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Brechin S.R.,Syracuse University | Murray G.,Malaspina University College | Mogelgaard K.,Population Action International
Journal of Sustainable Forestry | Year: 2010

Placed within the people-park debates, the authors explore the complexities in defining protected area success. It is argued the selective focus on biodiversity as the only criterion for success often found in the broader literature has limited current discussions. The authors suggest the framing of protected area success should be seen as more multifaceted. Multiple perspectives and actors exist representing a number of interests at various scales across such domains as politics, economics, social legitimacy, scientific (ecological) knowledge. Each actor tends to highlight its own set of rationales. To illustrate their points, the authors present a case study from Quintana Roo, Mexico. They conclude by underscoring that it is the socio-political process of pursuing conservation itself that is likely more valuable to the efforts than a universally established notion of protected area success. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Mutunga C.,Population Action International
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2010

This paper reviews 44 National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) to assess the NAPA process and identify the range of interventions included in countries' priority adaptation actions and highlight how population issues and reproductive health/family planning (RH/FP) are addressed as part of the adaptation agenda. A majority of the 44 NAPAs identify rapid population growth as a key component of vulnerability to climate change impacts. However, few chose to prioritise NAPA funds for family planning/reproductive health programmes. The paper emphasizes the need to translate the recognition of population pressure as a factor related to countries' ability to adapt to climate change into relevant project activities. Such projects should include access to RH/FP, in addition to other strategies such as girls' education and women's empowerment that lead to lower fertility. Attention to population and integrated strategies should be central and aligned to longer-term national adaptation plans and strategies.

Jiang L.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Hardee K.,Population Action International
Population Research and Policy Review | Year: 2011

Although integrated assessment models (IAM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) consider population as one of the root causes of greenhouse gas emissions, how population dynamics affect climate change is still under debate. Population is rarely mentioned in policy debates on climate change. Studies in the past decade have added significantly to understanding the mechanisms and complexity of population and climate interactions. In addition to the growth of total population size, research shows that changes in population composition (i. e. age, urban-rural residence, and household structure) generate substantial effects on the climate system. Moreover, studies by the impact, vulnerability and adaptation (IAV) community also reveal that population dynamics are critical in the near term for building climate change resilience and within adaptation strategies. This paper explores how global population dynamics affect carbon emissions and climate systems, how recent demographic trends matter to worldwide efforts to adapt to climate change, and how population policies could make differences for climate change mitigation and adaptation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hardee K.,Population Action International | Mutunga C.,Population Action International | Mutunga C.,Second Street
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2010

As climate change adaptation planning moves beyond short term National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) to longer-term approaches, it is instructive to review the NAPA process and examine how well it was linked to national development planning. This paper reviews 41 NAPAs submitted by Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to assess the NAPA process in terms of NAPAs integration with countries' national development strategies. The review outlines the actors involved in developing NAPAs and identifies the range of interventions included in countries' priority adaptation actions. The paper uses the example of population as an issue related to both climate change and national development to assess how it is addressed as part of LDCs' adaptation and national development agendas. The analysis shows that although countries recognize population pressure as an issue related to the ability to cope with climate change and as a factor hindering progress in meeting development goals, it is not well incorporated into either adaptation planning or in national development strategies. Among the 41 NAPAs, 37 link high and rapid population growth to climate change. Moreover, six NAPAs clearly state that slowing population growth or investments in reproductive health/ family planning (RH/FP) should be considered among the country's priority adaptation actions. Furthermore, two NAPAs actually propose a project with components of RH/FP among their priority adaptation interventions, although none of them has yet been funded. The paper points to structural issues that hamper better alignment between climate change adaptation and national development planning and offers recommendations for longer-term adaptation strategies that better meet the development needs of countries. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

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