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Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Frerichs R.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Keim P.S.,Translational Genomics Research Institute TGen | Keim P.S.,Northern Arizona University | Barrais R.,Port-au-Prince University | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010 for the first time in recorded history. The causative agent was quickly identified by the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Since then, >500000 government-acknowledged cholera cases and >7000 deaths have occurred, the largest cholera epidemic in the world, with the real death toll probably much higher. Questions of origin have been widely debated with some attributing the onset of the epidemic to climatic factors and others to human transmission. None of the evidence on origin supports climatic factors. Instead, recent epidemiological and molecular-genetic evidence point to the United Nations peacekeeping troops from Nepal as the source of cholera to Haiti, following their troop rotation in early October 2010. Such findings have important policy implications for shaping future international relief efforts. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source


Adrien M.G.L.,Port-au-Prince University
Annales Medico-Psychologiques | Year: 2015

This culture also offers a multi-dimensional interpretation of man and relies heavily on voodoo which is considered a religion for some, a cultural folk element for others and a system of cultural and ethnographic references for researchers. Regardless of the perception that we have of voodoo, it is an integral part of Haitian culture. It occupies a prominent spot in traditional medicine and it is a complex system of health care that includes preventive and curative practices. However, preventing or healing does not only pertain to biomedical but also to a set of socio-cultural elements that will play a key role in how the individual looks at his illness and his relationship with others and his environment, voodoo thereby participates in this healing. © 2015. Source


Hough S.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Taniguchi T.,Tottori University | Altidor J.-R.,Port-au-Prince University
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2012

The M 7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 caused catastrophic damage and loss of life in the capital city of Port-au-Prince. The extent of the damage was primarily due to poor construction and high population density. The earthquake was recorded by only a single seismic instrument within Haiti, an educational seismometer that was neither bolted to the ground nor able to record strong motion on scale. The severity of near-field mainshock ground motions, in Port-au-Prince and elsewhere, has thus remained unclear. We present a detailed, quantitative analysis of the marks left on a tile floor by an industrial battery rack that was displaced by the earthquake in the Canape Vert neighborhood in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. Results of this analysis, based on a recently developed formulation for predicted rigid body displacement caused by sinusoidal ground acceleration, indicate that mainshock shaking at Canape Vert was approximately 0:5g, corresponding to a modified Mercalli intensity of VIII. Combining this result with the weakmotion amplification factor estimated from aftershock recordings at the site as well as a general assessment of macroseismic effects, we estimate the peak acceleration to be ≈0:2g for sites in central Port-au-Prince that experienced relatively moderate damage and where estimated weak-motion site amplification is lower than that at the Canape Vert site. We also analyze a second case of documented rigid body displacement, at a location less than 2 km from the Canape Vert site, and estimate the peak acceleration to be approximately 0:4g at this location. Our results illustrate how observations of rigid body horizontal displacement during earthquakes can be used to estimate peak ground acceleration in the absence of instrumental data. Estimation of Peak Ground Acceleration from Horizontal Rigid Body Displacement: A Case Study in Port-au-Prince, Haiti by Susan E. Hough, Tomoyo Taniguchi, and Jean-Robert Altidor Abstract The M 7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 caused catastrophic damage and loss of life in the capital city of Port-au-Prince. The extent of the damage was primarily due to poor construction and high population density. The earthquake was recorded by only a single seismic instrument within Haiti, an educational seismometer that was neither bolted to the ground nor able to record strong motion on scale. The severity of near-field mainshock ground motions, in Port-au-Prince and elsewhere, has thus remained unclear. We present a detailed, quantitative analysis of the marks left on a tile floor by an industrial battery rack that was displaced by the earthquake in the Canape Vert neighborhood in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. Results of this analysis, based on a recently developed formulation for predicted rigid body displacement caused by sinusoidal ground acceleration, indicate that mainshock shaking at Canape Vert was approximately 0:5g, corresponding to a modified Mercalli intensity of VIII. Combining this result with the weakmotion amplification factor estimated from aftershock recordings at the site as well as a general assessment of macroseismic effects, we estimate the peak acceleration to be ≈0:2g for sites in central Port-au-Prince that experienced relatively moderate damage and where estimated weak-motion site amplification is lower than that at the Canape Vert site. We also analyze a second case of documented rigid body displacement, at a location less than 2 km from the Canape Vert site, and estimate the peak acceleration to be approximately 0:4g at this location. Our results illustrate how observations of rigid body horizontal displacement during earthquakes can be used to estimate peak ground acceleration in the absence of instrumental data. Source


Hannigan R.,University of Massachusetts Boston | Dorval E.,Port-au-Prince University | Jones C.,Old Dominion University
Chemical Geology | Year: 2010

Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) were measured in the fine fraction of shallow surface sediments from the lower Chesapeake Bay as studies suggest that coagulation of colloids dominates the removal of REE from the dissolved load in low salinity regions of estuaries. REE in sediments showed spatial heterogeneity, both laterally and longitudinally. We observed the influence of salinity on the spatial and temporal variability in total REE content and on Eu-anomalies. Lower total REE was found in sediments deposited along the Eastern Shore. The chemistry of the mid-Bay Islands was distinct with higher overall REE content and slightly more positive Ce-anomaly values. Positive Ce/Ce in the mid-Bay are attributed to Coriolis acceleration restricting freshwater flow towards the west away from the Islands leading to oxidative removal of Ce from the pore waters to the sediments. The presence of positive Eu/Eu in sediments deposited along the Eastern Shore is linked to salinity. We suggest that unique local conditions along the Eastern Shore, possibly including submarine groundwater discharge of nutrient-rich reducing waters, combined with organic matter decay and the predominance of oceanic water flow toward this region leads to the development of a strong localized salinity gradient. This study demonstrates the utility of REE sediment chemistry in identifying and resolving local and estuarine-wide geochemical processes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Yoshida Y.,Port-au-Prince University | Sandall J.,Kings College London
Midwifery | Year: 2013

Background: community-based midwifery practice has been promoted in the UK maternity policy over the last decade as a means of increasing continuity of care. However, there have been growing concerns to suggest that the community-based continuity model may not be sustainable due to the high levels of occupational burnout in midwives resulted by increased on-call work. Aims: this paper attempted to identify work factors associated with the levels of burnout in community midwives as compared to hospital midwives, aiming at contributing to the debate of organising sustainable midwifery care. Methods: a statistical analysis was conducted drawing on data from a survey of all midwives working at one Hospital Trust in England (. n=238). Occupational burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Results: the sample midwives (. n=128, 54%) had significantly higher levels of burnout compared to the reference groups. Multiple regression analysis identified as follows: (1) high levels of occupational autonomy were a key protective factor of burnout, and more prevalent in the community, (2) working hours were positively associated with burnout, and community midwives were more likely to have higher levels of stress recognition, and (3) support for work-life-balance from the Trust had a significant protective effect on the levels of burnout. Conclusion: the results should be taken into account in the maternity policy in order to incorporate continuity of care and sustainable organisation of midwifery care. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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