Popa Mountain Park

Kyaukpadaung, Myanmar

Popa Mountain Park

Kyaukpadaung, Myanmar
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Yang W.S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Jeong D.,Sungkyunkwan University | Yi Y.-S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee B.-H.,National Institute of Biological Resources | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Myrsine seguinii H. LÉVEILLÉ (syn. Rapanea neriifolia) (Myrsinaceae) is a medicinal plants traditionally used in Myanmar to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases. Since none of reports have systematically demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant, we aimed to mechanistically understand the regulatory roles of the plant in inflammatory responses using the ethanolic extract of Myrsine seguinii (Ms-EE). Materials and methods Activated macrophages and peritonitis symptoms induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were employed. HPLC analysis was used to identify active components. To characterize direct target enzymes, kinase assay was established. Results Ms-EE inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 in RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages stimulated by LPS. This extract suppressed the mRNA expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 genes by down-regulating the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP-1). Interestingly, it was found that Ms-EE can directly suppress the enzyme activities of Syk, Src, and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1). Similarly, orally administered Ms-EE inhibited the phosphorylation of Src and Syk in peritoneal exudate-derived cells prepared from peritonitis. Finally, HPLC analysis clearly demonstrated that quercetin is a major active component with suppressing activity on the release of inflammatory mediators (NO and PGE 2), and the enzyme activities of Src, Syk, and IRAK-1. Conclusion Ms-EE containing quercetin negatively modulates macrophage-mediated in vitro inflammatory responses and LPS-induced peritonitis by blocking the Src/Syk/NF-κB and IRAK-1/AP-1 pathways, which contributes to its major ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory herbal medicine. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Tseng Y.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Kim Y.-D.,Hallym University | Peng C.-I.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Htwe K.M.,Popa Mountain Park | And 3 more authors.
Botanical Studies | Year: 2017

Background: A new species, Begonia myanmarica, was discovered from Myanmar and herein documented. Characterized by a single developed wing in the ovary/fruit, this species would be assigned to sect. Monopteron (sensu Doorenbos et al. in The sections of Begonia including descriptions, keys and species lists: studies in Begoniaceae VI. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, 1998) that is known by B. griffithiana and B. nepalensis from the Himalaya. To confirm its sectional assignment, we conducted morphological, phylogenetic and cytological studies. Results: Morphological observations indicated that B. myanmarica was distinguishable from the two known species of sect. Monopteron by the leaf shape and size, 1-locular ovary, parietal placentation and chromosome number. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using nrITS sequences showed that B. myanmarica was not allied with the clade of sect. Monopteron, though both were nested within sect. Platycentrum-sect. Sphenanthera clade. Conclusions: Studies of morphology, molecular phylogenetics and cytology support the recognition of the new species, Begonia myanmarica, which is fully described and illustrated. Our results also indicate that B. myanmarica is not closely related to species previously assigned to sect. Monopteron, suggesting that the fruit morphology of a single developed wing in the ovary/fruit characterizing sect. Monopteron is homoplasious. © 2017, The Author(s).


Yang W.S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee B.-H.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Kim S.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim H.G.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae) has been traditionally used to treat various inflammatory symptoms. However, no mechanistic studies on the anti-inflammatory actions of D. tuberculatus have been reported. This study is therefore aimed at exploring the anti-inflammatory effects of 95% ethanol extracts (Dt-EE) of this plant. Materials and methods: The regulatory activity of Dt-EE and its molecular mechanism on the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E 2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were elucidated by evaluating the activation of transcription factors and their upstream signals and by analyzing the kinase activities of target enzymes. Furthermore, to confirm its availability for oral use, an EtOH/HCl-induced acute gastritis model was tested with this extract. Results: Dt-EE effectively suppressed LPS-mediated inflammatory responses such as the production of NO and PGE2 from macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, Dt-EE clearly blocked the activation of NF-κB by blocking the phosphorylation of its upstream enzymes IKK and Akt. Using a direct enzyme assay, Dt-EE was shown to block the enzyme activity of PDK1. Finally, this extract also remarkably ameliorated inflammatory lesions in the stomach induced by EtOH/HCl. Conclusion: Our data strongly suggest that Dt-EE can be considered as a novel anti-inflammatory remedy with PDK1/NF-κB inhibitory properties and can also be used to treat gastritis symptoms. In addition, our findings can serve as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Kim A.,Catholic University of Korea | Choi J.,Seoul National UniversitySeoul | Htwe K.M.,Popa Mountain Park | Chin Y.-W.,Dongguk University | And 2 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2015

Abstract Phytochemical investigations of the aerial parts of Acacia pennata (Mimosaceae) from Myanmar led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides and six known compounds. The new compounds were identified as (2R, 3S)-3,5,7-trihdyroxyflavan-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, (2S)-5,7-dihydroxyflavan-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(4α → 8)-epiafzelechin-3-O-gallate, (2R)-4′,7-dihydroxyflavan-(4α → 8)-(2R, 3S)-3,5,7-trihdyroxyflavan-3″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone 6-C-β-boivinopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone 7-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-8-C-β-boivinopyranoside based on interpretation of spectroscopic data. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Popa Mountain Park, Hallym University, Seoul National University, REPUBLIC RESOURCES and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Myrsine seguinii H. LVEILL (syn. Rapanea neriifolia) (Myrsinaceae) is a medicinal plants traditionally used in Myanmar to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases. Since none of reports have systematically demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant, we aimed to mechanistically understand the regulatory roles of the plant in inflammatory responses using the ethanolic extract of Myrsine seguinii (Ms-EE).Activated macrophages and peritonitis symptoms induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were employed. HPLC analysis was used to identify active components. To characterize direct target enzymes, kinase assay was established.Ms-EE inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 in RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages stimulated by LPS. This extract suppressed the mRNA expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 genes by down-regulating the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-B and activator protein (AP-1). Interestingly, it was found that Ms-EE can directly suppress the enzyme activities of Syk, Src, and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1). Similarly, orally administered Ms-EE inhibited the phosphorylation of Src and Syk in peritoneal exudate-derived cells prepared from peritonitis. Finally, HPLC analysis clearly demonstrated that quercetin is a major active component with suppressing activity on the release of inflammatory mediators (NO and PGE2), and the enzyme activities of Src, Syk, and IRAK-1.Ms-EE containing quercetin negatively modulates macrophage-mediated in vitro inflammatory responses and LPS-induced peritonitis by blocking the Src/Syk/NF-B and IRAK-1/AP-1 pathways, which contributes to its major ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory herbal medicine.


Choi J.,Seoul National University | Cho J.Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Choi S.J.,Catholic University of Korea | Jeon H.,Catholic University of Korea | And 6 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2015

Two new phenolic glucosides, 1-O-benzyl-6-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and 1-O-(7S,8R)-guaiacylglycerol-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lagerstroemia speciosa, along with ten known compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on 1D- and 2D-NMR, Q-TOF MS and optical rotation spectroscopic data. All of the compounds showed moderate inhibitory activities against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells, with IC50 values of 69.5-83.3 μM. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI.


Jung M.,Catholic University of Korea | Choi J.,Seoul National University | Chae H.-S.,Dongguk University | Cho J.Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 6 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2015

A novel isoflavone glycoside, peseudobatigenin 7- O-[β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1''''→5''')-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1'''→6'')]-β- D-glucopyranoside, namely sympracemoside (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Symplocos racemosa along with 15 known flavonoids (2-16). Their structures were characterized by Q-TOF mass, optical rotation, UV, 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 9, 16 showed moderate inhibitory activities against NO production with IC50 value of 88.2, 42.1 and 74.3 μM, respectively. © 2014 by the authors licensee MDPI Basel Switzerland.


PubMed | Popa mountain park, Hallym University, Seoul National University, Dongguk University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Two new phenolic glucosides, 1-O-benzyl-6-O-E-caffeoyl--d-glucopyranoside and 1-O-(7S,8R)-guaiacylglycerol-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)--d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lagerstroemia speciosa, along with ten known compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on 1D- and 2D-NMR, Q-TOF MS and optical rotation spectroscopic data. All of the compounds showed moderate inhibitory activities against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells, with IC50 values of 69.5-83.3 M.


PubMed | Popa Mountain Park, Catholic University of Korea, Dongguk University and Seoul National University
Type: | Journal: Phytochemistry | Year: 2015

Phytochemical investigations of the aerial parts of Acacia pennata (Mimosaceae) from Myanmar led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides and six known compounds. The new compounds were identified as (2R,3S)-3,5,7-trihdyroxyflavan-3-O--L-rhamnopyranoside, (2S)-5,7-dihydroxyflavan-7-O--D-glucopyranoside-(4 8)-epiafzelechin-3-O-gallate, (2R)-4,7-dihydroxyflavan-(4 8)-(2R,3S)-3,5,7-trihdyroxyflavan-3-O--L-rhamnopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone 6-C--boivinopyranosyl-7-O--D-glucopyranoside, and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone 7-O--D-glucopyranosyl-8-C--boivinopyranoside based on interpretation of spectroscopic data.


Kim E.,Sungkyunkwan University | Yoon K.D.,Catholic University of Korea | Lee W.-S.,Seoul National University | Yang W.S.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Codariocalyx motorius (Houtt.) H. Ohashi (Fabaceae) is one of several ethnopharmacologically valuable South Asian species prescribed as an herbal medicine for various inflammatory diseases. Due to the lack of systematic studies on this plant, we aimed to explore the inhibitory activity of Codariocalyx motorius toward inflammatory responses using its ethanolic extract (Cm-EE). Materials and methods Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages and a HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis model were used for evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Cm-EE. HPLC and spectroscopic analysis were employed to identify potential active components. Mechanistic approaches to determine target enzymes included kinase assays, reporter gene assays, and overexpression of target enzymes. Results Cm-EE strongly suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. Cm-EE-mediated inhibition was observed at the transcriptional level in the form of suppression of NF-κB (p65) translocation and activation. This extract also lowered the levels of phosphorylation of Src and Syk, their kinase activity, and their formation of signalling complexes by binding to the downstream enzyme p85/PI3K. In accord with these findings, the phosphorylation of p85 induced by overexpression of Src or Syk was also diminished by Cm-EE. Orally administered Cm-EE clearly inhibited gastritic ulcer formation and the phosphorylation of IκBα and Src in HCl/EtOH-treated stomachs of mice. By phytochemical analysis, luteolin and its glycoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, and scutellarein-6-O-glucuronide were identified as major components of Cm-EE. Among these, it was found that luteolin was able to strongly suppress NO and PGE2 production under the same conditions. Conclusion Syk/Src-targeted inhibition of NF-κB by Cm-EE could be a major anti-inflammatory mechanism contributing to its ethno pharmacological role as an anti-inflammatory herbal medicine. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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