Ozgo M.,Pomeranian University |
Schilthuizen M.,Netherlands Center for Biodiversity Naturalis |
Schilthuizen M.,University of Groningen
Global Change Biology | Year: 2012
We compared shell colour forms in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis at 16 sites in a 7 × 8 km section of the Province of Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1967 and 2010. To do so, we used stored samples in a natural history collection and resampled the exact collection localities. We found that almost all populations had experienced considerable evolutionary change in various phenotypes, possibly due to population bottlenecks and habitat change after repeated land consolidation schemes in the area. More importantly, we found a consistent increase in yellow effectively unbanded snails at the expense of brown snails. This is one of the expected adaptations to climate change (this area of the Netherlands has warmed by 1.5-2.0 °C over the time period spanned by the two sampling years), and the first clear demonstration of this in C. nemoralis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ozgo M.,Pomeranian University
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2011
The present study reports on a natural experiment with twelve replicates in which rapid, predictable and consistent divergence of Cepaea nemoralis populations occurred in response to repeated selection gradient of adjacent open and shaded habitats. Because the frequencies of various genetically-based phenotypes varied widely among surveyed populations, and there was a large overlap between habitat types, no overall association with habitat was apparent. In paired comparisons, however, significant changes were consistently towards higher frequencies of light morphs in the open than corresponding shaded habitats, and this result is attributable to natural selection. This shows that the knowledge of the genetic composition of reference populations is often essential for discerning selection from random processes. At each site, a different morph combination contributed to the divergence of populations, indicating that there are many genetic solutions to similar ecological problems; this likely enhances the maintenance of high levels of polymorphism. Adaptation of populations occurred in contemporary time and was fast. In one case where it was possible to follow changes, significant shifts in morph frequencies occurred within just two snail generations (selection coefficients of 0.404 and 0.518). High evolvability may be one of the factors contributing to the ecological success of Cepaea nemoralis. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London.
Obolewski K.,Pomeranian University
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2011
Hydrological connectivity and the frequency and intensity of floods are the key factors determining the structure of macroinvertebrates inhabiting wetland ecosystems in river valleys. In 2007, water and macroinvertebrate samples were collected on four occasions in the middle course of the Słupia River and in five oxbow lakes (Northern Poland) to determine the hydrological relations in a regulated lowland river environment marked by a moderate climate. The water bodies selected for the study featured different types of connections with the main river valley: two of them were completely cut off from the valley, one was connected via a single branch, one featured a forced-flow connection through drainage pipes, and one was connected by a system of drainage channels. Macroinvertebrates, mostly Chironomidae larvae, were predominant in the eutrophic waters of the river. The prevalent macroinvertebrates found in the eutrophicated oxbow lakes isolated from the river were Chironomidae larvae and Crustacea (mainly Asellus aquaticus). In unobstructed oxbow lakes, the main component of benthic fauna was Crustacea, while Ephemeroptera were found mostly in the water body connected to the river via a drainage channel. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that hydrological connectivity was the main factor responsible for the structure of invertebrate populations, followed by the physical and chemical parameters of the local environment. A non-conformance analysis revealed that hydrological connectivity enhanced invertebrate abundance and biological diversity, while the overall abundance was marked by unimodal distribution. The developed general model indicates that in the group of measured environmental variables, nitrite concentrations were highly correlated with Shannon diversity and invertebrate composition, while sulphate levels were closely associated with invertebrate abundance in the waters of the analyzed ecosystems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Krzywy-Gawronska E.,Pomeranian University
Polish Journal of Chemical Technology | Year: 2012
A single-factor field experiment was carried out at the Cultivar Evaluation Station in Szczecin-Da̧bie in 2008-2010. In the experiment, the compost produced with municipal sewage sludge by the GWDA method was used and high-calcium brown coal ash at a dose corresponding. A test plant was Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphodrita Rusby). The obtained results show that Virginia fanpetals biomass contained on average the most nitrogen (3.72 g•kg -1 d.m.), calcium (6.03 g•kg -1 d.m.) and sulphur (1.24 g•kg -1 d.m.) in 2008, while the most potassium (4.39 g•kg -1 d.m.) in 2010. Significantly more phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur was contained by Virginia fanpetals biomass from the objects where municipal sewage sludge compost had been applied without and with addition of high-calcium brown coal ash when compared to calcium carbonate or high-calcium brown coal ash being introduced into soil at the beginning of study. Differences in average nitrogen, potassium and calcium contents in the test plant biomass from particular fertilisation objects were not significant. The macroelements uptake by Virginia fanpetals biomass depended on the yield size and the content of chemical elements under discussion in it.
Frackiewicz P.,Pomeranian University
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013
The Marinatto-Weber approach to quantum games is a straightforward way to apply the power of quantum mechanics to classical game theory. In the simplest case, the quantum scheme is that players manipulate their own qubits of a twoqubit state either with the identity 1 or the Pauli operator σx. However, such a simplification of the scheme raises doubt as to whether it could really reflect a quantum game. In this paper we put forward examples which may constitute arguments against the present form of the Marinatto-Weber scheme. Next, we modify the scheme to eliminate the undesirable properties of the protocol by extending the players' strategy sets. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Frackiewicz P.,Pomeranian University
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2014
We present a quantum approach to a signaling game; a special kind of extensive game of incomplete information. Our model is based on quantum schemes for games in strategic form where players perform unitary operators on their own qubits of some fixed initial state and the payoff function is given by a measurement on the resulting final state. We show that the quantum game induced by our scheme coincides with a signaling game as a special case and outputs nonclassical results in general. As an example, we consider a quantum extension of the signaling game in which the chance move is a three-parameter unitary operator whereas the players' actions are equivalent to classical ones. In this case, we study the game in terms of Nash equilibria and refine the pure Nash equilibria adapting to the quantum game the notion of a weak perfect Bayesian equilibrium. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Majewski M.,Pomeranian University
Quaternary International | Year: 2014
A survey of the Lake Jasień area (northern Poland) demonstrates the relationship between human economic activity and the course of slopewash processes during the Subatlantic. In the catchment area of the erosional-denudational valley affected by prolonged human economic activity in the early Iron Age (the Hallstatt period) and the pre-Roman period, deforestation may have led to activation of hillslope processes. A manifestation of this activation is a fossil cut in the bottom of the valley and sediments of hillslope origin filling it, lying on top of sediments dated to 450 BC-100cal. AD. The intensity of the hillslope processes may have been modelled by climate changes involving cooling and humidification.The most recent documented increase in the intensity of denudation occurred around the middle of the 17th century. Deposited on top of sediments dated to 1456 AD-1638cal. AD and 1453 AD-1797cal. AD is a sequence of hillslope sediments developed in the form of diluvium and tillage diamicton filling the bottom of the valley and the closed depression.Faster denudation in the landform catchments and accumulation on their bottoms were caused by deforestation of those areas and using them as farmland, as indicated by old cartographic materials. The cooling and humidification of the climate during the Little Ice Age may also have contributed to the acceleration of the agrotechnical denudation. In areas unaffected by deforestation, no noticeable traces have been found of active denudation processes during the Subatlantic. This may suggest that hillslope processes did not play a major role in lowland forested areas of the Temperate Zone. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.
Fra ckiewicz P.,Pomeranian University
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2015
We give formal conditions for a perfect Bayesian-type equilibrium in a quantum signaling game. We show that the conditions imply a classical perfect Bayesian equilibrium if the quantum game coincides with the classical one. Next, we extend the signaling game to include a quantum chance move. We prove that the classical relation between Nash equilibria and perfect Bayesian equilibria is preserved in that case - every perfect Bayesian-type equilibrium implies a Nash equilibrium, but the converse is not true. Lastly, we give a condition for equivalence between Nash equilibria and perfect Bayesian-type equilibria. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Tomin V.I.,Pomeranian University
Optics and Spectroscopy (English translation of Optika i Spektroskopiya) | Year: 2012
We consider the steady-state monochromatic excitation of a luminophore that has fluorescent products. We consider how the fluorescence of singlet states is affected by different means of quenching highlying excited states such as quenching with impurities, temperature quenching, and shortening the lifetime with induced transitions in the light field. We show that the use of different methods of fluorescence quenching opens new possibilities for studying photoreactions that proceed via excited singlet states. Our consideration concerns a wide range of primary photoprocesses, such as electron density redistribution (internal electron transfer) in the excited state, protolytic reactions, intramolecular proton transfer (phototautomerization), hydrogen bond formation, intermolecular relaxation of molecules in solutions, and formation of excimers and exciplexes. The obtained relations have been used to analyze experimental fluorescence spectra of solutions of some organic compounds, including derivatives of 3-hydroxyflavone and 3-aminophthalimide, subjected to quenching by different methods. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.65M | Year: 2013
Nano2Funs main target is the education of a new generation of scientists with a solid multidisciplinary scientific background, a good attitude to team-work in an international environment and a well-developed propensity to exploit advances in fundamental research towards innovative applications. To achieve this ambitious goal, a network of advanced research laboratories operating both in the public and private sectors is proposed where a group of 17 young and brilliant researchers will be trained through research. Technological development through research and knowledge transfer are the flag-words of Nano2Fun, a multidisciplinary project that will bring the techniques of two-photon microscopy (2PM) and two-photon polymerization (2PP) to their full maturity, allowing their exploitation in commercially and industrially relevant applications. The precise chemical and photophysical control of the 2PM and 2PP processes at the nanoscale will be achieved through a coordinated effort of 16 teams with well-established expertise in the diverse and complementary research fields of (a) molecular and supramolecular synthesis, (b) advanced optical spectroscopy and photophysics, (c) theory and (d) the 2PM and 2PP technological applications. The effort of the academic research teams will be fully integrated with applied research and development going on in the advanced R&D laboratories of the 5 partners from the private sector in a virtuous loop that will cooperatively enhance the effectiveness of Nano2Fun team. The inherently multidisciplinary character of the research, that spans a full range of disciplines between chemistry and physics, and is precisely located where fundamental research meets commercial and industrial applications, offers an extremely profitable environment for the education of young researcher both in public and private sectors in a lively international environment at the forefront of research.