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Saarbrücken, Germany

Klein T.,Saarland University | Lange S.,Saarland University | Wilhelm N.,PomBioTech GmbH | Bureik M.,PomBioTech GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Metabolic Engineering | Year: 2014

Protein secretion in yeast is generally associated with a burden to cellular metabolism. To investigate this metabolic burden in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed a set of strains secreting the model protein maltase in different amounts. We quantified the influence of protein secretion on the metabolism applying 13C-based metabolic flux analysis in chemostat cultures. Analysis of the macromolecular biomass composition revealed an increase in cellular lipid content at elevated levels of protein secretion and we observed altered metabolic fluxes in the pentose phosphate pathway, the TCA cycle, and around the pyruvate node including mitochondrial NADPH supply. Supplementing acetate to glucose or glycerol minimal media was found to improve protein secretion, accompanied by an increased cellular lipid content and carbon flux through the TCA cycle as well as increased mitochondrial NADPH production. Thus, systematic metabolic analyses can assist in identifying factors limiting protein secretion and in deriving strategies to overcome these limitations. © 2013 International Metabolic Engineering Society.

Naumann J.M.,PomBioTech GmbH | Messinger J.,Solvay Group | Bureik M.,PomBioTech GmbH
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

While phase I and phase II drug metabolites are important for drug development and toxicity studies, e.g. in the context of metabolites in safety testing (MIST), they are often not commercially available and their classical chemical synthesis can be cumbersome. Therefore, a biotechnological production of drug metabolites using microorganisms that recombinantly express human enzymes has been established in recent years. However, no whole-cell biotransformations that make use of human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) have yet been reported. In this study, we have functionally expressed human AKR1C1 (20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate the ability of the resulting yeast strain to efficiently catalyze the reduction of progesterone or dydrogesterone to 20α-dihydroprogesterone (20α-DHP) and 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone (20α-DHD), respectively. The formation of any by-products or the occurrence of a back reaction were not detected. Seven other steroids with a 20-keto group (pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, and aldosterone) were not reduced by this system. At shaking flask scale we obtained conversion rates of 90 (±26) μM/d 20α-DHP and 244 (±93) μM/d 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone (20α-DHD), respectively. In a fed-batch fermentation under optimized reaction conditions an average 20α-DHP production rate of 300 μM/d was determined for a total biotransformation time of 72. h. We thus established an AKR-dependent whole-cell biotransformation process that can be used for production of human AKR metabolites on a large scale. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Zehentgruber D.,Julich Research Center | Dragan C.-A.,PomBioTech GmbH | Bureik M.,PomBioTech GmbH | Lutz S.,Julich Research Center
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Since cytochrome P450 monooxygenases enable the regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation of C-H bonds, they are of outstanding interest for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. Nevertheless, for industrial applications of such enzymes, e.g., steroid hydroxylation, several challenges like cofactor and oxygen supply, limited stability and activity, or low substrate solubility have to be overcome. To identify the limiting factors in a P450 catalyzed whole cell biotransformation, 21-hydroxylation of 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone in Schizosacharomyces pombe expressing human CYP21 was chosen as model reaction. We report here that resting cells of this recombinant yeast strain can be used for efficient biotransformation. In the present study, we analyzed the intracellular redox cofactor pool of S. pombe by LC-MS/MS measurements and report the first quantification of the intracellular cofactor pool during P450 hydroxylation. Thereby a limitation caused by the redox cofactor could be excluded for resting cells. In contrary, low substrate solubility and its transport into the cell affect activity. Screening for an appropriate cosolvent identified methanol as the most promising candidate, since it showed the lowest inactivation effect on the biocatalyst. Through permeabilization of the membrane with the detergent tween 80 steroid hydroxylation activity increases, leading to a productivity of 540μM d -1 in a final batch experiment under optimized reaction conditions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Zollner A.,PomBioTech GmbH | Parr M.K.,German Sport University Cologne | Dragan C.-A.,PomBioTech GmbH | Dras S.,PomBioTech GmbH | And 6 more authors.
Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Anabolic-androgenic steroids are some of the most frequently misused drugs in human sports. Recently, a previously unknown urinary metabolite of metandienone, 17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13- trien-3-one (20OH-NorMD), was discovered via LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. This metabolite was reported to be detected in urine samples up to 19 days after administration of metandienone. However, so far it was not possible to obtain purified reference material of this metabolite and to confirm its structure via NMR. Eleven recombinant strains of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that express different human hepatic or steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes were screened for production of this metabolite in a whole-cell biotransformation reaction. 17,17-Dimethyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one, chemically derived from metandienone, was used as substrate for the bioconversion, because it could be converted to the final product in a single hydroxylation step. The obtained results demonstrate that CYP21 and to a lesser extent also CYP3A4 expressing strains can catalyze this steroid hydroxylation. Subsequent 5 l-scale fermentation resulted in the production and purification of 10 mg of metabolite and its unequivocal structure determination via NMR. The synthesis of this urinary metandienone metabolite via S. pombe-based whole-cell biotransformation now allows its use as a reference substance in doping control assays. © by Walter de Gruyter.

Zollner A.,PomBioTech GmbH | Buchheit D.,PomBioTech GmbH | Meyer M.R.,Saarland University | Maurer H.H.,Saarland University | And 2 more authors.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2010

Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs or P450s) are the most important enzymes involved in the phase I metabolism of drugs and poisons in humans, while UDP glycosyltransferases catalyze the majority of phase II reactions. In addition, a number of other enzymes or enzyme families contribute to the metabolism of xenobiotica, including alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, ester and amide hydrolases, epoxide hydrolase and flavine monooxygenases, as well as sulfotransferases, catechol-O-methyltransferase and N-acetyltransferase. A thorough understanding of their activity and of the properties of the metabolites they form is an essential prerequisite for the assessment of drug-caused side effects or toxicity. In this context of MIST, efficient production systems are needed to permit the large-scale production of human drug metabolites. As classical chemical synthesis cannot always provide these metabolites, biotechnological approaches have been developed that typically employ the recombinant expression of human drug-metabolizing enzymes. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding whole-cell biotransformation processes that make use of such an approach. © 2010 Future Science Ltd.

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