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The Port of Los Angeles, also called Los Angeles Harbor Department, is a port complex that occupies 7,500 acres of land and water along 43 mi of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The port is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro and Wilmington neighborhoods of Los Angeles, approximately 20 mi south of downtown. A department of the City of Los Angeles, the Port of Los Angeles employs nearly 1,000 people, and is the busiest container port in the United States. For public safety, the Port of Los Angeles utilizes the Los Angeles Port Police to fight crime and terrorism, and the Los Angeles City Lifeguards to provide lifeguarding services for inner Cabrillo Beach. Wikipedia.

Parks D.S.,Port of Los Angeles
Environmental and Engineering Geoscience | Year: 2015

The spatial distribution and temporal variability of retreat rates of coastal bluffs composed of unconsolidated glacial deposits are of interest to landowners who occupy bluff-top properties as well as coastal resource managers who are responsible for protecting marine habitats such as forage fish spawning beaches that are dependent on bluff-derived sediments. Assessment of bluff retreat and associated sediment volumes contributed to the nearshore over time is the first step toward development of a coastal sediment budget for bluff-backed beaches using data sources including aerial photography (1939, 2001), GPS-based beach profile data (2010-2013), and airborne LiDAR (2001, 2012). These data are analyzed in context to determine alongshore rates of bluff retreat and associated volume change for the Elwha and Dungeness littoral cells in Clallam County, WA. Recession rates from 2001 to 2012 range from 0 to 1.88 m/yr in both drift cells, with mean values of 0.26 ± 0.23 m/yr (N = 152) in Elwha and 0.36 ± 0.24 m/yr (N = 433) in Dungeness. Armored sections show bluff recession rates reduced by 50 percent in Elwha and 80 percent in Dungeness, relative to their respective unarmored sections. Dungeness bluffs produce twice as much sediment per alongshore distance as do the Elwha bluffs (average, 7.5 m3/m/yr vs. 4.1 m3/m/yr, respectively). Historical bluff recession rates (1939-2001) were comparable to those from 2001-2012. Rates derived from short timescales should not be used directly for predicting decadal-scale bluff recession rates for management purposes, as they tend to represent shortterm localized events rather than long-term sustained bluff retreat.

Keegan L.,Port of Los Angeles
Journal of holistic nursing : official journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association | Year: 2011

In this article, the authors consider how professional nurses can strive to advance death and dying to the next level in our evolution of compassionate end-of-life practices. The authors focus on describing the development of a place for dying that allows for a peaceful, profound experience that honors and respects human dignity and elevates the human family. Actual places called the Golden Room or Golden Room Centers are proposed to accommodate dying persons and their loved ones at end of life as they make the transition from physical life. The authors detail and propose a return to the sacredness of death and dying through access to a place for the physical transition.

News Article | December 29, 2015
Site: www.techtimes.com

Multiple media outlets, including The Verge, are reporting that the CMA CGM Benjamin Franklin container ship, which is longer than the Empire State Building, became the largest aircraft carrier in U.S. Navy history, arriving at the Port of Los Angeles this past Saturday. L.A. marks the first stop along the West Coast in a trek, which will also have the ship make a stop in Oakland on December 31. The specs on the massive container ship are ridiculous, as it stretches 1,300 feet in length, can carry 18,000 containers and holds the equivalent of 235 Olympic swimming pools of water, as reported by The Verge. In addition, its engine has the output of 11 screaming Boeing 747-400 engines. Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti was honored that his city's port, which he called "among the world's greatest," was chosen by the French company CMA CGM to make the Benjamin Franklin container ship's first stop in North America. "It's fitting that the largest container ship to ever traverse North American waters would make its first call right here at the Port of Los Angeles," Garcetti said in a press release statement. "The arrival of the CMA CGM Benjamin Franklin sends a powerful message that our port stands among the world's greatest, and that we are prepared to continue growing and adapting to the demands of our global economy." Secretary of Labor Thomas E. Perez added in the same press release that this landmark stop at the Port of Los Angeles could pave the way for future shipping business to thrive there. "Their effective, efficient operation is necessary for 21st century global commerce, and [the] news demonstrates that the Port of LA is prepared for the next phase of modern trade," he said. "Working together, the shipping companies and port workers have enabled the port to bounce back from last year's slowdown and show the world its capabilities."

News Article | March 17, 2015
Site: gizmodo.com

If you live anywhere in the US, chances are that you have a product in your home right now that came through the Port of Los Angeles. The largest port in the Western hemisphere handles about a quarter of all cargo distributed throughout the country—about $1 billion a day. Now LA is working to make it the most environmentally responsible port as well. But it hasn't been easy. The Battleship USS Iowa, the Vincent Thomas Bridge, the fourth largest bridge in California, and cranes waiting to unload cargo. There's only one way to really take in the scale of the port, a 7,500-acre site with a staggering 43 miles of waterfront: From a window seat of a plane departing from LA. I got the second-best perspective: The deck of a boat that can travel into each berth and ridiculously close to the docked megaships. I spent a morning taking in breathtaking harborside views of the technicolor containers stacked like blocks by cranes that hover above like skeletal AT-ATs. What's in all those containers? About half of the cargo coming in—some $285 billion worth—comes from China and Hong Kong, bearing furniture, auto parts, fashion, and electronics. But interestingly, we're not exporting Made in America consumer goods, for the most part. The containers leaving LA are transporting waste paper, animal feed, and scrap metal. Yes, we are shipping scrap metal across the Pacific Ocean! In many ways the Port of LA is hosting the largest and most expensive international recycling system in the world. Globally, LA is the 16th largest port in the world by volume, but when combined with the adjacent Port of Long Beach, it becomes the ninth. This makes the entire operation able to yield some real substantial impact, especially when it comes to its environmental vision, which the Port is now sharing with other shipping entities worldwide. The historic tuna canneries still dot the waterfront (now they make cat food). The century-old port began as a fishing village, but the Port began positioning itself for global trade as early as 1917, after the Panama Canal opened. This was followed by decades of explosive growth, much of it unchecked when it came to preserving the relationship to the surrounding city and the Port's unique marine environment. After the port was successfully sued by several environmental groups who claimed pollution from the port was directly responsible for releasing cancer-causing agents that were detrimental to the health of nearby residents, the Clean Air Action Plan and Clean Truck Programs were passed to slash emissions and improve the air. A $50 million fund was created for the port to make changes that would improve health for local residents. An era of exceptional environmental reform began. Empty ships like this used to need to run their engines in the harbor, but now they can plug into the Port's power grid. The biggest polluters—not surprisingly—were the ships themselves, which spent hours idling in the harbor as they loaded and unloaded their cargo, churning through diesel fuel that dirtied the air and the water. (This was illustrated to great effect during a recent labor dispute which turned the Pacific Ocean into a container ship parking lot.) So the Port built its own electrical power grid, dubbed the Alternative Maritime Power (AMP) program. With this mini-grid, the ships can shut off their engines and plug in to the port's own energy source. This is probably one of the most innovative ideas, which has since been adopted by other ports, like Shanghai. Other simple changes were made. The thousands of trucks that provided ground support at the port were in some cases several decades old and dirty gas-guzzlers—this was essentially where trucks would go to die. The Clean Truck Program mandated that all vehicles needed to be new trucks that would adhere to the most stringent emissions standards, using clean diesel or electric propane. There's even a version of a clean "truck" in the water: A hybrid tugboat developed by the Port of LA. Within a few years the air and the water began to transform. Almost a decade after CAAP's launch, according to port environmental reports, diesel particles have dropped 79 percent, nitrogen oxide by 56 percent, and sulfur oxide by 88 percent. Dolphins and sea lions (I saw plenty of both) returned to the harbor. Now, there's a beach at the center of the Port where the water is clean enough to swim. TraPac's cranes are fitted with the new automated system that cuts the amount of time needed to unload ships. After staunching the pollutants directly entering the region from ships and trucks, the port looked at a ways to conserve energy overall. And the best way to save energy in shipping is to do it faster. Enter the robotic cranes. Now, the solution is not erasing humans completely—crane operators still have one of the most coveted jobs in the shipping process, earning $250,000 per year—but automating as much of the container transport process as possible. So as a container nears the ground, there's a handoff from human to computer, which guides the container with a series of magnets embedded into the cement dock to help it land more accurately on its target. Thanks to computer-aided logistics, containers are stacked in the most efficient manner possible to streamline the loading and unloading process. The computer-powered cranes can also use data modeling to better organize the containers, stacking them in a way that makes more sense, logistically, than their human counterparts. This accuracy also means more cranes can work in closer proximity. The automation project is part of the Technology Advancement Program initiative, focused on increasing productivity across the board. Right now the port can transport about 30 containers per hour. The goal is to transport 40. Siemens which would provide a clean alternative to tractor-trailer traffic. There's still one big problem to solve—the elephant in the harbor, if you will. It's the issue of what happens with all these goods once they leave the port itself. While the new changes at the port are designed to move the goods off the ships as quickly as possible, the way they get from the port dispersed through the country is still largely old-fashioned: Via rail or highway. Rail is by far the most efficient way to move containers, financially and environmentally. About 40 trains leave the port every day on a network of rail lines that fan out from San Pedro, with goods arriving on the East Coast in about a week. A much-needed improvement would bring even more rail lines below-grade to prevent freight congestion, and route more rail directly onto the docks. A proposed program would do just that, claiming to eliminate 1.5 million truck trips. But that's not approved yet and has actually been fought by environmentalists. By far, the weakest link in the Port's sustainability plan are the tractor-trailers, which are not only releasing dangerous levels of emissions, they're creating crushing vehicular congestion in the region. Controversially, the port wants to widen and improve local freeways to make it easier for their trucks to navigate the area. Here, too, it's experimenting with ideas that could be potential game-changers for ports around the world. It's really just a one-mile proof-of-concept at this point, but engineers are looking at building an electric highway (they're calling it an eHighway), which would allow vehicles to travel the same route as the rail-based Alameda Corridor, powered by catenary wires above instead of gas. This would help get containers to a more robust rail hub where more of them could head overground via rail. And it would eliminate emissions completely. Another example of purpose-built infrastructure: Jet fuel shipped into the harbor is deposited directly into these tanks and pumped underground to LAX. Of course, another solution is building infrastructure systems that don't require any kind of motorized transportation. At the center of the Port are huge tanks filled with gas and jet fuel. These are delivered to LAX via direct underground pipelines, taking dozens of trucks off the road every day. Note the yellow "extenders" below the crane, which help make them tall enough to service growing ships. While the Port of LA remains a giant as U.S. ports go, it's struggling to keep up with the way global shipping is changing. Or, rather, growing. Ships are getting bigger. Way bigger. R ecently, the Main Channel was deepened to 53 feet to allow more of these megaships to enter the harbor. But the bigger ships also need bigger cranes. The cost of building or replacing one of the port's 89 cranes is substantial. So instead, the port is adding bright yellow booster rigs below each crane which help to raise them higher. You might have heard about the Mary Maersk, the biggest container ship in the world, which can carry about 18,270 containers. It's too big to fit into the Port of LA's harbor, width-wise. This would require a whole different level of improvements. The Panama Canal is currently expanding for this very reason, and LA will have to make bigger changes to keep up—while still pioneering environmental responsibility. AltaSea, for instance, is a center for marine research and oceanographic tech that's planned for City Dock No. 1, a century-old building at the very edge of the harbor. The complex will include a center to study sea life as well as the world's largest tank specifically designed to study tsunamis. The original shipping innovation at the Port, used today as a film backdrop The organization PortTechLA is working to attract more clean-tech related companies that can take up residence in an incubator. Of course, the port can't transform all its operations into high-tech innovations. At the center of the port are a cluster of adorable 1920s-era cranes dwarfed by the nearby docks. This is the historic shipping yard and it's still used quite regularly—as a film set. This is, after all, Los Angeles.

News Article | February 20, 2015
Site: www.bloomberg.com

West Coast dockworkers and their employers reached a five-year contract deal, averting a shutdown of 29 ports that could have cost the U.S. economy $2 billion a day, Labor Secretary Tom Perez said. “This is now in the rear-view mirror. A significant potential headwind for this economic recovery has been removed,” Perez told reporters outside the San Francisco headquarters of the Pacific Maritime Association, which had been locked in a nine-month contract battle with the International Longshore and Warehouse Union. Perez brokered a compromise on the issue of whether the union could fire arbitrators in workplace disputes, which had help up settlement on a contract after the sides agreed on other terms. Instead of a single arbitrator, a panel now will hear grievances, union President Robert McEllrath told reporters. The labor standoff had reduced productivity at West Coast ports by as much as half since November. California citrus fruit bound for Asia spoiled on the docks, while Mardi Gras beads destined for New Orleans instead languished on cargo ships off the Southern California coast. Carmakers flew in vital components at more than 10 times the cost of shipping them, while Japanese McDonald’s restaurants rationed french fries because of a shortage of Idaho potatoes. The Port of Los Angeles, the nation’s busiest, handled 29 percent less cargo in January 2015 compared with January 2014, and volumes were down 19 percent in neighboring Long Beach, the second-busiest port, according to statements from both ports. The contract agreement won’t end cargo bottlenecks right away, even after port operations return to normal by Saturday night, Perez said. “The parties have agreed to ensure that there are fully operational ports up and down the West Coast beginning tomorrow evening,” Perez said on a conference call with reporters late Friday. “I am confident that they understand the urgency of the task of eliminating the backlog.” Talks had broken down this month over a union demand that it be able to fire arbitrators in workplace grievances. The two sides had reached terms over salaries, benefits, the right of union members to maintain and repair truck chassis used to haul shipping containers and health care. On Feb. 4, the management association publicized details of its contract offer, including raises of 3 percent per year for full-time dockworkers, along with maintaining fully paid health care that costs employers $35,000 per worker per year. The maximum pension would rise to $88,800 per year as part of the proposed five-year contract, the association said at the time. The union and Perez wouldn’t confirm details of the final deal Friday evening. The tentative settlement still needs approval from unionized dockworkers from San Diego to Bellingham, Washington. “After more than nine months of negotiations, we are pleased to have reached an agreement that is good for workers and for the industry,” said maritime association President James McKenna and McEllrath, the union president, in a joint statement released late Friday. “We are also pleased that our ports can now resume full operations.” In their statement, the union and management declined to release details of the contract agreement until they are presented to members. Negotiators for the two sides were seen shaking hands and hugging in the the Pacific Maritime Association headquarters shortly after 6 p.m. local time, just as word of a deal leaked out. The West Coast ports, responsible for 43.5 percent of U.S. trade, have been operating at reduced capacity since late October as dockworkers slowed cargo movement and port employers cut shifts. The deal came after Perez gave the dockworkers’ union and shipping lines and terminal operators at the ports until the end of Friday to respond to a contract settlement he proposed. If they didn’t reach an agreement, he said he would move the talks to Washington next week.

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