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Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic

Lalonde L.F.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency | Reyes J.,Pontifical Catholic University Madre y Maestra | Gajadhar A.A.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli ( ×3), Cryptosporidium parvum ( ×3), Cryptosporidium hominis ( ×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis ( ×1), Cryptosporidium canis ( ×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis ( ×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Torres E.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | de monegro Z.Q.,Pontifical Catholic University Madre y Maestra | Guido J.,University of Rochester | Ossip D.J.,University of Rochester
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and practices regarding tobacco use and exposure among pregnant women in the Dominican Republic. Methods: The survey was conducted in two public health hospitals in Santiago, Dominican Republic, and was administered to a convenience sample of 192 women during prenatal care visits. Analyses examined pregnant women's tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure (SHS), knowledge about risks of smoking and benefits of quitting, and attitudes toward women's tobacco use. All data were collected between April and August 2009. Results: Respondents' age ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean age of 25 years (SD = 4.59), a high literacy level (82%), low educational levels (48% less than high school education), and a high unemployment rate (65%). Levels of ever having experimented with cigarettes were 14%, and 5% had ever been a regular smoker. Among all respondents, 3% of women reported being current smokers. When respondents were asked if they would try smoking next year, 7% responded yes, maybe, or don't know. Rates of self-reported SHS among pregnant women were 16%, and 14% reported their young children being exposed to secondhand smoke. More than half of the pregnant women in this study allowed smoking in their home (76%). Conclusions: This study provides a preliminary understanding of tobacco use and exposure among pregnant women and its potential impact on the Dominican Republic's public health efforts that include improving maternal and child health. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. Source

Efe M.,Purdue University | Moscoso W.,Pontifical Catholic University Madre y Maestra | Moscoso W.,Purdue University | Trumble K.P.,Purdue University | And 2 more authors.
Acta Materialia | Year: 2012

An analysis of the mechanics of large strain extrusion machining (LSEM), a constrained chip formation process, is presented for deformation processing of bulk alloys. The deformation field is shown to be narrowly confined and controllable, with attributes ranging from conventional deformation processing to severe plastic deformation. Controllable deformation parameters include strain/strain rate, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and deformation path. These attributes are highlighted in deformation processing of Mg AZ31B, an alloy of commercial significance but noted for its poor workability, into sheet and foil forms. Noteworthy features of the processing are suppression of segmentation, realization of a range of strains and deformation rates, engineering of microstructures ranging from conventional to ultrafine grained, and creation of sheet/foil from the bulk in a single step of deformation without pre-heating. Guidelines for realizing specific sheet attributes, and scalability of LSEM for production are analyzed and discussed. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Guo Y.,Purdue University | Efe M.,Purdue University | Moscoso W.,Pontifical Catholic University Madre y Maestra | Moscoso W.,Purdue University | And 3 more authors.
Scripta Materialia | Year: 2012

The deformation field in large-strain extrusion machining, a constrained chip formation process, is characterized using high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry. The field is shown to be controllable and narrowly confined, with attributes ranging from conventional deformation processing to severe plastic deformation. Implications for deformation processing of sheets, engineering of microstructures in bulk forms and on machined surfaces, and study of large-strain deformation phenomena in metal alloys are highlighted. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Stauffer B.L.,Aurora University | Russell G.,Pontifical Catholic University Madre y Maestra | Nunley K.,Aurora University | Miyamoto S.D.,Aurora University | Sucharov C.C.,Aurora University
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2013

miRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that can regulate gene expression through interacting with the 3'UTR of target mRNAs. Although the role of miRNAs has been extensively studied in adult human and animal models of heart disease, nothing is known about their expression in pediatric heart failure patients. Different than adults with heart failure, pediatric patients respond well to phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEi) treatment, which is safe in the outpatient setting, results in fewer heart failure emergency department visits, fewer cardiac hospital admissions and improved NYHA classification. We have recently shown that pediatric heart failure patients display a unique molecular profile that is different from adults with heart failure. In this study we show for the first time that pediatric heart failure patients display a unique miRNA profile, and that expression of some miRNAs correlate with response to PDEi treatment. Moreover, we show that expression of Smad4, a potential target for PDEi-regulated miRNAs, is normalized in PDEi-treated patients. Since miRNAs may be used as therapy for human heart failure, our results underscore the importance of defining the molecular characteristics of pediatric heart failure patients, so age-appropriate therapy can be designed for this population. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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