Portland State University is a public coeducational research university located in the southwest University District of downtown Portland, Oregon, United States. Founded in 1946, it is the only public urban university in the state that is located in a major metropolitan city. Portland State offers Bachelor's and Master's degrees as well as doctorates in seventeen fields. Portland State is governed by a board of trustees.The athletic teams are known as the Portland State Vikings with school colors of green and white. Teams compete at the NCAA Division I Level, primarily in the Big Sky Conference. Schools at Portland State include the School of Business Administration, Graduate School of Education, College of the Arts, School of Social Work, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, and the College of Liberal Arts and science.The university was ranked among the top fifteen percentile of American universities in The Best 376 Colleges by The Princeton Review in 2012 for undergraduate education, and has community partnerships with Intel, Oregon Health & Science University, the Portland Public School system, the City of Portland, and Portland General Electric. Wikipedia.
Higgs P.G.,McMaster University |
Lehman N.,McMaster University |
Lehman N.,Portland State University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2015
The RNA World concept posits that there was a period of time in primitive Earth's history-about 4 billion years ago-when the primary living substance was RNA or something chemically similar. In the past 50 years, this idea has gone from speculation to a prevailing idea. In this Review, we summarize the key logic behind the RNA World and describe some of the most important recent advances that have been made to support and expand this logic. We also discuss the ways in which molecular cooperation involving RNAs would facilitate the emergence and early evolution of life. The immediate future of RNA World research should be a very dynamic one. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Perona J.J.,Portland State University
Topics in current chemistry | Year: 2014
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) ensure the faithful transmission of genetic information in all living cells. The 24 known aaRS families are divided into 2 structurally distinct classes (class I and class II), each featuring a catalytic domain with a common fold that binds ATP, amino acid, and the 3'-terminus of tRNA. In a common two-step reaction, each aaRS first uses the energy stored in ATP to synthesize an activated aminoacyl adenylate intermediate. In the second step, either the 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl oxygen atom of the 3'-A76 tRNA nucleotide functions as a nucleophile in synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNA. Ten of the 24 aaRS families are unable to distinguish cognate from noncognate amino acids in the synthetic reactions alone. These enzymes possess additional editing activities for hydrolysis of misactivated amino acids and misacylated tRNAs, with clearance of the latter species accomplished in spatially separate post-transfer editing domains. A distinct class of trans-acting proteins that are homologous to class II editing domains also perform hydrolytic editing of some misacylated tRNAs. Here we review essential themes in catalysis with a view toward integrating the kinetic, stereochemical, and structural mechanisms of the enzymes. Although the aaRS have now been the subject of investigation for many decades, it will be seen that a significant number of questions regarding fundamental catalytic functioning still remain unresolved.
Miller T.R.,Portland State University
Sustainability Science | Year: 2013
Over the last decade, sustainability science has emerged as an interdisciplinary and innovative field attempting to conduct problem-driven research that links knowledge to action. As the institutional dimensions of sustainability science continue to gain momentum, this article provides an analysis of emerging research agendas in sustainability science and an opportunity for reflection on future pathways for the field. Based on in-depth interviews with leading researchers in the field and a content analysis of the relevant literature, this article examines how sustainability scientists bound the social, political and normative dimensions of sustainability as they construct research agendas and look to link knowledge to social action. Many scientists position sustainability science as serving universal values related to sustainability and providing knowledge that is crucial to societal decision-making. The implications of these findings are discussed with an eye towards creating a space for a more democratic and reflexive research agenda for sustainability. © 2012 Springer.
Costanza R.,Portland State University
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012
Ecosystem health is a desired endpoint of environmental management and should be a primary design goal for ecological engineering. This paper describes ecosystem health as a comprehensive, multiscale, measure of system vigor, organization and resilience. Ecosystem health is thus closely linked to the idea of sustainability, which implies the ability of the system to maintain its structure (organization) and function (vigor) over time in the face of external stress (resilience). To be truly successful, ecological engineering should pursue the broader goal of designing healthy ecosystems, which may be novel assemblages of species that perform desired functions and produce a range of valuable ecosystem services. In this way ecological engineering can achieve its goals, embedded in its definition as the " design of sustainable ecosystems that integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both." It allows the benefits of ecological engineering practices 'to both humans and the rest of nature' to be assessed in an integrated and consistent way that will allow us to build a sustainable and desirable future. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..
Cohen S.M.,Portland State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014
We give a conceptually simple necessary condition such that a separable quantum operation can be implemented by local operations on subsystems and classical communication between parties (LOCC), a condition which follows from a novel approach to understanding LOCC. This necessary condition applies to all LOCC protocols involving any number of parties and any finite number of rounds of communication. Furthermore, it demonstrates an extremely strong difference between separable operations and LOCC, in that there exist examples of the former for which the condition is extensively violated. More precisely, the violation by separable operations of our necessary condition for LOCC grows without limit as the number of parties increases. © 2014 American Physical Society.