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Maulvault A.L.,Portuguese Institute For The Sea And Atmosphere Ipma Ip | Maulvault A.L.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Maulvault A.L.,University of Lisbon | Anacleto P.,Portuguese Institute For The Sea And Atmosphere Ipma Ip | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

The presence of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), arsenic (TAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) was investigated in seafood collected from European marine ecosystems subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure, i.e. hotspot areas. Different species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=50; Chamelea gallina, n=50; Liza aurata, n=25; Platichthys flesus, n=25; Laminaria digitata, n=15; and Saccharina latissima, n=15) sampled in Tagus estuary, Po delta, Ebro delta, western Scheldt, and in the vicinities of a fish farm area (Solund, Norway), between September and December 2013, were selected to assess metal contamination and potential risks to seafood consumers, as well as to determine the suitability of ecologically distinct organisms as bioindicators in environmental monitoring studies. Species exhibited different elemental profiles, likely as a result of their ecological strategies, metabolism and levels in the environment (i.e. seawater and sediments). Higher levels of Cd (0.15-0.94 mg kg-1), Pb (0.37-0.89 mg kg-1), Co (0.48-1.1 mg kg-1), Cu (4.8-8.4 mg kg-1), Zn (75-153 mg kg-1), Cr (1.0-4.5 mg kg-1) and Fe (283-930 mg kg-1) were detected in bivalve species, particularly in M. galloprovincialis from Ebro and Po deltas, whereas the highest content of Hg was found in P. flesus (0.86 mg kg-1). In fish species, most Hg was organic (MeHg; from 69 to 79%), whereas lower proportions of MeHg were encountered in bivalve species (between 20 and 43%). The highest levels of As were found in macroalgae species L. digitata and S. latissima (41 mg kg-1 and 43 mg kg-1, respectively), with iAs accounting almost 50% of the total As content in L. digitata but not with S. latissima nor in the remaining seafood samples. This work highlights that the selection of the most appropriate bioindicator species is a fundamental step in environmental monitoring of each contaminant, especially in coastal areas. Furthermore, data clearly shows that the current risk assessment and legislation solely based on total As or Hg data is limiting, as elemental speciation greatly varies according to seafood species, thus playing a key role in human exposure assessment via food. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Anacleto P.,Portuguese Institute For The Sea And Atmosphere Ipma Ip | Anacleto P.,University of Lisbon | Anacleto P.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Maulvault A.L.,Portuguese Institute For The Sea And Atmosphere Ipma Ip | And 9 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Human bivalve consumption in Europe has steadily increased in the last years, particularly during summer months when seawater temperature increases. Since ocean warming is among the current global environmental threats affecting aquatic organisms, it is of paramount importance to investigate its effect on the nutritional quality of seafood products. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in the nutritional quality (in terms of protein, glycogen and fatty acid, FA, content) and condition of a native (grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus) and an invasive (Japanese carpet shell, Ruditapes philippinarum) clam species, subjected to warming. Our results clearly reveal that temperature significantly affected the nutritional quality of both clam species, particularly the FA composition. Both clam species responded similarly to warming, by significantly decreasing the content of some fatty acids, but not protein and glycogen levels. A predominance of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) over saturated FA (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) was observed throughout the experiment, as well as high n-. 3/. n-. 6 and PUFA/SFA ratios. The native clam always revealed higher values of these fatty acids, indicating that this species has a better nutritional quality in comparison to the invasive one. Nonetheless, the loss of n-. 3 PUFA (in native species), eicosapentaenoic (EPA; in both species) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; in invasive species) acids was considered as the major negative outcome derived from warming, since it contributes to the loss of prime quality fatty acids for human health. However, atherogenic, thrombogenic and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic indices (AI, TI and h/H, respectively) remained low in both species, even in warming conditions, suggesting that these food items can be used in a cardio-protective and hypocholesterolemic diet. This study provides new insights to understand and foretell the effects of climate change on nutritional quality of marine organisms. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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