Hannigan R.,University of Massachusetts Boston |
Dorval E.,Port-au-Prince University |
Jones C.,Old Dominion University
Chemical Geology | Year: 2010
Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) were measured in the fine fraction of shallow surface sediments from the lower Chesapeake Bay as studies suggest that coagulation of colloids dominates the removal of REE from the dissolved load in low salinity regions of estuaries. REE in sediments showed spatial heterogeneity, both laterally and longitudinally. We observed the influence of salinity on the spatial and temporal variability in total REE content and on Eu-anomalies. Lower total REE was found in sediments deposited along the Eastern Shore. The chemistry of the mid-Bay Islands was distinct with higher overall REE content and slightly more positive Ce-anomaly values. Positive Ce/Ce in the mid-Bay are attributed to Coriolis acceleration restricting freshwater flow towards the west away from the Islands leading to oxidative removal of Ce from the pore waters to the sediments. The presence of positive Eu/Eu in sediments deposited along the Eastern Shore is linked to salinity. We suggest that unique local conditions along the Eastern Shore, possibly including submarine groundwater discharge of nutrient-rich reducing waters, combined with organic matter decay and the predominance of oceanic water flow toward this region leads to the development of a strong localized salinity gradient. This study demonstrates the utility of REE sediment chemistry in identifying and resolving local and estuarine-wide geochemical processes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Barzilay E.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Schaad N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Magloire R.,Port-au-Prince University |
Mung K.S.,Port-au-Prince University |
And 6 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND: In October 2010, nearly 10 months after a devastating earthquake, Haiti was stricken by epidemic cholera. Within days after detection, the Ministry of Public Health and Population established a National Cholera Surveillance System (NCSS). METHODS: The NCSS used a modified World Health Organization case definition for cholera that included acute watery diarrhea, with or without vomiting, in persons of all ages residing in an area in which at least one case of Vibrio cholerae O1 infection had been confirmed by culture. RESULTS: Within 29 days after the first report, cases of V. cholerae O1 (serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor) were confirmed in all 10 administrative departments (similar to states or provinces) in Haiti. Through October 20, 2012, the public health ministry reported 604,634 cases of infection, 329,697 hospitalizations, and 7436 deaths from cholera and isolated V. cholerae O1 from 1675 of 2703 stool specimens tested (62.0%). The cumulative attack rate was 5.1% at the end of the first year and 6.1% at the end of the second year. The cumulative case fatality rate consistently trended downward, reaching 1.2% at the close of year 2, with departmental cumulative rates ranging from 0.6% to 4.6% (median, 1.4%). Within 3 months after the start of the epidemic, the rolling 14-day case fatality rate was 1.0% and remained at or below this level with few, brief exceptions. Overall, the cholera epidemic in Haiti accounted for 57% of all cholera cases and 53% of all cholera deaths reported to the World Health Organization in 2010 and 58% of all cholera cases and 37% of all cholera deaths in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: A review of NCSS data shows that during the first 2 years of the cholera epidemic in Haiti, the cumulative attack rate was 6.1%, with cases reported in all 10 departments. Within 3 months after the first case was reported, there was a downward trend in mortality, with a 14-day case fatality rate of 1.0% or less in most areas. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Yoshida Y.,Port-au-Prince University |
Sandall J.,King's College London
Midwifery | Year: 2013
Background: community-based midwifery practice has been promoted in the UK maternity policy over the last decade as a means of increasing continuity of care. However, there have been growing concerns to suggest that the community-based continuity model may not be sustainable due to the high levels of occupational burnout in midwives resulted by increased on-call work. Aims: this paper attempted to identify work factors associated with the levels of burnout in community midwives as compared to hospital midwives, aiming at contributing to the debate of organising sustainable midwifery care. Methods: a statistical analysis was conducted drawing on data from a survey of all midwives working at one Hospital Trust in England (. n=238). Occupational burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Results: the sample midwives (. n=128, 54%) had significantly higher levels of burnout compared to the reference groups. Multiple regression analysis identified as follows: (1) high levels of occupational autonomy were a key protective factor of burnout, and more prevalent in the community, (2) working hours were positively associated with burnout, and community midwives were more likely to have higher levels of stress recognition, and (3) support for work-life-balance from the Trust had a significant protective effect on the levels of burnout. Conclusion: the results should be taken into account in the maternity policy in order to incorporate continuity of care and sustainable organisation of midwifery care. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Severe P.,Port-au-Prince University |
Juste M.A.J.,Port-au-Prince University |
Ambroise A.,Port-au-Prince University |
Eliacin L.,Port-au-Prince University |
And 11 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: For adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have CD4+ T-cell counts that are greater than 200 and less than 350 per cubic millimeter and who live in areas with limited resources, the optimal time to initiate antiretroviral therapy remains uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label trial of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, as compared with the standard timing for initiation of therapy, among HIV-infected adults in Haiti who had a confirmed CD4+ T-cell count that was greater than 200 and less than 350 per cubic millimeter at baseline and no history of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) illness. The primary study end point was survival. The early-treatment group began taking zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz therapy within 2 weeks after enrollment. The standard-treatment group started the same regimen of antiretroviral therapy when their CD4+ T-cell count fell to 200 per cubic millimeter or less or when clinical AIDS developed. Participants in both groups underwent monthly follow-up assessments and received isoniazid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis with nutritional support. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2008, a total of 816 participants - 408 per group - were enrolled and were followed for a median of 21 months. The CD4+ T-cell count at enrollment was approximately 280 per cubic millimeter in both groups. There were 23 deaths in the standard-treatment group, as compared with 6 in the early-treatment group (hazard ratio with standard treatment, 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 9.8; P = 0.001). There were 36 incident cases of tuberculosis in the standard-treatment group, as compared with 18 in the early-treatment group (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.6; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy decreased the rates of death and incident tuberculosis. Access to antiretroviral therapy should be expanded to include all HIVinfected adults who have CD4+ T-cell counts of less than 350 per cubic millimeter, including those who live in areas with limited resources. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00120510.) Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
Frerichs R.R.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Keim P.S.,Translational Genomics Research Institute TGen |
Keim P.S.,Northern Arizona University |
Barrais R.,Port-au-Prince University |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012
Cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010 for the first time in recorded history. The causative agent was quickly identified by the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Since then, >500000 government-acknowledged cholera cases and >7000 deaths have occurred, the largest cholera epidemic in the world, with the real death toll probably much higher. Questions of origin have been widely debated with some attributing the onset of the epidemic to climatic factors and others to human transmission. None of the evidence on origin supports climatic factors. Instead, recent epidemiological and molecular-genetic evidence point to the United Nations peacekeeping troops from Nepal as the source of cholera to Haiti, following their troop rotation in early October 2010. Such findings have important policy implications for shaping future international relief efforts. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Prentice C.S.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Mann P.,University of Texas at Austin |
Crone A.J.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Gold R.D.,U.S. Geological Survey |
And 4 more authors.
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2010
The Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone is recognized as one of the primary plate-bounding fault systems in Haiti. The strike-slip fault runs adjacent to the city of Port-au-Prince and was initially thought to be the source of the 12 January 2010, M w 7.0 earthquake. Haiti experienced significant earthquakes in 1751 and 1770 (refsA, 3, 4, 5), but the role of the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone in these earthquakes is poorly known. We use satellite imagery, aerial photography, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and field investigations to document Quaternary activity on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We report late Quaternary, left-lateral offsets of up to 160m, and a set of small offsets ranging from 1.3 to 3.3m that we associate with one of the eighteenth century earthquakes. The size of the small offsets implies that the historical earthquake was larger than M w 7.0, but probably smaller than M w 7.6. We found no significant surface rupture associated with the 2010 earthquake. The lack of surface rupture, coupled with other seismologic, geologic and geodetic observations, suggests that little, if any, accumulated strain was released on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault in the 2010 earthquake. These results confirm that the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault remains a significant seismic hazard. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Hough S.E.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Taniguchi T.,Tottori University |
Altidor J.-R.,Port-au-Prince University
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2012
The M 7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 caused catastrophic damage and loss of life in the capital city of Port-au-Prince. The extent of the damage was primarily due to poor construction and high population density. The earthquake was recorded by only a single seismic instrument within Haiti, an educational seismometer that was neither bolted to the ground nor able to record strong motion on scale. The severity of near-field mainshock ground motions, in Port-au-Prince and elsewhere, has thus remained unclear. We present a detailed, quantitative analysis of the marks left on a tile floor by an industrial battery rack that was displaced by the earthquake in the Canape Vert neighborhood in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. Results of this analysis, based on a recently developed formulation for predicted rigid body displacement caused by sinusoidal ground acceleration, indicate that mainshock shaking at Canape Vert was approximately 0:5g, corresponding to a modified Mercalli intensity of VIII. Combining this result with the weakmotion amplification factor estimated from aftershock recordings at the site as well as a general assessment of macroseismic effects, we estimate the peak acceleration to be ≈0:2g for sites in central Port-au-Prince that experienced relatively moderate damage and where estimated weak-motion site amplification is lower than that at the Canape Vert site. We also analyze a second case of documented rigid body displacement, at a location less than 2 km from the Canape Vert site, and estimate the peak acceleration to be approximately 0:4g at this location. Our results illustrate how observations of rigid body horizontal displacement during earthquakes can be used to estimate peak ground acceleration in the absence of instrumental data. Estimation of Peak Ground Acceleration from Horizontal Rigid Body Displacement: A Case Study in Port-au-Prince, Haiti by Susan E. Hough, Tomoyo Taniguchi, and Jean-Robert Altidor Abstract The M 7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 caused catastrophic damage and loss of life in the capital city of Port-au-Prince. The extent of the damage was primarily due to poor construction and high population density. The earthquake was recorded by only a single seismic instrument within Haiti, an educational seismometer that was neither bolted to the ground nor able to record strong motion on scale. The severity of near-field mainshock ground motions, in Port-au-Prince and elsewhere, has thus remained unclear. We present a detailed, quantitative analysis of the marks left on a tile floor by an industrial battery rack that was displaced by the earthquake in the Canape Vert neighborhood in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. Results of this analysis, based on a recently developed formulation for predicted rigid body displacement caused by sinusoidal ground acceleration, indicate that mainshock shaking at Canape Vert was approximately 0:5g, corresponding to a modified Mercalli intensity of VIII. Combining this result with the weakmotion amplification factor estimated from aftershock recordings at the site as well as a general assessment of macroseismic effects, we estimate the peak acceleration to be ≈0:2g for sites in central Port-au-Prince that experienced relatively moderate damage and where estimated weak-motion site amplification is lower than that at the Canape Vert site. We also analyze a second case of documented rigid body displacement, at a location less than 2 km from the Canape Vert site, and estimate the peak acceleration to be approximately 0:4g at this location. Our results illustrate how observations of rigid body horizontal displacement during earthquakes can be used to estimate peak ground acceleration in the absence of instrumental data.
Raccurt C.P.,Port-au-Prince University |
Brasseur P.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement |
Ciceron M.,Port-au-Prince University |
Boncy J.,Port-au-Prince University
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014
An epidemiologic (cross-sectional study) survey on 462 inhabitants in Corail, Haiti showed that 16.5% were infected with Mansonella ozzardi. This finding was determined from a single 20-μL sample of finger prick blood from each person. Among children, < 2% had a detectable microfilaremia. In persons > 15 years of age, the prevalence of infection for males and females was 23% and 21%, respectively. In general, the microfilaremias were low and 70% of positive persons had < 10 microfilariae per 20 μL of blood; only 5% had > 50 microfilariae. This study shows that persons living near mangrove marshes that are breeding sites for Culicoides furens and C. barbosai biting midges, which are recognized vectors of M. ozzardi in Haiti, are consequently more frequently infected than those living in downtown area of Corail or inland. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Piarroux R.,Aix - Marseille University |
Barrais R.,Port-au-Prince University |
Faucher B.,Aix - Marseille University |
Haus R.,Service de Sante des Armees |
And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011
After onset of a cholera epidemic in Haiti in mid-October 2010, a team of researchers from France and Haiti implemented field investigations and built a database of daily cases to facilitate identification of communes most affected. Several models were used to identify spatiotemporal clusters, assess relative risk associated with the epidemic's spread, and investigate causes of its rapid expansion in Artibonite Department. Spatiotemporal analyses highlighted 5 significant clusters (p<0.001): 1 near Mirebalais (October 16-19) next to a United Nations camp with deficient sanitation, 1 along the Artibonite River (October 20-28), and 3 caused by the centrifugal epidemic spread during November. The regression model indicated that cholera more severely affected communes in the coastal plain (risk ratio 4.91) along the Artibonite River downstream of Mirebalais (risk ratio 4.60). Our findings strongly suggest that contamination of the Artibonite and 1 of its tributaries downstream from a military camp triggered the epidemic.
Adrien M.G.L.,Port-au-Prince University
Annales Medico-Psychologiques | Year: 2015
This culture also offers a multi-dimensional interpretation of man and relies heavily on voodoo which is considered a religion for some, a cultural folk element for others and a system of cultural and ethnographic references for researchers. Regardless of the perception that we have of voodoo, it is an integral part of Haitian culture. It occupies a prominent spot in traditional medicine and it is a complex system of health care that includes preventive and curative practices. However, preventing or healing does not only pertain to biomedical but also to a set of socio-cultural elements that will play a key role in how the individual looks at his illness and his relationship with others and his environment, voodoo thereby participates in this healing. © 2015.