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Valle S.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Barros N.,Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds | Ramirez I.,BirdLife International | Wanless R.M.,Seabird Division | Wanless R.M.,University of Cape Town
Ostrich | Year: 2016

The Tinhosas islands, in São Tomé e Príncipe, host the most important seabird breeding colony in the Gulf of Guinea, but information on its conservation status was hitherto unpublished or anecdotal, the last assessment having been performed in 1997. A two-day expedition to the Tinhosas islands was undertaken to estimate the status of breeding seabirds in 2013. Four of the five seabird species known to breed in São Tomé e Príncipe, namely Brown Booby Sula leucogaster, Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus, Brown Noddy Anous stolidus and Black Noddy Anous minutus, occur on the Tinhosas. A decrease of 80% in Brown Booby numbers, possibly due to occasional exploitation, and a 30% increase in Sooty Tern and Black Noddy numbers, were found compared to 1997 data although survey methods differed. Breeding of Brown Noddy and Madeiran Storm-petrel Hydrobates castro remains unconfirmed. Our estimates confirmed that BirdLife International Important Bird and Biodiversity Area criteria are met for at least one species, the Sooty Tern. The islands are not legally protected, nonetheless, apart from moderate levels of disturbance by fishermen who land on Tinhosa Grande, no alien species were seen, and no immediate threats to the Tinhosas colony were detected. Multiple visits within and between years are recommended, to census breeders, monitor threats and establish breeding phenologies. © 2016 NISC (Pty) Ltd

Hervias S.,Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds | Hervias S.,University of Murcia | Hervias S.,Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group | Henriques A.,Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds | And 9 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2013

The most common invasive mammals-mice, rats, and cats-have been introduced to islands around the world, where they continue to negatively affect native biodiversity. The eradication of those invasive mammals has had positive effects on many species of seabirds. However, the removal of one invasive mammal species may result in abundance changes of other species due to trophic and competitive interactions among species. Understanding the overall impact of several invasive species is a key challenge when evaluating the possible effects of eradication programmes. Here we assess the influence of the three most common invasive mammals on nest survival of Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea). We monitored six breeding colonies over 3 years and measured the activity of mice, rats and cats to examine the influence of invasive mammals on nest survival. We found that nest survival showed a similar temporal trend in all years, with lowest weekly survival probabilities shortly after chicks hatched. Cats were identified as major predators of chicks, but no measure of colony-specific cat activity was able to adequately explain variation in shearwater nest survival. Nest survival was on average 0. 38 (95 % confidence interval 0. 20-0. 53) and varied among colonies as well as over time. We found a small positive influence of rats on nest survival, which may indicate that the presence of small rodents as alternative prey may reduce cat predation of chicks. Our findings suggest that the eradication of rodents alone may exacerbate the adverse effects of cats on shearwater nest survival. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Ceia R.S.,Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds | Sampaio H.L.,Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds | Parejo S.H.,Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds | Heleno R.H.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | And 3 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2010

The invasive Clethra arborea has a dual-role in the diet of the Azores bullfinch, a critically endangered bird species endemic to the island of São Miguel (Azores, Portugal). This is a crucial winter food resource but it lowers the availability of native laurel forest species that compose most of the bird's diet throughout the year. The removal of this and other invasive alien species is part of current laurel forest habitat restoration programmes, disregarding the impact on the Azores bullfinch population. In order to evaluate the first responses of the Azores bullfinch to habitat restoration, we studied bird diet, foraging behaviour, food availability and habitat occupancy in managed (without C. arborea) and control areas. Significant increases in the availability of native food resources in managed areas were noticeable in the diet, particularly the intake of Ilex perado ssp. azorica and Prunus lusitanica ssp. azorica flower buds. In most of the studied months birds heavily used and foraged in managed over control areas. The one exception was in December, when a resource-gap occurred in managed areas, which may be overcome in the short-term due to re-establishment of native plants following removal of invasive aliens. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hervias S.,University of Murcia | Hervias S.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology | Ceia F.R.,University of Coimbra | Pipa T.,Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds | And 3 more authors.
Zoology | Year: 2014

This study assessed the impact of introduced black rats (Rattus rattus) on Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) in a multi-invaded insular ecosystem where rats are mesopredators. We hypothesized that black rats should have little impact on Cory's shearwaters in the presence of cats as superpredators. Stomach contents and stable isotope analysis (SIA) in tissues of black rats were analyzed to assess the trophic ecology and the importance of Cory's shearwater in their diet. We also studied the isotopic signature in tissues of house mouse (Mus domesticus) to confirm previous data showing no predation of this species on Cory's shearwaters. For both rodent species, temporal variation in diet composition in response to the availability of seabird prey was evaluated, and short- and long-term consistency in diet was tested using different tissues from the same individual. For black rats a Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) was applied to determine the relative contribution of each prey to the individual diet. SIA of mouse tissues varied between the Cory's shearwater breeding and non-breeding periods. However, no significant differences were found in diet and SIA for black rats. In contrast, individuals of both species showed a strong consistency in diet which apparently benefited their body condition index. Although black rats supplement their diet with Cory's shearwater eggs and chicks (8.3% in stomach contents and 10.6% in the SIAR model), their current impact on the Cory's shearwater population appears to be small, probably due to several factors including the small size of the rat population and a high level of rat predation by cats. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

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