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Porto Alegre, Brazil

The Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul , often abbreviated as PUCRS, is a private non-profit Catholic university. With campuses in the Brazilian cities of Porto Alegre and Viamão, it is the largest private university of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and the first university founded by the Catholic religious institute of the Marist Brothers. PUCRS is considered the best private university of Brazil's Southern Region by the Ministry of Education , and one of the best private universities in the country, with FGV, PUC-Rio and the PUC-SP. Wikipedia.

Vasconcelos A.C.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul
Journal of oral science | Year: 2010

The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the concentrations of blood and salivary glucose as well as salivary flow and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean salivary glucose level in diabetic patients was 14.03 +/-16.76 mg/dl and 6.35 +/- 6.02 mg/dl (P = 0.036) in the control group. The mean capillary blood glucose level in diabetic patients was 213 +/- 88 mg/dl, while that in non-diabetic patients was 99 +/- 14 mg/dl (P = 0.000). The mean value for resting salivary flow was 0.21 +/- 0.16 ml/min in diabetic patients and 0.33 +/- 0.20 ml/min in the control group (P = 0.002). The stimulated salivary flow was lower in the group of diabetic patients, with a mean of 0.63 +/- 0.43 ml/min, whereas the control group showed a mean of 1.20 +/- 0.70 ml/min (P = 0.000). Of the diabetic patients, 45% exhibited hyposalivation, in contrast to 2.5% of the non-diabetic patients (P = 0.000). Xerostomia was reported in 12.5% of diabetic patients and 5% of non-diabetic patients (P = 0.23). We can conclude that salivary glucose concentration was significantly higher in the experimental group and that there was no correlation between salivary and blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. The total salivary flow was significantly reduced in diabetic patients and there was no significant difference as to the presence of xerostomia in both groups. Source

Do Prado A.D.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010

Objective: To systematically review the evidence of the association of anticardiolipin antibodies with preeclampsia. Data sources: PubMed and LILACS were perused up to June 2009, citations were searched using the ISI Web of Knowledge database, textbooks and reference lists were reviewed, and experts were contacted. Search terms included "antiphospholipid syndrome," "Hughes' syndrome," "anticardiolipin antibodies," "antiphospholipid antibodies," "anti-cardiolipin," "preeclampsia," and "pre-eclampsia." Methods of study selection: Inclusion criteria were: cohorts, case-control, or controlled cross-sectional studies; healthy pregnancy as controls; no autoimmune diseases; immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM anticardiolipin antibody of at least 20 units by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or both; and end-point preeclampsia. Tabulation, integration, and Results: Our search generated 68,528 entries and 64 full-text articles were reviewed. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio (OR) for association of anticardiolipin antibodies with preeclampsia was 2.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-5.98). Pooled OR for anticardiolipin antibodies and severe preeclampsia was 11.15 (95% CI 2.66-46.75). Funnel plot showed minor asymmetry, and the Egger test was not significant (P=.359). Meta-regression identified study design and size as related to heterogeneity. Conclusion: Moderate-to-high levels of anticardiolipin antibodies are associated with preeclampsia, but there is insufficient evidence to use anticardiolipin antibodies as predictors of preeclampsia in clinical practice. © 2010 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Prikladnicki R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul
Journal of software: Evolution and Process | Year: 2012

In social psychology, propinquity refers to the physical (objective) or psychological (subjective) proximity between people. In this paper, we explore the psychological dimension of propinquity by examining the phenomenon of feeling distant from geographically distributed people, in the context of distributed software teams. The perceived distance is an important challenge faced by distributed teams, and it is frequently based on factors beyond the physical distance, such as communication and cultural differences. The purpose of this paper is to present a model to assess and make more visible the construct of 'perceived distance' among members of global software engineering teams. The model was applied in three real-world cases to assess its effectiveness in uncovering hidden and useful information during the project lifecycle. The practical experience lived with the quantification of perceived distance gave us good indication that this data can benefit the practice of global software engineering. In most of the projects evaluated, project managers were not expecting the results found. We present the model, details of its applications, analysis of the results, lessons learned and practical implications for the management of distributed software projects and teams. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Lara D.R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (< 6 cups/day) has been associated with less depressive symptoms, fewer cognitive failures, and lower risk of suicide. However, its putative therapeutic effects on depression and ADHD have been insufficiently studied. Conversely, in rare cases high doses of caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders. © 2010 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Buchweitz A.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Prat C.,University of Washington
Physics of Life Reviews | Year: 2013

The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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