associated with deranged cellular functions of cancer cell. It is difficult to understand the exact relationship between nuclear morphology and alteration of nuclear structural organization in cancer. Herein, the salient visual and subvisual morphological changes of cancer nuclei and their possible etiology and significance have been reviewed. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Singhi P.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders | Year: 2011

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. It can present variably depending on the location and stage of cysts in the nervous system, and the host immune response. The most common presentation of parenchymal NCC is with seizures that are usually focal and brief; status epilepticus occurs in some cases. About a third of cases have headache and vomiting. Diagnosis is made by either CT or MRI. Single, small, contrast enhancing lesions are the most common; visualization of a scolex is diagnostic. Some cases have multiple cysts with a characteristic starry-sky appearance. Although treatment with cysticidal therapy continues to be debated, there is increasing evidence that it helps through increased and faster resolution of CT lesions; whether there is any improvement in long-term seizure control needs further study. It should not be used in cysticercus encephalitis or in ophthalmic NCC and used with caution in extraparenchymal NCC. It is of no use in calcified lesions. Corticosteroids are used simultaneously to reduce cerebral oedema. Seizures respond well to a single antiepileptic, and the seizure recurrence rate is low in cases with single lesions; those with multiple, persistent or calcified lesions usually have recurrent seizures. Extraparenchymal NCC is often associated with intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalous and chronic meningitis; it has a guarded prognosis; surgical intervention is required in many cases. Management of NCC needs to be individualized. NCC is potentially eradicable; proper sanitation, hygiene and animal husbandry are warranted. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Singh M.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted in high-income countries since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess whether zinc (irrespective of the zinc salt or formulation used) is efficacious in reducing the incidence, severity and duration of common cold symptoms. In addition, we aimed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in results obtained and to assess their clinical significance. In this updated review, we searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013), Web of Science (1985 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Five trials were identified in the updated searches in January 2013 and two of them did not meet our inclusion criteria. We included 16 therapeutic trials (1387 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc was associated with a significant reduction in the duration (days) (mean difference (MD) -1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.72 to -0.34) (P = 0.003) (I(2) statistic = 89%) but not the severity of common cold symptoms (MD -1.06, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.23) (P = 0.11) (I(2) statistic = 84%). The proportion of participants who were symptomatic after seven days of treatment was significantly smaller (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00) (P = 0.05) than those in the control, (I(2 )statistic = 75%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006) (I(2) statistic = 88%), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.09) (P = 0.002), bad taste (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.71 to 3.11) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the zinc group. The very high heterogeneity means that the averaged estimates must be viewed with caution. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration of common cold symptoms in healthy people but some caution is needed due to the heterogeneity of the data. As the zinc lozenges formulation has been widely studied and there is a significant reduction in the duration of cold at a dose of ≥ 75 mg/day, for those considering using zinc it would be best to use it at this dose throughout the cold. Regarding prophylactic zinc supplementation, currently no firm recommendation can be made because of insufficient data. When using zinc lozenges (not as syrup or tablets) the likely benefit has to be balanced against side effects, notably a bad taste and nausea. Source


Singh M.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 2, MEDLINE (1966 to February week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1990 to March 2013) and Current Contents (1994 to March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally induced common cold. The two review authors independently reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. We included six trials (394 trial participants). Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings; there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold, hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomised trials with a standardised treatment modality are conducted. Source

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