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Antonowicz J.P.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Trojanowski J.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk
E3S Web of Conferences | Year: 2013

We owe the knowledge concerning the surface water microlayer to the wide research into marine environment and relatively scarce research done into inland city ponds ecosystems. The surface microlayer is a very thin, several hundred micrometers thick layer at the contact of water and atmosphere. This important form of air-water exchange ecotone, which constitutes the surface microlayer of water, is a specific environment as to its chemical and physical characteristics and is different from subsurface waters. It can absorb chemical substances like heavy metals, phytoneuston and bacteria in larger quantities in comparison to lower parts of the water. This characteristic feature results, among others, from the processes of transport at the contact of hydrosphere-atmosphere and also transport within the very area of surface water microlayer. The paper describes transport processes of six heavy metals: Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb from subsurface water to surface water microlayer and vice versa, analyzed in a one year cycle. The transport of chemical substances under consideration was described on a basis of experiments made during the period of one year at five city pounds in Słupsk (Polish Pomerania). During the research, samples of the surface water microlayer were collected by means of application of the Garrett mesh technique. At the same time, samples of subsurface water were collected and tested as to the content of the same parameters as the surface microlayer. Samples were sampled in month intervals. The concentration of aforementioned heavy metals was measured by mass spectrometry method and used Perkin Elmer Elan DRC aparature. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013.


Obolewski K.T.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Skorbilowicz E.,Bialystok Technical University | Skorbilowicz M.,Bialystok Technical University | Strzelczak A.,AGH University of Science and Technology
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2010

In this paper the effects of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) accumulation in submerged reed shoots on the periphyton structure in the shallow-water zone of the Vistula Lagoon (Polish internal seawaters) are discussed. Concentrations of the analysed chemical elements were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrome-try. The highest Pearson's correlation coefficients (p<0.05) were observed for Cd and Co, Ni and Cr, Pb and Cd, Pb and Co, Zn and Ni. Among periphyton, linear relation-ships occurred between sedimentators and epiphytic algae (phytoperiphyton). In order to reveal the influence of substrate chemical composition on the qualitative and quantitative composi-tion of periphyton overgrowing reed shoots, ordination methods were applied (principal component analysis PCA, canonical correspondence analysis CCA, detrended corre-spondence analysis DCA, redundancy analysis RDA). The results showed, that sedimentators (Peritricha, Rotatoria) and Nematoda preferred reed substrate with relatively high content of Mn, Co, Cu and Cd. Similar situation was ob-served for Chironomidae larvae, but additionally they used to choose substrate with low concentration of Ni and Cr. In turn, higher content of nickel and chromium favoured Cyclopoida and Harpacticoida. © by PSP.


Osadowski Z.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Strzelczak A.,West Pomeranian University of Technology
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2010

Floristic, phytosociological and hydrochemical inves-tigations were performed in 16 spring complexes of the Pomeranian rivers (northern Poland) in years 2006-2007. The aim of the study was to reveal the level of iron and manganese ion concentrations in ground water outflows and to assess their influence on vegetation diversity. Spring wa-ters contained low concentrations of Fe and Mn. Iron con-tent in 73 cases was below 1 mg dm -3. In 26 cases it ex-ceeded 1 mg dm -3 and ranged from 1.007 to 9.540 mg dm -3. The average iron content amounted to 1.262 mg dm -3. The concentration of Mn in 59 cases was lower than 0.1 mg dm -3. Higher manganese content was observed at 34 sites and it ranged from 0.104 do 0.954 mg dm -3. In 7 cases the ob-tained Mn concentration exceeded 1 mg dm -3 (1.131 -5.150 mg dm -3). The average manganese content was at the level of 0.302 mg dm -3. On the basis of 100 phytosociologi-cal pictures we distinguished 8 spring communities of Mon-tio-Cardaminetea class, 2 spring moss communities of Fon-tinaletea antipyreticae class and 5 flowing-waters phyto-coenoses of Phragmitetea class. The observed vegetation contained 89 plants species, including 66 vascular plants, 14 moss species and 6 hepatic species. Redundancy analy-sis (RDA) revealed, that Glyceria nemoralis and Carex remota tolerated high concentrations of iron and manga-nese. Brachythecium rivulare preferred lower, but also rela-tively high Fe and Mn contents. Agrostis stolonifera turned out to prefer higher concentration of iron than manganese, opposite to Palustriella commutata. Hepatic species Pel-lia endiviifolia was abundant at low contents of the ana-lysed ions. Relatively low Fe and Mn concentrations were preferred by Cardamine amara and Cratoneuron filicinum. RDA analysis of plant communities indicated that Glyc-erietum nemoralis-plicatae and Agrostis stolonifera oc-curred under high contents of iron and manganese. Rela-tively high Fe concentration favoured communities Carda-mino-Beruletum erecti and Porella platyphylla. In turn, communities Pellia endiviifolia and Palustriella commu-tata were abundant at low contents of the studied ions. The remaining plant species and communities preferred moderate levels of Fe and Mn concentrations. © by PSP.


Antonowicz J.P.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Mudryk Z.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Zdanowicz M.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

The present study investigated the relationship between accumulations of heavy metals and the concentration of chlorophyll, as well as the number, secondary production and enzymatic activity of bacteria in the surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface waters of a coastal Baltic lake. Concentration of heavy metals was measured by mass spectrometry, chlorophyll by spectrophotometry, bacteria abundance by DAPI staining, secondary production by 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA and enzymatic activities using fluorescence-labelled substrate methods. Concentrations of all the analysed heavy metals, chlorophyll, as well as the number of heterotrophic bacteria and the level of enzymatic activity were higher in the SML than in subsurface water. No differences in the total number of bacteria in both the studied layers were noted. The rate of secondary production of planktonic bacteria was found to be higher than that of neustonic bacteria. Seasonal variability was observed in the studied chemical and microbiological parameters. It was found that in SML heavy metal concentrations increased in relation to those in subsurface water. However, this did not reduce the level of chlorophyll, heterotrophic bacteria, or the enzymatic activity. In contrast, increased heavy metal concentrations in SML reduced total number of bacteria and the level of secondary productivity. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Antonowicz J.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Trojanowski J.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk
Polish Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

The surface microlayer is a thin layer found at the contact zone of two environments forming an ecotone at the atmosphere-hydrosphere interface. It is the boundary layer of extreme importance for both environments. In the years 2000-2004 surface water microlayer of an eutrophic, deep lake (577 ha, max. depth 32.2 m, Lake Jasień in Northern Poland) was analyzed (in four seasons each year) in terms of their capacity to accumulate lead, cadmium and manganese. The following surface water layers were collected using the different devices (plate method, net method) and compared: a microlayer of approx. 100 μm in thickness (SM), a microlayer of approx. 240 μm in thickness (PM) and subsurface water (about 20 cm below surface) (SSW). The highest concentrations of analyzed metals were observed in the microlayer of 100 μm, characterized by enrichment factor (EF-ratio of surface to subsurface values) of 2.61 for cadmium, 2.55 for manganese and 1.57 for lead, respectively. Enrichment factors for these metals are much higher than in respective microlayers of brackish lake situated close and studied before. Seasonal changes in concentrations of analyzed elements were correlated with changes in their concentrations in subsurface water. Statistical analysis of results showed that during a year variation in Cd and Mn accumulation in analyzed layers was significant. In contrast, variation in Pb accumulation was statistically non-significant. It means that in the surface microlayer of lake water a seasonal cycle is observed for changes in heavy metal concentrations and this variability in concentrations of analyzed substances is not accidental, but definitely periodical in character. The accumulation of analyzed heavy metals in the surface microlayers of the studied deep eutrophic lake seems to be a regular phenomenon.


Petelski K.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk
Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae | Year: 2011

Geological mapping works, conducted on 1:50,000 litho-petrographic map sheets of the South Baltic coast and the eastern part of the Pomerania Lakeland, show a clear relationship between large landforms of this area, like: subglacial channels, Wieżyca Hill, the ice lobe that accumulated Gardno moraine deposits, and sub-Quaternary relief. These landforms came into existence as a result of reactivation of pre-existing fault zones in the sub-Cainozoic basement, due to the ice mass loading during successive Pleistocene ice-sheet advances. Subglacial channels developed and thick tills and ice-dammed lake deposits were accumulated in the region. The subglacial channels and morainic belts are now dominating landforms in the Pomeranian Lakeland.


Krupa A.,Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery | Sobczyk A.T.,Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery | Jaworek A.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk
Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe | Year: 2014

The paper presents electrospinning technology used for the production of polymer nanofibrous mats. Surface properties of polymer nanofibrous mats electrospun from poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC), and modified in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are presented. The contact angle of the polymer mats un-modified and modified in DBD generated plasma were compared. The plasma modification decreased the contact angle for water from 134° to 40°, for PVDF, and close to zero in the case of PVC. It was also observed that the contact angle decreased with an increase in the discharge power and discharge time, leading to an improvement of adhesion properties of the mat.


Skorczewski P.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Mudryk Z.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Gackowska J.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Perlinski P.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk
Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia | Year: 2012

Density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria in dry and wet sand and the adjacent seawater of recreational marine beach in Poland, Baltic Sea, were estimated. Numbers of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci were 3-9 times higher in dry sand than in the seawater and 2-6 times higher in dry sand than in wet sand. Within a year, number of fecal bacteria inhabiting the sand and seawater showed considerable monthly changes. The highest number of the studied fecal indicator bacteria in the seawater and sand occurred in spring-summer season and the best sanitary state was noted in the winter months. There were differences in the numbers of fecal indicator bacteria between the surface and subsurface sand layer with a clear decreasing trend in the number of the studied bacteria with increasing depth.


Mudryk Z.J.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Kosiorek A.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk | Perlinski P.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2013

Vibrio-like bacteria (VLO) were isolated from the seawater and sand of marine recreation beach located on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea and their antibiotic resistance was studied. According to susceptibility test, planktonic, and benthic VLO were the most resistant to β-lactam (ampicillin and penicillin) and lincosamide (clindamycin) antibiotics, while the most susceptible to tetracycline and aminoglycosides (gentamycin). Moreover the results showed that Vibrio-like bacteria inhabiting sand were more antibiotic-resistant than those isolated from seawater. In general, there was no difference in antibiotic resistance between VLO isolated from the surface and subsurface sand layers. More than 90% of planktonic and benthic Vibrio-like bacteria showed multiple antibiotic resistance. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Czapiewska G.,Pomeranian Academy in Slupsk
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2015

In this publication, an attempt was made of an analysis of the possibilities to create a sustainable development of rural areas based on the renewable energy sources (RES). The article presents sources of renewable wind and biogas energy figuring the most important role in the development of rural areas of Northern Poland. Because of the type of substrates used and the special type of their operation, biogas plants fit the rural landscape. Production of agricultural biogas and its use for energy generation is presently one of the most advantageous method for obtaining renewable energy. The wind power industry, along with the water power industry, is the most rapidly developing sector of energy generation from renewable sources. Region is very attractive in terms of wind farm construction because of very advantageous wind conditions, particularly in the coastal belt. Production renewable energy is a great opportunity for development of rural areas with low economic potential. Renewable energy sources are local sources, therefore they can improve the energy safety through reducing the demand for imported organic fuels, provide new employment opportunities and promote regional development. In the presented analysis of using the renewable energy sources and taking into account in particular the wind energy and biogas, its impact on social, economic and environmental development of rural areas of Northern Poland has been shown. © SGEM2015.

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