The Pontifical Gregorian University is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy.Originally founded as the Collegio Romano in 1551 by Saint Ignatius of Loyola over 460 years ago, the Gregorian University was the first university founded by the Society of Jesus, otherwise known as the Jesuits. Its present name was given by Pope Gregory XIII. Containing faculties and institutes of various disciplines of the humanities, the Gregorian has one of the largest and most distinguished theology departments in the world, with over 1600 students from over 130 countries. Wikipedia.
Friston K.,University College London |
Sengupta B.,Pontifical Gregorian University |
Auletta G.,University College London
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2014
This paper combines recent formulations of self-organization and neuronal processing to provide an account of cognitive dynamics from basic principles. We start by showing that inference (and autopoiesis) are emergent features of any (weakly mixing) ergodic random dynamical system. We then apply the emergent dynamics to action and perception in a way that casts action as the fulfillment of (Bayesian) beliefs about the causes of sensations. More formally, we formulate ergodic flows on global random attractors as a generalized descent on a free energy functional of the internal states of a system. This formulation rests on a partition of states based on a Markov blanket that separates internal states from hidden states in the external milieu. This separation means that the internal states effectively represent external states probabilistically. The generalized descent is then related to classical Bayesian (e.g., Kalman-Bucy) filtering and predictive coding-of the sort that might be implemented in the brain. Finally, we present two simulations. The first simulates a primordial soup to illustrate the emergence of a Markov blanket and (active) inference about hidden states. The second uses the same emergent dynamics to simulate action and action observation. © 2014 IEEE.
Bohm B.,University of Ulm |
Zollner H.,Pontifical Gregorian University |
Fegert J.M.,University of Ulm |
Liebhardt H.,University of Ulm
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse | Year: 2014
Child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church has been increasingly recognized as a problem not limited to individual institutions. Recent inquiry commission reports provide substantial information on offense dynamics, but their conclusions have not been synthesized with empirical research to date. The aim of this systematic literature review was to bring together key findings and identify gaps in the evidence base. The three main focus points were (a) types of publications and methodology used, (b) frequency information on child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church, (c) individual factors in offending, and (d) institutional factors in offending. It was found that reports, legal assessments, and research on child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church provide extensive descriptive and qualitative information for five different countries. This includes individual psychological factors (static risk predictors, multiple trajectories) and institutional factors (opportunity, social dynamics) as well as prevalence rates illustrating a high "dark figure" of child sexual abuse. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Dohna Y.Z.,Pontifical Gregorian University
Ikon | Year: 2010
Visual arts can express deep emotional feelings that go beyond mere iconographic representation. Mary Magdalene is the original figure of repentance, even more than St Jerome or St Francis. The figure is also closely connected to the relationship of Christ with female figures. This paper will illustrate the emergence of this iconography, based on the former model of Mary Aegyptiaca as well as the evolution of this figure from the late Middle Ages onwards. In particular we will try to clarify when, how, and why started the portrayal of penance of Mary Magdalene in art. The roots of the representation of Mary Magdalene probably go back to the thirteenth century and are connected to the Franciscans, who were the first to introduce an iconography of penance. This development is closely connected with the new definition of penance, hermits, but also the new role, even spiritual, of women in that period, characterized by strong growth of female yearning in religiosity, both in its most spontaneous forms and in monastic codification of the Clarisse. The depiction of Mary Magdalene by various artists, finally, captures this ambivalence between individuality and vision of society. One could interpret this iconography as a decrease in the power and role of women in the Church, which transforms her role of a missionary, social and active, into a sinner. The fact that in the first representations of the penitent, unlike the following ones, the naked body of the sinner is not presented, and instead we perceive angels who communicate with her and feed with the bread, puts strong emphasis on chastity and the deep psychological conversion of female figure covered with a hairy coat, based on a personal and intimate relationship with God. This is also reflected in St Francis, who recognizes in a woman, as already did Jesus, a parity and equality with man. In this Franciscan atmosphere the convent of St Clare was founded, under the guidance of Francis, but it had been announced before the renewed female religious turmoil. The depiction of Mary Magdalene, therefore, not only expresses a social situation of women, but a deeper understanding of women in the Franciscan environment.
Preparata G.G.,Pontifical Gregorian University
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2013
Strain and Defiance are criminological theories that lay ambivalent emphasis on the notion of "rebellion," which is to say that they both regard mutinous behavior as being motivated by positive or negative ends alike. Individuals rebel, say, by stealing in order to achieve higher status (economic strain); or they may violently antagonize authority as a way to "salvage dignity" in an environment in which they have no social stake whatsoever (defiance). Conversely, they may responsibly protest to oppose blind consumerism (strain); or they may civilly disobey racist laws (political defiance). It is here argued that both theories may be construed as special cases of a general problem, which Thorstein Veblen had already diagnosed in 1899. Veblen depicted social dynamics as a battle between the deterring forces of conservatism, which are animated by an overpowering predatory-pecuniary instinct, and those of progressivism, which rely, on the other hand, on an (ever more enfeebled) instinct of cooperation and workmanship. In this Veblenian model, civil defiance represents a challenge of the peaceable middle-class to the rule of the elite, whereas economically-strained defiance is the expression of the attempt of (middle to low) classes possessed by a pecuniary drive to emulate the status of the elite itself. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Flannery K.L.,Pontifical Gregorian University
Christian Bioethics | Year: 2011
Decisions about withdrawing or continuing life-sustaining treatments are often not made in a reasoned manner: those who must make the decisions are often not sure what would constitute an upright decision and, therefore, doubt the correctness of the decisions they have made or are about to make. Making use especially of what Thomas Aquinas says about omissions (i.e., omitting to do something), this article attempts to establish some principles regarding when and why one might (and might not) morally withdraw life-sustaining treatments, regarding the grounds on which a family might resist a doctor's decision to withdraw treatment (or a doctor the family's wishes) and regarding other related issues. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of The Journal of Christian Bioethics, Inc. All rights reserved.