Port Said, Egypt
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Ahmed A.S.,Port Said University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Egypt is one of the developing countries. The production of electricity in Egypt is basically on petroleum, natural gas, hydro-power and wind energy. The objective of this work to prove the availability of sufficient wind potential in the wide area of deep south Egypt for the operation of wind turbines there. Nevertheless, it gives in general an approximate profile which is useful to the wind parks design for this area. The data used in the calculation are published and analyzed for the first time. The diagrams of the measured wind data for three meteorological stations over a period of two years (wind speed, frequency, direction), wind shear coefficient, the mean monthly and annual wind speed profile for every location are presented. Monthly Weibull parameters, standard deviation and coefficient of variation have been statistically discussed. A comparison of the rose diagrams shows that the wind speed is more persistent and blow over this region of Egypt in two main sectors N and NNW with long duration of frequencies from 67% to 87% over the year with an average wind speed in the range 6.8-7.9 m/s at the three stations. Evaluation of monthly wind energy density at 10 m height by two different methods was carried out. And the final diagram for every site shows no significant difference between them. The annual natural wind energies at 70 m A.G.L. lie between 333 and 377 W/m 2 for Dakhla South and Kharga stations, respectively, which is similar to the inland wind potential of Vindeby (Denmark) and some European countries. These results indicate that Kharga and Dakhla South locations are new explored sites for future wind power generation projects. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zubydan A.H.,Port Said University
Engineering Structures | Year: 2011

Frame elements may be subjected to significant bending moments about cross-sectional minor axis such as space frame elements and struts that buckle about minor axes. In some cases such as columns with compound cross-sections, the major bending moment acts about minor axes of cross-sectional components. The present paper proposes a simplified model for predicting the second order inelastic behavior of steel frame elements under axial compression force and bending moment about minor axis. New formulae are proposed to describe the plastic strength surface for steel I- and H-shaped cross-sections under axial force and bending moment about minor axis. Moreover, empirical formulae are developed to predict the tangent modulus for those cross-sections. The tangent modulus formulae are extended to evaluate the secant stiffness that is used for internal force recovery. The formulae are derived for steel sections considering the residual stresses as recommended by the European Convention for Construction Steelwork (ECCS). A finite element program is prepared to predict the inelastic second order behavior of plane frames using the derived formulae. The derived model exhibits good correlations when compared with the fiber model results. The analysis results indicate that the new model is accurate, furthermore it saves a lot of calculation time that may be consumed by iterations on the cross-sectional level. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


The Um Zariq and Malhaq formations occupy roughly the northern half of the Kid metamorphic complex of SE Sinai, in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an old sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813±6Ma), whereas the Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607Ma). The Um Zariq Formation is mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists, while the Malhaq Formation comprises a series of structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded with mica-rich phyllites and schists. The Um Zariq metasediments are depleted in SiO2, CaO and K2O and enriched in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of the Malhaq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. The source rocks of the Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of the Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq Formation metasediments. They are collectively geochemically immature and have suffered minor sedimentary recycling, with the experience of the Malhaq Formation metasediments from higher degree of sorting and reworking. The Malhaq and Um Zariq metasediments were originally deposited in a continental arc setting, most probably back-arc basin, despite the wide time span between their individual depositions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


El-Metwally M.,Port Said University
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics | Year: 2013

Long-term data from diffuse and global irradiances were used to calculate direct beam irradiance which was used to determine three atmospheric turbidity coefficients (Linke TL, Ångström β and Unsworth-Monteith δa) at seven sites in Egypt in the period from 1981 to 2000. Seven study sites (Barrani, Matruh, Arish, Cairo, Asyut, Aswan and Kharga) have been divided into three categories: Mediterranean climate (MC), desert Nile climate (DNC) and urban climate (UC, Cairo). The indirect method (i. e., global irradiance minus diffuse irradiance) used here allows to estimate the turbidity coefficients with an RMSE% ≤20 % (for β, δa and TL) and ~30 % (for β) if compared with those estimated by direct beam irradiance and sunphotometeric data, respectively. Monthly averages of TL, β and δa show seasonal variations with mainly maxima in spring at all stations, due to Khamsin depressions coming from Sahara. Secondary maxima is observed in summer and autumn at DNC and MC (Barrani and Arish) stations in summer due to dust haze which prevails during that season and at UC (Cairo) in autumn, due to the northern extension of the Sudan monsoon trough, which is accompanied by small-scale depressions with dust particles. The mean annual values of β, δa, and TL (0. 216, 0. 314, and 4. 6, respectively) are larger in Cairo than at MC stations (0. 146, 0. 216, and 3. 8, respectively) and DNC stations (0. 153, 0. 227, and 3. 8, respectively). Both El-Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo eruptions were examined for all records data at MC, UC and DNC stations. The overburden caused by Mt. Pinatubo's eruption was larger than El-Chichon's eruption and overburden for β, and TL at DNC stations (0. 06, and 0. 58 units, respectively) was more pronounced than that at MC (0. 02, and 0. 26, respectively) and UC (0. 05 and 0. 52 units, respectively) stations. The annual variations in wind speed and turbidity parameters show high values for both low and high wind speed at all stations. The wind directions have a clear effect on atmospheric turbidity, and consequently, largest turbidities occur when the wind carries aerosols from the main particle sources, such as industrial particle sources around Cairo or to some extent from the Sahara surrounding all study stations. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Zubydan A.H.,Port Said University
Engineering Structures | Year: 2010

A simplified model for predicting second order inelastic behavior of steel frames is developed. New empirical formulae are developed to describe the tangent stiffness of steel sections subjected to an axial compression force and bending moment. The tangent stiffness formula is extended to evaluate the secant stiffness that is used for the internal force recovery. The formulae are derived for steel sections considering the residual stresses as recommended by the European Convention for Construction Steelwork (ECCS). The tangent stiffness for steel sections is also evaluated for the case where residual stresses are neglected. A finite element program is prepared to predict the inelastic second order behavior of plane steel frames using the derived formulae for the steel cross sections. The updated Lagrange coordinates are used to include the second order effect. The Newton-Raphson scheme combined with the minimum residual displacement method is employed to satisfy the equilibrium between external and internal forces. Comparisons with fiber model indicate good agreement with the present model. The analysis results indicate that the new model is accurate and has a faster rate of convergence for problems involving inelastic behavior. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


This study focuses on the preparation and characterization of single phase NiO nano particles. Four nickel anthranilic acid complexes were synthesized by the semi-solid phase reaction method as precursors for the preparation of NiO nanoparticles via a solid-state decomposition procedure at 700 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied to determine the thermal behavior of the precursors and the temperature at which the precursors decompose leaving the oxide. The crystalline structures of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the morphology of particles by SEM and TEM. The particles size was determined by STM, and the average particle size was found to be 8 nm. Electronic spectra were used to clarify qualitatively the change in absorption band positions on changing the particle size of NiO. The optical band gap of the NiO nanoparticles was calculated and indicated a direct transition. The values of the optical band gap of NiO nanoparticles increase as the particle size decreases.© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mahmoud G.A.,Port Said University
IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution | Year: 2012

The voltage stability problem of distribution networks is associated with a rapid voltage drop because of heavy system load. The decline of voltage stability level will restrict the increase of load served by distribution companies. One of the serious consequences of the voltage stability problem is a system blackout, and this problem has received much attention of distribution companies. In this study, a new voltage stability index (VSI) is developed for identifying the most sensitive bus to the voltage collapse in radial distribution network. The analysis is based on the catastrophe theory to find a new VSI and the voltage stability boundary of a distribution system. Two tested 15- and 30-bus systems analysed to give an illustration of the feasibility of the proposed method. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Hosny N.M.,Port Said University
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

Crystals of Co3O4 have been prepared from thermal decomposition of molecular precursors derived from salicylic acid and cobalt (II) acetate or chloride at 500 C. A cubic phase Co3O4 micro- and nanocrystals have been obtained. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The images of electron microscopes showed octahedral crystals of Co3O4. The volume and polarizability of the optimized structures of molecular precursors have been calculated and related to the particle size. The optical band gap of the obtained crystals has been measured. The results indicated two optical band gaps with values 2.65 and 2.95 eV for (Eg1) (Eg2), respectively. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ahmed A.S.,Port Said University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Establishment of the wind farms is very large and widely distributed throughout the world as well as in Egypt. Aswan City along the Nile River possesses a huge potential of wind energy. For this purpose, hourly wind data, which were observed between the years 1995 and 2004 at Aswan meteorological station were used. A statistical analysis was carried out from which the annual wind speed was found to be generally high 6.9-7.5 m/s during the medium hub heights 50-70 m and most of the time (79%) the wind speed is in the range 5.3-6.1 m/s over the year at 10 m height. The wind speed distribution were represented by the Weibull distribution. Where the wind speed is sufficient during the whole year for high power generation. New technical analysis for the monthly wind energy available and the monthly energy pattern factor (E.P.F.) for the station was made. Moreover, calculations show that the annual mean energy density available was 200 kWh/m2 at 70 m height in Aswan region, that is very high potential and suitable for large electricity generation. Furthermore, the monthly plant load factor (PLF) has been determined. Locally and technologically suitable wind turbine for this station must have rated power greater than 1 MW at 100 m height above the ground level. The aim of this research, was to study the possibility of construction a wind farm extending up to a capacity of 45 MW. Where 30 wind turbines model (Fuhrländer FLMD 77) with a capacity of 1.5 MW were considered at Aswan station. After usage the well known WASP software, the energy output 152 GWh/year can be generated from 45 MW wind farm in this site. Then additionally, the expected electricity generation cost was 2 cent/kWh. This specific price is economically valuable according to the national tariff system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ahmed A.S.,Port Said University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

To study the structure of a coastal location «Ras Ghareb» on the Red Sea in Egypt, a measurement station with mast of 24.5 m has been established in a built-up area, near the seashore. First, a statistical analysis of the measured data over the period 2000-2005 was performed, including calculation of the wind speed power law index which was found to be 0.18 for Ras Ghareb area. Then, wind speed data was expressed at the height of (usually 10 m) which makes it directly related to the objective of those people working in the renewable energy sector. Therefore, the mean wind speeds, availability of data, seasonal variation and the distribution by the wind direction were studied to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The annual wind speed over this site varies from 8.3 to 9.8 m/s at 10 and 24.5 m heights, respectively. Most of the time 73% the mean wind speed in the ranges 5-10 and 10-17 m/s at 10 m. Also, higher winds of the order 10 m/s and more observed during summer months. The main wind direction is north-northwest sector (330°) for about 51% of the times during the year that makes it unique for installation of wind parks. Second, numerical estimations to determine the seasonal power law coefficient and Weibull parameters at different heights from 10 to 100 m were carried out. Finally, Rayleigh distribution and our method stated in Ref. [3] were adopted for defining the monthly wind power available at 10 m height for this region. It is emphasized that Rayleigh model is not appropriate and our method is more efficient for Ras Ghareb area. Where the expected mean of wind power density was found to quite high 360 W/m2 per year at 10 m hub height, which makes this station likely candidates for wind power utilization. It is appear from our analysis that Ras Ghareb region can be explored for generating the electricity. Where the monthly and annual pattern of wind speed matches the electricity load pattern of the location. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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