Tessem B.,Post box
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing | Year: 2011
With the growth of agile software development methods we have seen an increased focus on the empowerment of software developers as a means to improving productivity and quality in software development. From other knowledge-intensive industries we also see that participation in decision making is argued to improve not only business, but also workers' job satisfaction. In this study, interviews from four different types of software development organisations in Norway are collected and analysed to get more insight in how decisions are made in software development. The four types of organisations are a) Small, in-house software teams, b) Software company with undefined development process, c) Software company using unified process, and d) Software company using scrum. The data confirm that experience is a dimension that significantly influences a developer's empowerment. But there is also clear differences between these four groups in what kind of decisions developers are participating in, and what level of participation they are admitted. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Khan M.A.,United Arab Emirates University |
Raza F.,Post box
AMHA - Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica | Year: 2015
Pain, one of the universals of existence, has a long and venerable history, its origin initially attributed to godly punishment for disbelievers; and, with improved understanding, to physical and psycho-social factors. “Pain is emotion or sensation?” has been a debatable issue. Razes developed pleasure-pain theory, founded on the theories of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus. Descartes’ Dualism shifted the centre of pain from the heart to the brain but negated the psychological contribution to its pathogenesis. Gate Control Theory, fascinated with the idea of “neurological gates”, highlighted the important role of the brain in dealing with the messages received. The International Association of the Study of Pain, in 1979, coined a definition of pain which is currently in use and was last updated on 6th October 2014. Its validity has been challenged and a new definition has been suggested. Whereas the experience is personalized, immeasurable and unsharable, different cultural groups react differently to pain from relative tolerance to over-reaction. Gender and ethnic differences in the perception of pain are well proven and the effects of various religious beliefs adequately scored. Despite extensive research over centuries, understanding of pain mechanisms is still far from optimal. Untiring efforts to identify a paincentre in the brain have been futile. Had it been possible, millions of pain sufferers would have been relieved of their physical agony and mental anguish by the prick of needle. © 2015, Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health. All rights reserved.
Singh G.,Post box |
Kulshreshtha N.,Post box |
Kulshreshtha N.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute |
Singh B.N.,Post box |
And 8 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014
A study was conducted for characterizing germplasm, estimating interrelationship of traits and clustering of wheat genotypes in five environments covering salinity, waterlogging and neutral soils using, 100 elite but diverse genotypes with eight checks of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). These genotypes were planted under five distinct environments during rabi 2009-10 under augmented design in four blocks wherein each check was repeated twice. The genetic variance, correlation coefficients and cluster analysis were carried out for assessment of lines through seven metric traits, namely, plant stand, plant height, days to heading, days to maturity, tillers/meter, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Analysis of variance revealed wide variability for most of the traits under study. The phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was high for tillers/meter and grain yield, while high heritability coupled with high genetic advance were found for tillers/meter, 1000-grain weight and grain yield under all five environments. At phenotypic level, positive and significant correlation coefficients revealed that under all the normal and stressed environments used here, grain yield is directly influenced by plant stand, tillers/meter and thousand grain weights. Significant and positive correlations were estimated between tillers/meter (r = 0. 31 to 0. 66), and 1000 grain weight (r = 0. 24 to 0. 61) with grain yield under all five environments. Under waterlogged conditions there were significant negative correlations of plant height to grain yield (r = -0. 38 to -0. 39) across two sites. These results, thereby suggests that yield improvement in bread wheat could be possible by emphasizing these traits through selection in these diverse environments. On the basis of D2values of pooled data, 108 genotypes were grouped into four clusters. In all, only 26 lines were found common in cluster III under two waterlogging environments (Faizabad and Karnal), while only 15 lines were common in cluster I under non waterlogging (Faizabad, CSSRI and DWR) conditions. These results indicate different constraints exist in waterlogged and non-waterlogged condition at these sites. Genetic diversity available for these traits may be utilized for yield improvement in bread wheat under different soil conditions through planned hybridization and selection in target environments.
Schoenmakers K.P.W.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Fenten M.G.E.,Post box |
Louwerens J.W.,Orthopaedic Surgery Sint Maartenskliniek |
Scheffer G.J.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Stienstra R.,Post box
BMC Anesthesiology | Year: 2015
Background: Duration of peripheral nerve blocks depends on multiple factors. Both technique and type of local anesthetic used, either with or without adjuncts, may result in different duration times of the block. The purpose of the present study was to compare the duration of postoperative analgesia of 30 mL ropivacaine 0.75 % with or without epinephrine for popliteal sciatic nerve block. Methods: Thirty-eight patients were included to receive ultrasound guided continuous popliteal nerve block with ropivacaine 0.75 % either without (ROPI) or with epinephrine 5 μg/mL (ROPI-EPI) for ankle fusion, subtalar fusion, or a combination of both. The primary outcome parameter was the duration of postoperative analgesia as reflected by the time to first request for postoperative analgesia (TTFR) through the popliteal nerve catheter. Secondary outcome measures included the onset of sensory and motor block and NRS score for pain at rest and during movement. Results: Thirty patients, 15 in each group, were studied. Eight patients were withdrawn because of specific withdrawal criteria described in the protocol and replaced according to their group allocation. Median [interquartile range] TTFR was 463 [300-1197] min and 830 [397-1128] min for the ROPI vs ROPI-EPI group respectively. Hodges Lehman median difference between groups was 71 min (95 % CI -415 - 473 min). There was no difference in any clinical outcome measure between the groups. Conclusion: The results of this study did not show any significant increase in the duration of postoperative analgesia by adding epinephrine to ropivacaine for popliteal nerve block. This may be due to the intrinsic vasoconstrictive properties of ropivacaine. The absence of a significant difference can also be the result of a type II error caused by a large variation in the individual TTFR. Trial registration: Trial register.nl identifier: NTR3330, keyword TTFR. © 2015 Schoenmakers et al.
Berthet T.,Montpellier University |
Hetenyi G.,ETH Zurich |
Cattin R.,Montpellier University |
Sapkota S.N.,National Seismological Center |
And 6 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2013
The current understanding of the Himalayan lithosphere stems mostly from cross-sections through the range at the longitude of the Kathmandu Basin. In this paper we laterally extend the analyses of structures and rheology along the Nepal Himalayas between the Pokhara valley and the Arun river.We take advantage of available information and a new data set including gravity measurements and a receiver function profile. It appears that the geometry of theMoho inferred from seismological profiles and long-wavelength gravity anomalies does not exhibit major East-West variations within the 350-km-wide study area. Using thermomechanical modelling, we show that the northward deepening of the Moho observed along profiles perpendicular to the main thrust faults can be interpreted simply as the bending of a strong India Plate. This result suggests a gradual mechanical decoupling between the crust and the mantle, leading to a northward decrease of the effective elastic thickness of the Indian lithosphere from ~75 km to ~25 km beneath the Ganga Basin and the Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Our results also confirm(partially) eclogitized lower Indian crust beneath southern Tibet. At shorter wavelengths, the observed gravity profiles exhibit some small lateral variations that can be interpreted in terms of east-west variations of the thickness of subsurface geological structures such as the Ganga Basin and the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.