Time filter

Source Type

Shi Z.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Shi Z.,University of Adelaide | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Taylor A.W.,University of Adelaide | And 5 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Methods: Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Results: Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys) were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls). In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for obesity comparing sleeping <9 hours with ≥10 hours was 2.23 (95% CI 1.04-4.76) among boys, 1.70(0.78-3.73) among girls, and 1.97(1.15-3.38) in both genders. The association between short sleep (<9 hours) and obesity was stronger in the younger age group. No significant association between short sleep and obesity was found among children aged 13-15. There was also an additive interaction between short sleep and low level of physical activity. Conclusion: Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys. © 2010 Shi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Hill C.L.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Hill C.L.,University of Adelaide | Lester S.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | And 4 more authors.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2011

Background: The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a self-administered questionnaire that aims to measure pain and disability associated with shoulder disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the construct validity and factor structure of the SPADI in a population-based study of patients with self-reported chronic shoulder symptoms. Methods. The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people aged 18 years and over. The original sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006) and were asked to report whether they had pain, aching or stiffness on most days in either of their shoulders. Data was also collected on body mass index and shoulder range of motion (ROM) and demographic factors. The SPADI (numeric rating scale) was administered to participants with shoulder symptoms. Principal components factor analysis, with varimax rotation of factor loadings, was used to assess subscale structure of SPADI. Correlations between the SPADI, shoulder ROM and SF-36 were performed. Results: Overall, 22.3% of participants indicated that they had pain, aching or stiffness in either of their shoulders. SPADI results were available for 588 of participants with current shoulder symptoms. The internal consistency of the SPADI subscales were high (Cronbach's alpha > 0.92). Two factors, explaining 61.4% of the total variance were extracted by factor analysis. These were interpreted as disability and pain respectively. There was a strong negative correlation between SPADI disability subscale scores and shoulder range of motion. SPADI disability, but not pain, subscale scores were correlated with age. Conclusions: The SPADI is a valid measure to assess pain and disability in people with shoulder pain in a population-based study. In this setting, the SPADI had a bidimensional structure with both pain and disability subscales. © 2011 Hill et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chittleborough C.R.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Dal Grande E.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Gill T.K.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | And 4 more authors.
Respirology | Year: 2010

This study examined gender differences in the association between asthma and socioeconomic disadvantage using a representative population cohort. Asthma was associated with socioeconomic disadvantage but in socioeconomically advantaged groups, asthma prevalence was higher among women than men. Background and objective: Socioeconomic inequalities in health have been shown to vary for different diseases and by gender. This study aimed to examine gender differences in associations between asthma and socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods: Socioeconomic variables were assessed among men and women in the North West Adelaide Health Study, a representative population cohort (n = 4060) aged 18 years and over in metropolitan South Australia. Asthma was determined from spirometry and self-reported doctor diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of asthma was 12.0% (95% CI: 11.1-13.1), and was significantly higher among women (13.5%) than men (10.5%). For participants aged 18-64 years a higher prevalence of asthma was associated with an education level of secondary school or lower, or not being in the paid labour force among men, and with a gross annual household income of $20 000 or less among women. Among socioeconomically advantaged groups, the prevalence of asthma was significantly higher among women than men. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher asthma prevalence, although this varied by gender depending on the indicator of socioeconomic position used. Men with low education or those not employed in the paid labour force had higher asthma prevalence than more socioeconomically advantaged men. Women with low income had higher asthma prevalence than those with higher income. Among all socioeconomically advantaged groups, and also the low-income group, women experienced a higher prevalence of asthma than men. © 2009 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.


Massy-Westropp N.M.,University of South Australia | Gill T.K.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Gill T.K.,University of Adelaide | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background: The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a community-based Australian population. Secondary aims were to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and hand grip strength, and to compare Australian data with international hand grip strength norms. Methods. The sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 (81% of those recruited) participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006) which specifically focused on the collection of information relating to musculoskeletal conditions. Results: Following the exclusion of 435 participants who had hand pain and/or arthritis, 1366 men and 1312 women participants provided hand grip strength measurement. The study population was relatively young, with 41.5% under 40 years; and their mean BMI was 28.1 kg/m 2 (SD 5.5). Higher hand grip strength was weakly related to higher BMI in adults under the age of 30 and over the age of 70, but inversely related to higher BMI between these ages. Australian norms from this sample had amongst the lowest of the hand grip strength of the internationally published norms, except those from underweight populations. Conclusions: This population demonstrated higher BMI and lower grip strength in younger participants than much of the international published, population data. A complete exploration of the relationship between BMI and hand grip strength was not fully explored as there were very few participants with BMI in the underweight range. The age and gender grip strength values are lower in younger adults than those reported in international literature. © 2011 Massy-Westropp et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Goldney R.D.,University of Adelaide | Goldney R.D.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | Eckert K.A.,University of Adelaide | Eckert K.A.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Objective: To identify changes in the prevalence of major depression between 1998, 2004 and 2008 in South Australia. Methods: Face-to-face Health Omnibus surveys were conducted in 1998, 2004 and 2008 with approximately 3000 participants aged 15 years and over, who were random and representative samples of the South Australian population. Each survey used the same methodology. Outcome measures were: major depression as detected by the Mood module of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders instrument; mental health literacy by recognition and exposure to classical symptoms of depression; and health status using the SF-36 Physical and Mental Component summaries. Results: There was a significant increase in the prevalence of major depression from 6.8% (95%CI: 5.9%-7.7%) to 10.3% (95%CI: 9.2-%11.4%; χ2 24.59, p < 0.001) between 1998 and 2008. Significant increases were observed in males aged 15-29 and females aged 30-49 years. There was no significant increase in any other sub-group. The strongest predictor of major depression was health status. Participants with poor/fair mental health literacy were 37% less likely to be classified with major depression. Conclusions: The prevalence of major depression increased significantly in South Australia over the last decade and there was a reduction in mental health status and an increase in persons reporting poor health. Unexpectedly, having poor or fair mental health literacy was significantly protective for major depression. Ideally, public health initiatives should result in an improvement in health, but this did not appear to have occurred here. © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists.


Shi Z.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Shi Z.,University of Adelaide | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Taylor A.W.,University of Adelaide | And 4 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective To examine the association between soft drink consumption and mental health problems, including self-reported doctor-diagnosed anxiety, stress-related problem and depression, suicidal ideation and psychological distress, among adults in South Australia.Design Data were collected using a risk factor surveillance system. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians was selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing.Setting South Australia.Subjects Participants were aged 16 years and above.Results Among 4741 participants, 125 % reported daily soft drink consumption of more than half a litre. High levels of soft drink consumption were positively associated with depression, stress-related problem, suicidal ideation, psychological distress and a current mental health condition, but not anxiety. Overall, 240 % of those having suicidal ideation reported consuming more than half a litre of soft drink per day. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, those who consumed more than half a litre of soft drink per day had approximately 60 % greater risk of having depression, stress-related problem, suicidal ideation, psychological distress or a current mental health condition, compared with those not consuming soft drinks. The soft drink to total fluid consumption ratio had similar associations with mental health problems.Conclusions There is a positive association between consumption of soft drinks and mental health problems among adults in South Australia. Copyright © 2010 The Authors.


Shi Z.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Shi Z.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Shi Z.,University of Adelaide | Yuan B.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2011

Objective: One large cross-sectional study across four countries suggests that glutamate intake may be inversely associated with blood pressure (BP). The aim of this analysis was to investigate a possible association between monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake and change in blood pressure over 5 years. Methods: Data from 1227 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN) were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and blood pressure were quantitatively assessed in 2002, and followed-up in 2007. Results: MSG intake was associated with a significant increase in SBP and DBP. A strong sex interaction was observed in relation to SBP change. Women with high MSG intake were more likely to have increased SBP and DBP. Total glutamate intake was also positively associated with an increase in SBP. In those chronically taking antihypertensive medications, there was a strong association between MSG intake and an increase in DBP. Conclusion: MSG intake may have independent BP-increasing effects, especially among women and those taking hypertension medications at baseline and follow-up. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Chittleborough C.R.,The Clearing | Baldock K.L.,The Clearing | Phillips P.J.,The Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Aim: To assess achievement of management targets among participants with diagnosed diabetes. Methods: Participants in the North West Adelaide Health Study (n=. 4060), a representative cohort aged 18+ years, were assessed at baseline in 2000-03 and follow-up in 2004-06. Diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes were determined from fasting plasma glucose (≥7.0. mmol/L) and self-reported data. Results: Baseline prevalences were 5.6% (95% CI 4.9-6.3) diagnosed and 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) undiagnosed diabetes. Annual incidences were 5.1 per 1000 diagnosed and 1.7 per 1000 undiagnosed diabetes. Among those with long-term diagnosed diabetes, 45.8% had HbA1c. ≤. 7.0%, 26.8% had blood pressure. <. 130/85. mmHg, 14.1% had body mass index. ≤. 25, 88.5% were non- or ex-smokers, 19.2% had total cholesterol. <. 4. mmol/L, 61.9% had triglycerides. <. 2.0. mmol/L, 83.0% had HDL. ≥. 1.0. mmol/L, and 45.6% had LDL. <. 2.5. mmol/L. Participants with incident diagnosed diabetes were more likely to achieve HbA1c and less likely to achieve LDL targets than those with long-term diagnosed diabetes. Few people treated with hypoglycaemics, antihypertensives or statins were achieving targets. Conclusions: Many people with diabetes are at risk of developing or worsening complications because they are not meeting recommended targets. Treatment with medication is also suboptimal, indicating a continued role for public health programs to reduce risk factors. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Hill C.L.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Gill T.K.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Shanahan E.M.,Repatriation General Hospital | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Aim: To determine the prevalence, correlates and impact of shoulder pain in a population-based sample. Methods: The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people aged 18 years and over. The original sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3206 participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006) and were asked to report whether they had pain, aching or stiffness on most days in either of their shoulders. Data was also collected on body mass index; shoulder range of motion, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors; the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF36) was used. Results: Overall, 22.3% of participants indicated that they had pain, aching or stiffness in either of their shoulders. Women, those aged 50 years and over, current smokers and those classified as obese were all significantly more likely to report shoulder pain. Respondents with shoulder pain scored lower on all domains of the SF36. In those with shoulder symptoms, women had more severe pain and worse shoulder function than men, and older people had worse shoulder function than younger people. Conclusion: Shoulder pain affects almost a quarter of people in the Australian community, with a significant detrimental impact on health-related quality of life and physical functioning. © 2010 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Foley W.,Flinders University | Ward P.,Flinders University | Carter P.,SA Health | Coveney J.,Flinders University | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective To estimate the extent of food insecurity in South Australia and its relationship with a variety of socio-economic variables.Design Data collected routinely from 2002 to 2007 by SA Health were analysed to explore food security in the States population. An ecological analysis of data collected by the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) that collects data on key health indicators. Questions on food security are asked periodically from July 2002 to December 2007.Setting South Australia.Subjects Over 37 000 interviewees took part in SAMSS surveys. Questions about food security were asked of 19 037 subjects. The sample was weighted by area, age and gender so that the results were representative of the South Australian population.Results Seven per cent (1342/19 037) of subjects reported running out of food during the previous year and not having enough money to buy food (food insecurity). Logistic regression analysis found food insecurity to be highest in households with low levels of education, limited capacity to save money, Aboriginal households, and households with three or more children.Conclusions The study confirms that food insecurity is strongly linked to economic disadvantage. Increasing cost of food is likely to exacerbate food insecurity. This is of concern given that food insecurity is associated with poor health, especially obesity and chronic disease. Comprehensive action at all levels is required to address root causes of food insecurity. Regular surveillance is required to continue to monitor levels of food security, but more in-depth understandings, via qualitative research, would be useful. © 2009 The Authors.

Loading Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit collaborators
Loading Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit collaborators