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Population Research Institute

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Berg V.,Population Research Institute | Lummaa V.,University of Sheffield | Lahdenpera M.,University of Turku | Rotkirch A.,Population Research Institute | Jokela M.,University of Helsinki
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2014

Personality, that is, individual behavioral tendencies that are relatively stable across situations and time, has been associated with number of offspring in many animals, including humans, suggesting that some personality traits may be under natural selection. However, there are no data on whether these associations between personality and reproductive success extend over more than one generation to numbers of grandchildren. Using a large representative sample of contemporary Americans from the Health and Retirement Study (. n=. 10,688; mean age 67.7. years), we studied whether personality traits of the Five Factor Model were similarly associated with number of children and grandchildren, or whether antagonistic effects of personality on offspring number and quality lead to specific personality traits differently maximizing short and long-term fitness measures. Higher extraversion, lower conscientiousness, and lower openness to experience were similarly associated with both higher number of children and grandchildren in both sexes. In addition, higher agreeableness was associated with higher number of grand-offspring only. Our results did not indicate any quality-quantity trade-offs in the associations between personality and reproductive success. These findings represent the first robust evidence for any species that personality may affect reproductive success over several generations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | Population Research Institute, University of Turku and University of Helsinki
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biosocial science | Year: 2016

Sibling relations are by nature ambivalent with high levels of both altruistic helping and competition. Higher relatedness is often assumed to reduce the occurrence of conflicts between siblings, but evidence of this has been scarce and mixed. Siblings typically compete over resources and parental attention, and parental constellations vary with sibship types. Since full-siblings compete over the same two biological parents, while half-siblings have only one shared biological parent and often a higher number of parents overall, it is hypothesized that conflicts are more common between full- than half-siblings. This study tested this assumption using the British Millennium Cohort Study (n=7527 children at age 11). Conflicts were measured as childrens reports of how much siblings picked on and hurt each other. Households with full-siblings only, maternal half-siblings only, and both full- and maternal half-siblings were compared. The results show that children who were living with only their full-siblings were more likely to experience sibling conflicts compared with children living with their maternal half-siblings only. This was the case also after controlling for several potentially confounding variables. The results suggest that differential access to parental resources of available biological and step-parents may explain the higher amount of sibling conflict between full- compared with maternal half-siblings.

PubMed | Population Research Institute, Bocconi University and University of Oxford
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Social forces; a scientific medium of social study and interpretation | Year: 2016

We argue that the divergence in fertility trends in advanced societies is influenced by the interaction of long-standing differences in generalized trust with the increase in womens educational attainment. Our argument builds on the idea that trust enhances individuals and couples willingness to outsource childcare to outside their extended family. This becomes critically important as womens increased education enhances the demand for combining work and family life. We test our hypothesis using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study on 36 industrialized countries between the years 1981 and 2009. Multilevel statistical analyses reveal that the interaction between national-level generalized trust and cohort-level womens education is positively associated with completed fertility. As education among women expands, high levels of generalized trust moderate fertility decline.

Tanskanen A.O.,University of Helsinki | Danielsbacka M.,University of Helsinki | Rotkirch A.,Population Research Institute
Advances in life course research | Year: 2014

Divorce and remarriage influence family relations, yet few studies explore changes in grandparenting due to family recomposition. We study variations in grandparental investment when the parents have children from several unions. Using nationally representative data of younger adults from the Generational Transmissions in Finland survey conducted in 2012 (sample n = 760 parents), we compare the grandchild care that parents report having received from their parents and parents-in-law. Results show that multipartner fertility is not associated with the amount of grandparental investment a parent receives from his or her own parents, but is associated with the investment received from mother's parents-in-law. Mother's parents-in-law are less likely to invest in grandchild sets which include step-grandchildren, compared to grandchildren living with their original parents. Fully biological grandchildren are 31% more likely to receive grandparental care compared to grandchild sets including step grandchildren. Thus the reduction in grandparental investment associated with step-grandchildren may also affect children from the new union. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tanskanen A.O.,University of Helsinki | Jokela M.,University of Helsinki | Danielsbacka M.,University of Helsinki | Rotkirch A.,Population Research Institute
Human Nature | Year: 2014

Grandparental presence is known to correlate with the number of grandchildren born, and this effect may vary according to grandparental sex and lineage. However, existing studies of grandparental effects on fertility mostly concern traditional subsistence societies, while evidence from contemporary developed societies is both scarce and mixed. Here, we explore how grandparents affect the transition to second and subsequent children in the contemporary United Kingdom. The longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (n = 10,295 families) was used to study the association between grandparental investment and parents' probability of having a new child within 4.5 years. Results show that contact with paternal grandparents is associated with higher probability of parents having a second child. In contrast, contact with maternal grandparents is associated with lower probability of having a third or subsequent child. Kin may have opposite effects on fertility even in contemporary societies, which may explain the lack of consistent effects of grandparental investment on fertility in previous studies. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Rotkirch A.,Population Research Institute | Lyons M.,University of Liverpool | David-Barrett T.,University of Oxford | Jokela M.,University of Helsinki
Evolutionary Psychology | Year: 2014

Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

Kulathinal S.,University of Helsinki | Saavala M.,Population Research Institute
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2015

In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.

News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New research out of Duke University finds the proportion of shotgun marriages increasing among some groups of women and that not all shotgun marriages are as rocky as one might think DURHAM, N.C. -- Shotgun marriages have faded in popularity overall, but are on the rise among some groups, says new research from Duke University. And not all shotgun marriages are as rocky as one might think. In the 1930s, half of all unmarried pregnant women in the United States married before giving birth, according to U.S. Census data. As premarital sex and out-of-wedlock childbearing became more common, rates of shotgun marriage dropped sharply. By the second half of the 2000s, only 6 percent of unmarried pregnant woman married before giving birth, according to government figures. But against the backdrop of an overall decline, shotgun marriages have actually risen among certain groups of women, including young mothers and those with less education, according to the new research published online Nov. 1 in Demography. "Some people still want to get married before the baby is born," said Christina Gibson-Davis, who authored the study with Elizabeth O. Ananat and Anna Gassman-Pines. "With apologies to Mark Twain, the death of shotgun marriage has been greatly exaggerated." The Duke researchers looked at North Carolina birth, marriage and divorce data for 800,000 first births among white and black mothers. (The data available on Hispanic births was inadequate for inclusion.) The state's fertility, marriage and divorce levels mirror those of the U.S. as a whole. "Not many people have a shotgun marriage, but it's more common among groups who otherwise have low marriage rates -- African-Americans, those with less education and those under 25," said Gibson-Davis, a faculty fellow of the Duke Center for Child and Family Policy and an associate professor of public policy, sociology and psychology and neuroscience at Duke. "This matters because having married parents may be good for the children involved." Some might surmise shotgun marriages are more likely than other marriages to end in divorce. The researchers found that to be true for white, but not black, couples. After a decade, 30 percent of white couples who had a shotgun marriage were divorced, compared to 19 percent of white couples who married prior to a child's conception. Among African-Americans, though, divorce rates for shotgun marriages and other marriages were nearly the same -- 23 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Notably, for black women with a high school education or less, shotgun marriages were significantly less likely to end in divorce after 10 years than were other marriages. Overall, an abundance of research suggests children do better when they live with married parents who don't divorce, Gassman-Pines said. "Policymakers often worry about kids in marriages that break up and about low marriage rates among black women," said Gassman-Pines, a faculty fellow of the Duke Center for Child and Family Policy and an associate professor of public policy and psychology and neuroscience at Duke. "Our findings suggest that, for black couples, shotgun marriages are just as stable as marriages that started before a pregnancy." The Duke researchers will continue to look at how marriage affects children in upcoming studies, including whether being born to married parents improves academic achievement and school behavior. Support for this research was provided by the Duke Population Research Institute and the Duke Social Science Research Institute's Education and Human Development Incubator. CITATION: "Midpregnancy Marriage and Divorce: Why the Death of Shotgun Marriage Has Been Greatly Exaggerated," Christina M. Gibson-Davis, Elizabeth O. Ananat and Anna Gassman-Pines. Demography, November 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-016-0510-x NOTE: A copy of the Demography article is available to journalists upon request by emailing Amy Dominello Braun at amy.d.braun@duke.edu.

PubMed | Leiden University, Population Research Institute and University of Oxford
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychology of music | Year: 2016

Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive Cliques: recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both competitively (contests between Cliques) and cooperatively (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (

Kontula O.,Population Research Institute
International Journal of Sexual Health | Year: 2011

Training programs for sexologists are core activities to promote higher professional standards in sexology and to educate a new generation of sexologists. The summary information from 25 European countries provides evidence that training in sexology consists today of different models. The existing different national training models in sexology in Europe are: (1) a medical model, (2) a clinical model integrating medical and psychological approaches, (3) separated education in clinical sexology and human sexology, (4) sex therapy model, (5) human sexuality model, and (6) the Nordic human sexology model. This information provides basis for future collaboration between training institutes in Europe. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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