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Riva M.,Laval University | Riva M.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | Larsen C.V.L.,University of Southern Denmark | Bjerregaard P.,University of Southern Denmark | Bjerregaard P.,University of Greenland
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: Poor housing conditions experienced by many Indigenous peoples threaten their health and well-being. This study examines whether household crowding is associated with poorer psychosocial health among Greenlanders, and the mediating role of social support. It also assesses whether Inuit men and women are differently influenced by their housing conditions.Methods: Data on more than 3,000 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit health in transition Greenland survey. Associations between household crowding and composition, and mental well-being and binge drinking were examined using logistic regression models, adjusting for individuals’ characteristics.Results: Household crowding was associated with poorer mental well-being. Binge drinking was more common among people living in households without children. These effects were more important for women than for men. The association between household crowding and mental well-being was significantly mediated by social support. This suggests that having a strong social network may buffer the deleterious impacts of household crowding.Conclusions: Targeting housing conditions and fostering social support as part of population health interventions might contribute to improving psychosocial health and well-being in Greenland. © 2014, Swiss School of Public Health. Source

Jull J.,University of Ottawa | Witteman H.O.,Laval University | Witteman H.O.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | Ferne J.,Ottawa | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Diabetes | Year: 2016

Introduction: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting from insulin deficiency and must be carefully managed to prevent serious health complications. Diabetes education and management strategies usually focus on meeting the decision-making needs of children and their families, but little is known about the decisional needs of people with adult-onset type 1 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the diabetes-related decision-making needs of people diagnosed with adult-onset type 1 diabetes. Methods: An interpretive descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Participants who self-identified as having adult-onset type 1 diabetes were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Transcripts were coded to identify needs, supports and barriers using thematic analysis. Results: Participating in the study were 8 adults (2 men, 6 women), ages 33 to 57, with type 1 diabetes for durations of 1 to 20 or more years. Their decision-making needs are summarized in 6 broad themes: 1) people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are launched into a process of decision-making; 2) being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes means you will always have to make decisions; 3) knowledge is crucial; 4) personal preferences matter; 5) support is critical for decisions about self-care in type 1 diabetes; 6) living with type 1 diabetes means making very individualized decisions about daily life. Conclusions: The findings describe the sudden and ubiquitous nature of type 1 diabetes decision-making and the need to tailor approaches for making care decisions in type 1 diabetes. People diagnosed with adult-onset type 1 diabetes require access to reliable information, support and opportunities for participation in decision-making. Introduction: Objectifs: Méthodes: Résultats: Conclusions: © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Source

Ngueta G.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | Laouan-Sidi E.A.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | Lucas M.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | Lucas M.,Laval University
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2014

Background: Estimation of relative contribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on health outcomes requires a regression model that includes both obesity metrics. But, multicollinearity could yield biased estimates. Methods: To address the multicollinearity issue between BMI and WC, we used the residual model approach. The standard WC (Y-axis) was regressed on the BMI (X-axis) to obtain residual WC. Data from two adult population surveys (Nunavik Inuit and James Bay Cree) were analysed to evaluate relative effect of BMI and WC on four cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein levels. Results: In multivariate models, standard WC and BMI were significantly associated with cardiometabolic outcomes. Residual WC was not linked with any outcomes. The BMI effect was weakened by including standard WC in the model, but its effect remained unchanged if residual WC was considered. Conclusions: The strong correlation between standard WC and BMI does not allow assessment of their relative contributions to health in the same model without a risk of making erroneous estimations. By contrast with BMI, fat distribution (residual WC) does not add valuable information to a model that already contains overall adiposity (BMI) in Inuit and Cree. Source

Johnson-Down L.,McGill University | Labonte M.E.,Laval University | Martin I.D.,University of Waterloo | Tsuji L.J.S.,University of Waterloo | And 8 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

Background and aims: Indigenous people worldwide have a greater disease burden than their non-aboriginal counterparts with health challenges that include increased obesity and higher prevalence of diabetes. We investigate the relationships of dietary patterns with nutritional biomarkers, selected environmental contaminants and measures of insulin resistance in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec Canada. Methods and results: The cross-sectional 'Nituuchischaayihitaau Aschii: A Multi-Community Environment-and-Health Study in Eeyou Istchee' recruited 835 adult participants (≥18y) from 7 communities in the James Bay region of northern Québec. The three dietary patterns identified by principal component analysis (PCA) were: inland and coastal patterns with loadings on traditional foods, and a junk food pattern with high-fat and high-sugar foods. We investigated dietary patterns scores (in quantiles) in relation with nutritional biomarkers, environmental contaminants, anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used as surrogate markers of insulin resistance. ANCOVA ascertained relationships between dietary patterns relationship and outcomes. Greater scores for the traditional patterns were associated with higher levels of n-3 fatty acids, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (P trend <0.001). Higher scores for the junk food pattern were associated with lower levels of PCBs and Vitamin D, but higher fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Our results suggest that poor diet quality accompanied greater insulin resistance. Impacts of diet quality on insulin resistance, as a sign of metabolism perturbation, deserve more attention in this indigenous population with high rates of obesity and diabetes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Diorio C.,Oncology Research Unit | Diorio C.,Deschenes Fabia Center for Breast Diseases | Diorio C.,Laval University | Dumas I.,Oncology Research Unit | And 4 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2013

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous chemicals found in the environment that accumulate in body fat and exhibit endocrine-disrupting properties. These compounds are therefore suspected of influencing breast cancer risk, but results from studies are inconsistent. To further clarify the role of PCBs in the etiology of breast cancer, the present study aimed to examine the relation of 24 PCB congener levels, which were considered individually and in combinations, with mammographic density, one of the risk factors most strongly associated with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Plasma PCB levels were measured by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in 106 post-menopausal women for whom mammographic density was measured using a computer-assisted method. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients adjusted for potentially confounding factors (rs) show that while levels of total PCBs do not appear to be correlated with the percentage mammographic density (rs=- 0.19, p=0.08), an increase in the plasma levels of congeners nos. 153, 183, 196 and combined Wolff group 3 PCBs is negatively correlated with the percentage mammographic density (r s =-0.24, p=0.03; rs =-0.30, p=0.004; rs =-0.22, p=0.04; and rs=-0.22, p=0.04 respectively). Conclusion: Our results suggest that an increase in the plasma levels of some PCB congeners, in particular cytochrome P450 1A1 inducers, is associated with lower mammographic density in post-menopausal women. Source

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