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Cardoso C.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Farias I.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Costa V.,University of The Azores | Nunes M.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Gordo L.,University of Lisbon
Risk Analysis | Year: 2010

The intake of Cd, methyl-Hg, and Pb through consumption of black scabbardfish (BSF) (Aphanopus carbo) in Portugal as well as the associated probability of exceeding the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) was estimated. For this purpose, the contamination levels of heavy metals in this fish species were combined with constructed consumption scenarios or with a hypothesized consumption distribution. Whereas Cd and Pb posed no serious risk, the consumption of at least one portion of BSF per month as well as the hypothetical study in the Portuguese population produced nonnegligible probabilities of surpassing the PTWI for Me-Hg. Risk assessment for Portuguese consumers revealed a higher risk regarding Me-Hg, 1.19% and 1.81% with the plug-in (PI) and the tail estimation (TE) estimators, respectively. On the other hand, the risk for Cd and Pb was less than 1 in 100,000. TE was more realistic and accurate for Cd and Pb. Concerning Me-Hg, TE and PI estimators produced similar results. Furthermore, the limitations of a deterministic approach were shown. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis. Source


Cardoso C.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Afonso C.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Lourenco H.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Nunes M.L.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR
Food Control | Year: 2013

For hake, ray, and silver scabbard fish, the intake of methylmercury (methyl-Hg), selenium (Se), and eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic fatty acids (EPA+DHA) through their consumption in Portugal and the associated probability of exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), the recommended daily allowance (RDA), and the recommended daily intake (RDI), respectively, were estimated. For this, the methyl-Hg, Se, and EPA+DHA concentrations in the studied fish species were combined with constructed consumption scenarios for the elaboration of consumption recommendations or with ahypothesized Portuguese consumption distribution with the purpose of estimating the risk-benefit situation in Portugal.It was calculated that the probabilities of the methyl-Hg intakes exceeding the PTWI were always higher than the probabilities of the Se and EPA+DHA intakes surpassing the recommended thresholds, RDA and RDI, respectively, regardless of the species. The consumption of the three fish species should be limited to less than one meal per week, since this consumption frequency entailed a probability of exceeding the methyl-Hg PTWI ranging from 1:213 in hake to 1:4 in silver scabbard fish. For the Portuguese population, hake consumption-48.3g/(week.person) - may be excessive, since a probability of 1:310 (meaning 320 persons at risk in 100,000) of the methyl-Hg intake exceeding the PTWI through this species consumption was calculated. Particularly, this applies to that fraction of the population whose hake consumption frequency is two or more weekly meals (which may reach 19.7%) and to more vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and small children, which should choose alternative fish species with lower methyl-Hg contents, such as, small pelagic fish (sardine, scad, or mackerel). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cardoso C.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Lourenco H.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Afonso C.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Nunes M.L.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

The intake of methyl-mercury (methyl-Hg) through the consumption of three common cephalopod species, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), squid (Loligo vulgaris) and octopus (Octopus vulgaris), in Portugal as well as the associated probability of exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were estimated by combining methyl-Hg contamination levels in these three cephalopods with constructed consumption scenarios and with a hypothesised consumption distribution for the general Portuguese population. It was found that squid presents no serious health concern with respect to methyl-Hg, but cuttlefish and octopus consumption should not exceed two 150 g meals per week. Moreover, the methyl-Hg risk assessment for Portuguese consumers showed no risk concerning the observed cephalopods consumption levels. However, besides methyl-Hg, other toxic metals present in cephalopods, such as cadmium, may be a serious health concern and the methyl-Hg risk can be compounded by the risk of other foods containing significant methyl-Hg levels, especially long-lived sea predators. Accordingly, a cautionary note must be attached to advised maximum consumptions, which may be revised by future studies. Tail estimation (TE) estimator was more accurate for lower probabilities, rendering accurate risk estimations different from zero. However, for higher probabilities, the much simpler plug-in (PI) estimator could be applied. Additionally, limitations of a deterministic approach were identified. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source


Cardoso C.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Bandarra N.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Lourenco H.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Afonso C.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR | Nunes M.,Portuguese Institute of Sea and Fisheries Research IPIMAR
Risk Analysis | Year: 2010

The intake of methyl-Hg and EPA + DHA through consumption of seafood in Europe as well as the associated probability of exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) and the recommended daily intake (RDI), respectively, were estimated by combining methyl-Hg and EPA + DHA contents in the five most consumed seafood species with hypothesized consumption distributions for eight European countries, chosen on the basis of size and representative significance. Two estimators were used: plug-in (PI) and tail estimation (TE). The latter was based on the application of the extreme value theory to the intakes distribution curves. Whereas contents data were collected from own database and published scientific papers, consumption data were obtained from statistical sources of the various countries. Seafood consumption levels varied considerably between countries, from 140 in the United Kingdom to 628.5 g/(person.week) in Iceland. The main consumed species were also different between countries. The probability of exceeding the methyl-Hg PTWI ranged from 0.04% in the United Kingdom to 9.61% in Iceland. Concerning the probability of exceeding the RDI of EPA + DHA, Iceland was third, after Portugal (66.05%) and Spain (61.05%) and the United Kingdom was the last (0.32%). While TE was most accurate for small probabilities, PI yielded best estimates for larger probabilities. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis. Source

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