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PubMed | Portal Brazil
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gastroenterology research | Year: 2016

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, a focal hepatic lesion in a patient with cirrhosis must always be investigated for its high risk of cancer. However, when hepatic lesions in an imaging exam do not present the typical characteristics of a malignant or a benignant tumor, diagnosis may be a challenge. The biopsy can be used in these circumstances, but, as shown by this case, even that can be misleading. A 54-year-old male patient with cirrhosis presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, nausea and vomits. He performed a biopsy at another service, with the result being focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). He presented adequate hepatic function, and alpha-fetoprotein level was 6.4. Upon first consultation, we required the slides to be brought to our service and reviewed. Our revision also showed no signs of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large hepatic tumor in segments V and VI, predominantly exofitic, with a central scar. The tumor was surgically removed, and its dimensions were 14 10 9 cm. Microscopic examination revealed an HCC. Even though histological diagnosis was not necessary to indicate surgery, due to its exofitic nature and adequate hepatic function, we discuss the diagnostic characteristics of both HCC and FNH that could help other medical groups in cases where the position of a liver tumor could make the decision to operate more difficult.

Martins-Pinge M.C.,State University Londrina | Martins-Pinge M.C.,Portal Brazil | Mueller P.J.,University of Missouri | Mueller P.J.,Wayne State University | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2013

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important site for autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. Experiments in anesthetized animals and in vitro indicate an interaction among gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), nitric oxide (NO), and glutamate in the PVN. The cardiovascular role of the PVN and interactions of these neurotransmitters in conscious animals have not been evaluated fully. In chronically instrumented conscious rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) responses to microinjections (100 nl) in the region of the PVN were tested. Bilateral blockade of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors (kynurenic acid, Kyn) in the PVN produced small but significant decreases in MAP and HR. GABAA receptor blockade (bicuculline, Bic), and inhibition of NO synthase [(NOS), N-(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA] each increased MAP and HR. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) produced depressor responses that were attenuated by Bic. NOS inhibition potentiated both pressor responses to the selective EAA agonist, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), and depressor responses to Kyn. Increases in MAP and HR due to Bic were blunted by prior blockade of EAA receptors. Thus, pressor responses to GABA blockade require EAA receptors and GABA neurotransmission contributes to NO inhibition. Tonic excitatory effects of glutamate in the PVN are tonically attenuated by NO. These data demonstrate that, in the PVN of conscious rats, GABA, glutamate, and NO interact in a complex fashion to regulate arterial pressure and HR under normal conditions. © 2013 Martins-Pinge, Mueller, Foley, Heesch and Hasser.

de Almeida E.C.E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Almeida E.C.E.,Portal Brazil | Guimaraes J.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

This article identifies scientific fields in Brazil that have been generating new knowledge, their evolution, tendencies and the relationship between scientific production and the National Postgraduate Program (Programa Nacional de Pós-Graduação-PNPG). It works with review articles and assesses: (a) articles published as reviews by international databases; (b) the growth of Brazilian participation in that context; (c) institutional participation; (d) the predominant fields of knowledge; (e) the most productive authors, and (f) periodicals that published the greatest number of review articles by Brazilian authors. The 5,348 review articles published between 2000 and 2009 were made available in 1,309 scientific publications, and the fields that published the most reviews were Pharmacology, Chemistry, Neurosciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Psychiatry, Neurology, Endocrinology and Internal Medicine. The reviews were produced by 27,096 authors under the auspices of 20 institutions which, together, answer for 95 % of the Brazilian production, and are public, excepting for the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS). In the international scenario, we find that 31 countries are responsible for 90.11 % of the total scientific production and 94.08 % of the review articles. To establish a comparison between Brazil and its closest competitors, these countries can be classified arbitrarily in three groups: (1) countries with a large number of review articles (>3100), an average number of citations above 18, and an h-index greater than 95; (2) countries with a significant production of articles (between 2,000 and 3,000), average number of citations between 12 and 17, and an h-index below 95. Brazil is in the third group, (3) formed by countries with a lower level of production and the two qualitative indicators at opposite poles: the average of citations on a par with the first group (>18) and h-indexes like those of the second group (<95). © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

de Oliveira P.C.P.,Portal Brazil | Gloaguen T.V.,CETEC | Goncalves R.A.B.,CETEC | Santos D.L.,Campus Universitario Of Cruz Das Almas
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch. Coroa IAC) irrigated with treated domestic wastewater. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were: T1- irrigation depth of 150% of crop water demand; T2- irrigation depth of 150% of crop water demand with application of CaSO4in soil; T3- irrigation depth of 100% of crop water demand; T4- irrigation depth of 100% of crop water demand with application of CaSO4in soil and T5- control (without irrigation). The parameters evaluated were: crop yield, weight andnumber offruits, their physico-chemical characteristics and potential contamination by pathogens in water. Significant differences in productivity, yield and number of fruits were identified between the control and all other treatments. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar in all treatments. Thermo tolerant coliforms were detected only on the surface of the fruit, but at levels below theminimum standards established by the sanitary legislation.

Paes-Barbosa F.C.,Liver Transplant Service | Ferreira F.G.,Portal Brazil | Szutan L.A.,Portal Brazil
Revista do Colegio Brasileiro de Cirurgioes | Year: 2010

A Hepatectomy can comprise excision of peripheral tumors as well as major surgeries like trisegmentectomies or central resections. Patients can be healthy, have localized liver disease or possess a cirrhotic liver with high operative risk. The preoperative evaluation of the risk of postoperative liver failure is critical in determining the appropriate surgical procedure. The nature of liver disease, its severity and the operation to be performed should be considered for correct preparation. Liver resection should be evaluated in relation to residual parenchyma, especially in cirrhotic patients, subjects with portal hypertension and when large resections are needed. The surgeon should assess the rationale for the use of hepatic volumetry. Child-Pugh, MELD and retention of indocyanine green are measures for assessing liver function that can be used piror to hepatectomy. Extreme care should be taken regarding the possibility of infectious complications with high morbidity and mortality in the postoperative period. Several centers are developing liver surgery in the world, reducing the number of complications. The development of surgical technique, anesthesia, infectious diseases, oncology, intensive care, possible resection in patients deemed inoperable in the past, will deliver improved results in the future.

Romero G.Q.,São Paulo State University | Romero G.Q.,Portal Brazil | Srivastava D.S.,University of British Columbia
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2010

1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem processes (i.e. decomposition rate and nitrogen cycling). We predicted that these terrestrial predators can affect aquatic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics within water-filled bromeliads. 3. Aglaoctenus spiders reduced the richness, abundance and biomass of aquatic insect larvae via consumptive or non-consumptive effects on ovipositing terrestrial adults, but effects of the two spider species in combination were usually the linear average of their monoculture effects. In contrast, invertebrates with entirely aquatic life cycles were unaffected or facilitated by spiders. Spiders did not affect either net detritivore biomass or the flux of detrital nitrogen to the bromeliad. Instead, Corinna spiders contributed allochthonous nitrogen to bromeliads. 4. Our results provide the novel observations that predators in one ecosystem not only directly reduce taxa whose life cycles cross-ecosystem boundaries, but also indirectly facilitate taxa whose life cycles are entirely within the second ecosystem. This compensatory response between crossecosystem and within-ecosystem taxa may have led to an attenuation of top-down effects across ecosystem boundaries. In addition, our results add to a growing consensus that species identity is an important determinant of community structure and ecosystem functioning. Thus, the composition of both terrestrial and aquatic food webs may affect the strength of cross-ecosystem interactions. © 2010 TheAuthors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Melo M.O.B.C.,Federal University of Paraiba | Da Silva L.B.,Federal University of Paraiba | Campello S.,Portal Brazil
International Journal of Industrial Engineering : Theory Applications and Practice | Year: 2012

Energy gains vital importance once it accounts for up to one-third of the product cost. One can also consider energy as a strategic input for the establishment of any economic and social development policy. Electricity is the basis for industrial production, agriculture, as well as in providing services chain; hence, the need to reduce the cost for that input is vital. This produces great benefits to the production chain by making companies more competitive, and people benefit because the products' final price becomes cheaper. The aim of this paper is to present a new methodology for assessing industrial efficiency energy and identify points of energy losses and the most influenced sectors within the production process, and propose mitigation measures. © International Journal of Industrial Engineering.

The bark is a protective tissue of the tree-cambium and the exposition to temperatures above 60°C for 1 to 2 minutes, which is one of the main factors that cause tree mortality in forest fires. In this research, it was studied the bark protection levels of Eucalyptus grandis and of three tree-species of ‘cerrado’: Pterodon pubescens, Sclerolobium paniculatum and Vochysia thyrsoidea and the effects of these tree bark architectures in heat transfer. Samples were taken from bark panels representing five trees of each species. The time of heat exposure required to damage the tree-cambium until temperature reached 60°C (lethal temperature) and the roughness coefficient (architecture) was estimated by the ratio between the actual area and the nominal sample area. The Sclerolobium paniculatum, with thinner bark, showed the shortest time and Eucalyptus grandis and Pterodon pubescens the longer time. The only exception was Vochysia thyrsoidea with a greater thickness and showed the shortest times. The tree species with the highest correlation between time and the total thickness was Sclerolobium paniculatum (r = 0,93). Pterodon pubescens and Eucalyptus grandis showed r = 0,73 and r = 0,56, respectively and Vochysia thyrsoidea presented the lower correlation coefficient (0,34). The highest roughness was observed for Vochysia thyrsoidea, which was significantly different from the other tree-species. However, the correlation coefficient between time and surface roughness was not significant for all tree-species, which suggest that theincrease of the roughness did not affect the heat transfer through the bark. © 2014 Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

This study focuses on the power dynamic of a particular space: Brazilian Airlines Companies. Applying the concepts of Organizational Theory and Economic Sociology, it was possible to analyze the strategies of TAM and GOL airlines, which are companies that dominate the aviation market. Gathering institutional information from those companies, from government entities which control those companies' activities, and also from the business media, this study focused on indicating the social actors responsible for structuring these dominant companies. Both companies operate in the aviation market , but they also operate in the stock market. GOL business model, particularly the use of private equities tools, can be considered a determinant factor for the new configuration of this industry. In terms of financial market, TAM adopts similar strategy to that adopted by GOL. The recent aviation crisis and the financial crisis of 2008 strongly affected both companies, particularly their stock market value.

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