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Tran N.-T.,University of New South Wales | Dawson A.,University of Technology, Sydney | Meyers J.,International Medical Corps | Krause S.,Womens Refugee Commission | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Introduction. Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS), yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS. Materials and Methods. Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool. Results. Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%), but was also embraced by development organizations (25%) and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%). Agencies reported working with refugees (81%), internally-displaced (87%) and stateless persons (20%), in camp-based settings (78%), and in urban (83%) and rural settings (78%). Sixtyeight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHSrelated disaster risk reduction (DRR), emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management of sexually-transmitted infections, adolescent RH, and family planning. Approximately half of participants reported that their institutions had experienced an increase in dedicated budget and staff for RHHS, a fifth no change, and 1 in 10 a decrease. The Interagency RH Kits were reportedly the most commonly used supplies to support RHHS implementation. Conclusion. The results suggest overall growth in institutional capacity in RHHS over the past decade, indicating that the field has matured and expanded from crisis response to include RHHS into DRR and other elements of the emergency management cycle. It is critical to consolidate the progress to date, address gaps, and sustain momentum. © 2015 Tran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Brechin S.R.,Syracuse University | Murray G.,Malaspina University College | Mogelgaard K.,Population Action International
Journal of Sustainable Forestry | Year: 2010

Placed within the people-park debates, the authors explore the complexities in defining protected area success. It is argued the selective focus on biodiversity as the only criterion for success often found in the broader literature has limited current discussions. The authors suggest the framing of protected area success should be seen as more multifaceted. Multiple perspectives and actors exist representing a number of interests at various scales across such domains as politics, economics, social legitimacy, scientific (ecological) knowledge. Each actor tends to highlight its own set of rationales. To illustrate their points, the authors present a case study from Quintana Roo, Mexico. They conclude by underscoring that it is the socio-political process of pursuing conservation itself that is likely more valuable to the efforts than a universally established notion of protected area success. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Jiang L.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Hardee K.,Population Action International
Population Research and Policy Review | Year: 2011

Although integrated assessment models (IAM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) consider population as one of the root causes of greenhouse gas emissions, how population dynamics affect climate change is still under debate. Population is rarely mentioned in policy debates on climate change. Studies in the past decade have added significantly to understanding the mechanisms and complexity of population and climate interactions. In addition to the growth of total population size, research shows that changes in population composition (i. e. age, urban-rural residence, and household structure) generate substantial effects on the climate system. Moreover, studies by the impact, vulnerability and adaptation (IAV) community also reveal that population dynamics are critical in the near term for building climate change resilience and within adaptation strategies. This paper explores how global population dynamics affect carbon emissions and climate systems, how recent demographic trends matter to worldwide efforts to adapt to climate change, and how population policies could make differences for climate change mitigation and adaptation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Hardee K.,Population Action International | Mutunga C.,Population Action International | Mutunga C.,Second Street
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2010

As climate change adaptation planning moves beyond short term National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) to longer-term approaches, it is instructive to review the NAPA process and examine how well it was linked to national development planning. This paper reviews 41 NAPAs submitted by Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to assess the NAPA process in terms of NAPAs integration with countries' national development strategies. The review outlines the actors involved in developing NAPAs and identifies the range of interventions included in countries' priority adaptation actions. The paper uses the example of population as an issue related to both climate change and national development to assess how it is addressed as part of LDCs' adaptation and national development agendas. The analysis shows that although countries recognize population pressure as an issue related to the ability to cope with climate change and as a factor hindering progress in meeting development goals, it is not well incorporated into either adaptation planning or in national development strategies. Among the 41 NAPAs, 37 link high and rapid population growth to climate change. Moreover, six NAPAs clearly state that slowing population growth or investments in reproductive health/ family planning (RH/FP) should be considered among the country's priority adaptation actions. Furthermore, two NAPAs actually propose a project with components of RH/FP among their priority adaptation interventions, although none of them has yet been funded. The paper points to structural issues that hamper better alignment between climate change adaptation and national development planning and offers recommendations for longer-term adaptation strategies that better meet the development needs of countries. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Mutunga C.,Population Action International.
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2010

This paper reviews 44 National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) to assess the NAPA process and identify the range of interventions included in countries' priority adaptation actions and highlight how population issues and reproductive health/family planning (RH/FP) are addressed as part of the adaptation agenda. A majority of the 44 NAPAs identify rapid population growth as a key component of vulnerability to climate change impacts. However, few chose to prioritise NAPA funds for family planning/reproductive health programmes. The paper emphasizes the need to translate the recognition of population pressure as a factor related to countries' ability to adapt to climate change into relevant project activities. Such projects should include access to RH/FP, in addition to other strategies such as girls' education and women's empowerment that lead to lower fertility. Attention to population and integrated strategies should be central and aligned to longer-term national adaptation plans and strategies.


PubMed | Population Action International.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2011

This paper reviews 44 National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) to assess the NAPA process and identify the range of interventions included in countries priority adaptation actions and highlight how population issues and reproductive health/family planning (RH/FP) are addressed as part of the adaptation agenda. A majority of the 44 NAPAs identify rapid population growth as a key component of vulnerability to climate change impacts. However, few chose to prioritise NAPA funds for family planning/reproductive health programmes. The paper emphasizes the need to translate the recognition of population pressure as a factor related to countries ability to adapt to climate change into relevant project activities. Such projects should include access to RH/FP, in addition to other strategies such as girls education and womens empowerment that lead to lower fertility. Attention to population and integrated strategies should be central and aligned to longer-term national adaptation plans and strategies.

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