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Chittleborough C.R.,The Clearing | Baldock K.L.,The Clearing | Phillips P.J.,Endocrinology | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Aim: To assess achievement of management targets among participants with diagnosed diabetes. Methods: Participants in the North West Adelaide Health Study (n=. 4060), a representative cohort aged 18+ years, were assessed at baseline in 2000-03 and follow-up in 2004-06. Diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes were determined from fasting plasma glucose (≥7.0. mmol/L) and self-reported data. Results: Baseline prevalences were 5.6% (95% CI 4.9-6.3) diagnosed and 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) undiagnosed diabetes. Annual incidences were 5.1 per 1000 diagnosed and 1.7 per 1000 undiagnosed diabetes. Among those with long-term diagnosed diabetes, 45.8% had HbA1c. ≤. 7.0%, 26.8% had blood pressure. <. 130/85. mmHg, 14.1% had body mass index. ≤. 25, 88.5% were non- or ex-smokers, 19.2% had total cholesterol. <. 4. mmol/L, 61.9% had triglycerides. <. 2.0. mmol/L, 83.0% had HDL. ≥. 1.0. mmol/L, and 45.6% had LDL. <. 2.5. mmol/L. Participants with incident diagnosed diabetes were more likely to achieve HbA1c and less likely to achieve LDL targets than those with long-term diagnosed diabetes. Few people treated with hypoglycaemics, antihypertensives or statins were achieving targets. Conclusions: Many people with diabetes are at risk of developing or worsening complications because they are not meeting recommended targets. Treatment with medication is also suboptimal, indicating a continued role for public health programs to reduce risk factors. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Foley W.,Flinders University | Ward P.,Flinders University | Carter P.,Health Promotion Branch | Coveney J.,Flinders University | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective To estimate the extent of food insecurity in South Australia and its relationship with a variety of socio-economic variables.Design Data collected routinely from 2002 to 2007 by SA Health were analysed to explore food security in the States population. An ecological analysis of data collected by the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) that collects data on key health indicators. Questions on food security are asked periodically from July 2002 to December 2007.Setting South Australia.Subjects Over 37 000 interviewees took part in SAMSS surveys. Questions about food security were asked of 19 037 subjects. The sample was weighted by area, age and gender so that the results were representative of the South Australian population.Results Seven per cent (1342/19 037) of subjects reported running out of food during the previous year and not having enough money to buy food (food insecurity). Logistic regression analysis found food insecurity to be highest in households with low levels of education, limited capacity to save money, Aboriginal households, and households with three or more children.Conclusions The study confirms that food insecurity is strongly linked to economic disadvantage. Increasing cost of food is likely to exacerbate food insecurity. This is of concern given that food insecurity is associated with poor health, especially obesity and chronic disease. Comprehensive action at all levels is required to address root causes of food insecurity. Regular surveillance is required to continue to monitor levels of food security, but more in-depth understandings, via qualitative research, would be useful. © 2009 The Authors.

Hill C.L.,Rheumatology Unit | Gill T.K.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Shanahan E.M.,Rheumatology Unit | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Aim: To determine the prevalence, correlates and impact of shoulder pain in a population-based sample. Methods: The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people aged 18 years and over. The original sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3206 participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006) and were asked to report whether they had pain, aching or stiffness on most days in either of their shoulders. Data was also collected on body mass index; shoulder range of motion, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors; the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF36) was used. Results: Overall, 22.3% of participants indicated that they had pain, aching or stiffness in either of their shoulders. Women, those aged 50 years and over, current smokers and those classified as obese were all significantly more likely to report shoulder pain. Respondents with shoulder pain scored lower on all domains of the SF36. In those with shoulder symptoms, women had more severe pain and worse shoulder function than men, and older people had worse shoulder function than younger people. Conclusion: Shoulder pain affects almost a quarter of people in the Australian community, with a significant detrimental impact on health-related quality of life and physical functioning. © 2010 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Goldney R.D.,University of Adelaide | Goldney R.D.,Hanson Institute | Eckert K.A.,University of Adelaide | Eckert K.A.,Hanson Institute | And 3 more authors.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Objective: To identify changes in the prevalence of major depression between 1998, 2004 and 2008 in South Australia. Methods: Face-to-face Health Omnibus surveys were conducted in 1998, 2004 and 2008 with approximately 3000 participants aged 15 years and over, who were random and representative samples of the South Australian population. Each survey used the same methodology. Outcome measures were: major depression as detected by the Mood module of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders instrument; mental health literacy by recognition and exposure to classical symptoms of depression; and health status using the SF-36 Physical and Mental Component summaries. Results: There was a significant increase in the prevalence of major depression from 6.8% (95%CI: 5.9%-7.7%) to 10.3% (95%CI: 9.2-%11.4%; χ2 24.59, p < 0.001) between 1998 and 2008. Significant increases were observed in males aged 15-29 and females aged 30-49 years. There was no significant increase in any other sub-group. The strongest predictor of major depression was health status. Participants with poor/fair mental health literacy were 37% less likely to be classified with major depression. Conclusions: The prevalence of major depression increased significantly in South Australia over the last decade and there was a reduction in mental health status and an increase in persons reporting poor health. Unexpectedly, having poor or fair mental health literacy was significantly protective for major depression. Ideally, public health initiatives should result in an improvement in health, but this did not appear to have occurred here. © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists.

Massy-Westropp N.M.,University of South Australia | Gill T.K.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | Gill T.K.,University of Adelaide | Taylor A.W.,Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background: The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a community-based Australian population. Secondary aims were to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and hand grip strength, and to compare Australian data with international hand grip strength norms. Methods. The sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 (81% of those recruited) participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006) which specifically focused on the collection of information relating to musculoskeletal conditions. Results: Following the exclusion of 435 participants who had hand pain and/or arthritis, 1366 men and 1312 women participants provided hand grip strength measurement. The study population was relatively young, with 41.5% under 40 years; and their mean BMI was 28.1 kg/m 2 (SD 5.5). Higher hand grip strength was weakly related to higher BMI in adults under the age of 30 and over the age of 70, but inversely related to higher BMI between these ages. Australian norms from this sample had amongst the lowest of the hand grip strength of the internationally published norms, except those from underweight populations. Conclusions: This population demonstrated higher BMI and lower grip strength in younger participants than much of the international published, population data. A complete exploration of the relationship between BMI and hand grip strength was not fully explored as there were very few participants with BMI in the underweight range. The age and gender grip strength values are lower in younger adults than those reported in international literature. © 2011 Massy-Westropp et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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