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Maximo V.,University of Porto | Lima J.,University of Porto | Prazeres H.,University of Porto | Prazeres H.,Portugese Institute of Oncology | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2012

The biology and the genetics of Hürthle cell tumors are reviewed starting from the characterization and differential diagnosis of the numerous benign and malignant, neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions of the thyroid in which Hürthle cell transformation is frequently observed. The clinicopathologic and molecular evidence obtained from the comparative study of the aforementioned conditions indicate that Hürthle cell appearance represents a phenotype that is superimposed on the genotypic and conventional histopathologic features of the tumors. Hürthle cell tumors differ from their non-Hürthle counterparts regarding the prevalence of large deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mutations of mtDNA genes coding for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins (namely mutations of complex I subunit genes) and mutations of nuclear genes coding also for mitochondrial OXPHOS proteins. Such mitochondrial alterations lead to energy production defects in Hürthle cell tumors; the increased proliferation of mitochondria may reflect a compensatory mechanism for such defects and is associated with the overexpression of factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. The mitochondrial abnormalities are also thought to play a major role in the predisposition for necrosis instead of apoptosis which seems to be blocked in most Hürthle cell tumors. Finally, the results obtained in experimental models using cybrid cell lines and the data obtained from histopathologic and molecular studies of familial Hürthle cell tumors are used, together with the aforementioned genetic and epigenetic alterations, to progress in the understanding of the mechanisms through which mitochondrial abnormalities may be involved in the different steps of thyroid carcinogenesis, from tumor initiation to metastization. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology.

Marcelino M.,Portugese Institute of Oncology | Lopes A.F.,Portugese Institute of Oncology | Madureira D.,Portugese Institute of Oncology | Ferreira T.C.,Portugese Institute of Oncology | And 2 more authors.
Oncology Letters | Year: 2015

The analysis of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) following thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (sTg) has been recommended in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients, however, its routine use remains controversial. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the accuracy of sTg testing following recombinant human (rh) TSH stimulation in DTC patients, with a follow-up of 12.4 years. Retrospective studies were conducted of 125 DTC patients, who underwent rhTSH stimulation testing between 1999 and 2002. The exclusion criteria were: Patients with anti-Tg antibodies, Tg levels >1 ng/ml under TSH suppression and the absence of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy following surgery. In total, 49 patients were included in the study and all had been previously treated with total or near total thyroidectomy (with or without central neck dissection) and RAI, postoperatively. The Tg functional sensitivity was 1.0 ng/ml. The follow-up for patients was performed annually. During the median follow-up of 12.4 years after the rhTSH stimulation test, nine patients exhibited recurrence (18.4%). Of the nine patients, six exhibited sTg levels >2 ng/ml (positive result) and three exhibited levels <2 ng/ml (negative result). Relapse occurred at a mean of 5.9 years following the rhTSH stimulation test. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) of positive sTg were 50 and 91.9%, respectively, with a sensitivity of 66.6% and a specificity of 85.0%. The rhTSH-stimulated Tg levels have a high NPV, allowing the identification of the patients who are free of the tumour. These results are consistent with the previously published data; however, to the best of our knowledge, this is the study with the longest follow-up duration after rhTSH stimulation. © 2014, Spandidos Publications. All rights received.

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