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Wickramasuriya S.S.,Chungnam National University | Yoo J.,Chungnam National University | Kim J.C.,Pork Innovation | Heo J.M.,Chungnam National University
Poultry Science | Year: 2016

A study was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) requirement of Korean native ducklings for hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 336 one-day-old male Korean native ducklings were used in a completely randomized design having 8 dietary treatments to provide a range of AME content from 2,600 to 3,300 kcal/kg (i.e., 100 kcal/kg disparity). Eight experimental diets containing varying levels of AME were formulated to meet the NRC (1994) nutrient specifications. Ducklings were randomly allocated to 48 pens (6 replicates per treatment and 7 ducklings per pen) and were offered their respective diets on an ad libitum basis for the period of study. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly to calculate feed conversion ratio, energy intake, and protein intake. Two ducklings per pen (n = 6) were euthanized via cervical dislocation to weigh empty body and drumsticks at the conclusion of the experiment. Data were fitted to both linear-plateau and quadratic-plateau models for estimation of the AME requirements for Korean native ducklings for hatch to 21 d of age. The estimated AME requirements were 2,953, 3,007, and 2,950 kcal AME/kg diet for maximum daily gain, daily feed intake, and for minimum feed conversion ratio, respectively. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Heo J.M.,Chungnam National University | Heo J.M.,Murdoch University | Kim J.C.,Pork Innovation | Yoo J.,Chungnam National University | Pluske J.R.,Murdoch University
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2015

Numerous experiments have demonstrated that feeding a lower protein diet decreases protein fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and reduces the incidence of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). However, there is a lack of holistic evidence underpinning the relationship between feeding a lower protein diet and PWD in relation to physiological responses and protein fermentation in the GIT. The scope of this article, therefore, will: (i) focus on the impact of dietary protein levels on selected indices of GIT health in weaned pigs without and with experimental infection with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli; and (ii) attempt to conduct regression analysis to examine the relationships between dietary-origin protein intake, nitrogen fermentation indices, fecal consistency and the incidence of PWD. We used datasets generated from a series of four intensive experiments in weaned pigs. The collective results derived from these datasets indicate that restriction of daily protein intake to less than 60g through feeding a lower protein diet for as little as 7 days after weaning reduced the incidence of PWD commensurate with a reduction in protein fermentation indices. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

Kim J.C.,Pork Innovation | Mullan B.P.,Pork Innovation | Frey B.,Consistent Pork | Payne H.G.,Pork Innovation | Pluske J.R.,Murdoch University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

A split plot experiment with 72 male pigs weighing 52.9 ± 0.39 kg (mean ± SEM) was conducted to examine AA partitioning and body protein deposition (PD) in response to increasing dietary sulfur amino acids (SAA) with or without immune system (IS) activation. The main plot was with and without IS activation, and 4 diets containing different amounts of standardized ileal digestible (SID) SAA (SAA to Lys ratios of 0.45, 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75) were the subplots. Activation of IS was achieved by intramuscular injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS; serotype 055:B5, Sigma; 30 μg/kg BW) every Monday and Thursday, with control pigs injected with sterile saline. Maximum body PD, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and minimum plasma urea content were achieved at SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.55 in saline-injected pigs but were achieved at a SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.75 in IS-activated pigs. Immune system activation increased rectal temperature (P < 0.05), plasma haptoglobin (1.1 vs. 2.0 mg/mL; P < 0.001), and the proportion of neutrophils (0.39 vs. 0.42; P < 0.05) and decreased serum albumin content (38.4 vs. 36.8 g/L; P < 0.01). Increasing dietary SAA had no effects on these variables. Immune systemactivated pigs had lower levels of homocysteine (Hcy; P < 0.001) and a lower Ser content (P < 0.05). Results showed that increasing dietary SAA as DL-methionine in growing and/or finishing pigs altered plasma AA contents, and that use efficiency of the AA was improved when greater levels of SAA were supplemented in ISactivated pigs. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

Upadhaya S.D.,Dankook University | Kim J.C.,Pork Innovation | Mullan B.P.,Pork Innovation | Pluske J.R.,Murdoch University | Kim I.H.,Dankook University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

This study tested the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and omega-3 fatty acids will additively attenuate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2 in immune system–stimulated growing–finishing pigs. A total of 80 mixed sex pigs weighing 50.7 ± 0.76 kg (mean ± SE) were blocked and stratified based on sex and BW to a 2 × 2 factorial design with the respective factors being 1) without and with 300 IU Vit E and 2) without and with 25% replacement of tallow to linseed oil as a source of n-3 fatty acids. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicate pens with 5 pigs (3 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. All pigs were challenged with an intramuscular injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; O111:B4) twice weekly over the 6-wk experiment. After LPS challenge, pigs fed a diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids had fewer (P < 0.05) white blood cells and tended to show both a reduced (P < 0.10) proportion of lymphocytes and IgG concentration compared with pigs fed a diet without any supplements. Supplementation of n-3 fatty acids reduced (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) serum concentrations of cortisol and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), respectively. The serum concentration of PGE2 was decreased (P < 0.05) with supplementation of both Vit E and n-3 fatty acids; however, the extent of the reduction was greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed an n-3 fatty acid- supplemented diet. However, there were no additive effects of the combined supplementation of Vit E and n-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2. The results suggest that n-3 fatty acids independently attenuate production of TNF-αand PGE2 in immune system –stimulated growing–finishing pigs. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

Kim J.C.,Pork Innovation | Mullan B.P.,Pork Innovation | Pluske J.R.,Murdoch University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

Forty-two individually housed entire male pigs weighing 37.5 ± 0.15 kg (mean ± SEM) were used in a randomized block design having 7 dietary treatments (n = 6). The dietary treatments were 5 semisynthetic diets containing 350 g/kg of soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM) with variable heat treatments (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 min autoclaved at 135°C), a protein free (N-free) diet, and an enzymatically hydrolyzed casein (EHC) diet. Heat treatment linearly decreased (P < 0.001) total Lys content from 27.5 to 19.2 g/ kg and reactive Lys content from 23.4 to 11.7 g/kg. Apparent, standardized, and true ileal digestible total and reactive Lys contents linearly decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing severity of heat treatment and were accurately predictable (P < 0.001) from total and reactive Lys content in heat-damaged SBM. These data indicate that excessive heat processing of SBM reduced both the content (P < 0.001) and digestibility (P < 0.001) of total and reactive Lys in SBM. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

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