Morris M.,University of Washington |
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
Background: Higher prevalence of concurrent partnerships is one hypothesis for the severity of the HIV epidemic in the countries of Southern Africa. But measures of the prevalence of concurrency alone do not adequately capture the impact concurrency will have on transmission dynamics. The importance of overlap duration and coital exposure are examined here. Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted a comparison of data from three studies of sexual behavior carried out in the early 1990s in Uganda, Thailand and the US. Using cumulative concurrency measures, the three countries appeared somewhat similar. Over 50% of both Thai and Ugandan men reported a concurrency within the last three partnerships and over 20% reported a concurrency in the last year, the corresponding rates among US men were nearly 20% for Blacks and Hispanics, and about 10% for other racial/ethnic groups. Concurrency measures that were more sensitive to overlap duration, however, showed large differences. The point prevalence of concurrency on the day of interview was over 10% among Ugandan men compared to 1% for Thai men. Ugandan concurrencies were much longer duration - a median of about two years - than either the Thai (1 day) or US concurrencies (4-9 months across all groups), and involved 5-10 times more coital risk exposure with the less frequent partner. In the US, Blacks and Hispanics reported higher prevalence, longer duration and greater coital exposure than Whites, but were lower than Ugandans on nearly every measure. Together, the differences in the prevalence, duration and coital exposure of concurrent partnerships observed align with the HIV prevalence differentials seen in these populations at the time the data were collected. Conclusions/Significance: There were substantial variations in the patterns of concurrent partnerships within and between populations. More long-term overlapping partnerships, with regular coital exposure, were found in populations with greater HIV epidemic severity. © 2010 Morris et al.
Health Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015
Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012
Prostaglandins have mainly been used for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when other measures fail. Misoprostol, a new and inexpensive prostaglandin E1 analogue, has been suggested as an alternative for routine management of the third stage of labour. To assess the effects of prophylactic prostaglandin use in the third stage of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (7 January 2011). We updated this search on 25 May 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section. Randomised trials comparing a prostaglandin agent with another uterotonic or no prophylactic uterotonic (nothing or placebo) as part of management of the third stage of labour. The primary outcomes were blood loss 1000 mL or more and the use of additional uterotonics. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. We included 72 trials (52,678 women). Oral or sublingual misoprostol compared with placebo is effective in reducing severe PPH (oral: seven trials, 6225 women, not totalled due to significant heterogeneity; sublingual: risk ratio (RR) 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 0.98; one trial, 661 women) and blood transfusion (oral: RR 0.31; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.94; four trials, 3519 women).Compared with conventional injectable uterotonics, oral misoprostol was associated with higher risk of severe PPH (RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.52; 17 trials, 29,797 women) and use of additional uterotonics, but with a trend to fewer blood transfusions (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.06; 15 trials; 28,213 women). Additional uterotonic data were not totalled due to heterogeneity. Misoprostol use is associated with significant increases in shivering and a temperature of 38 o Celsius compared with both placebo and other uterotonics. Oral or sublingual misoprostol shows promising results when compared with placebo in reducing blood loss after delivery. The margin of benefit may be affected by whether other components of the management of the third stage of labour are used or not. As side-effects are dose-related, research should be directed towards establishing the lowest effective dose for routine use, and the optimal route of administration.Neither intramuscular prostaglandins nor misoprostol are preferable to conventional injectable uterotonics as part of the management of the third stage of labour especially for low-risk women; however, evidence has been building for the use of oral misoprostol to be effective and safe in areas with low access to facilities and skilled healthcare providers and future research on misoprostol use in the community should focus on implementation issues.
Finocchario-Kessler S.,Johns Hopkins Bloomberg |
Sweat M.D.,Johns Hopkins Bloomberg |
Dariotis J.K.,Population |
Kerrigan D.L.,Johns Hopkins Bloomberg
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2010
To assess childbearing motivations, fertility desires and intentions, and their relationship with key factors, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 181 HIV-infected women of reproductive age (15-44 years) receiving clinical care at two urban health clinics. Fertility desires (59%) and intentions (66% of those who desired a child) were high among this predominately African American sample of women, while the proportion with accurate knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was low (15%). Multivariate regression analyses identified factors significantly associated with the intention to have a child. Notably, age and parity did not remain significant in the adjusted model. The discrepancies between expressed desires and intentions for future childbearing, and the strong role of perceived partner desire for childbearing emphasize the need for universal reproductive counseling to help women living with HIV navigate their reproductive decisions and facilitate safe pregnancies and healthy children. © Springer Science±Business Media, LLC 2009.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: Incomplete miscarriage is a major problem that should be effectively managed with safe and appropriate procedures. Surgical evacuation of the uterus for management of incomplete miscarriage usually involves vacuum aspiration or sharp curettage. OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety and effectiveness of surgical uterine evacuation methods for management of incomplete miscarriage. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2010). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials where different surgical methods were used to manage incomplete miscarriage were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted population characteristics, settings, and exclusion criteria, in addition to outcomes such as complications of the procedure, duration, need for re-evacuation, blood transfusion, and analgesia/anesthesia. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials (involving 550 women) were included. Vacuum aspiration was associated with statistically significantly decreased blood loss (mean difference (MD) -17.10 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) -24.05 to -10.15 ml), less pain during the procedure (risk ratio (RR) 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.90), and shorter duration of the procedure (MD -1.20 minutes, 95% CI -1.53 to -0.87 minutes), than sharp metal curettage, in the single study that evaluated these outcomes in 357 women. Serious complications such as uterine perforation and other morbidity were rare and the sample sizes of the trials were not large enough to evaluate small or moderate differences. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although the review indicates that vacuum aspiration is safe, quick to perform, and less painful than sharp curettage, and should be recommended for use in the management of incomplete miscarriage, the results are based on data from only one study. Analgesia and sedation should be provided as necessary for the procedure.