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Sharma H.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar | Guadalupe H.J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Narayanan J.,Polytechnic University of the Valley of Mexico | Hofeld H.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2013

Three ruthenium(ii) and (iii) metal complexes of the compositions ([Ru(1)(Cl)(PPh3)]+ (4), ([Ru(2)(Cl)(PPh 3)]+ (5) and ([Ru(3)(Cl)(H2O)]2+ (6) have been synthesized from oligodentate pyridyl-(1) and benzimidazole ligands (2-3) and structurally characterized. Our investigations revealed that if the coordination sphere of the metal ion carries a strong coordinating PPh 3 ligand (complexes 4 and 5), the framework was not suitable for anion binding at all. However, when coordination of solvent (H2O) to the metal centre occurred instead (complex 6), a receptor for anion recognition through fluorescence spectroscopy could be generated. This allowed us to develop a sensor for the selective recognition of chloride over several other anions. In order to screen potential applications, the sensor was tested for the determination of chloride concentration in a series of four commercially available oral rehydration salts, giving excellent agreement with the values reported by the corresponding manufacturer. The detection limit was established to be 5 μM. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Trujano M.A.,Polytechnic University of the Valley of Mexico | Garrido R.,CINVESTAV
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2013

This work presents an image-based visual servoing scheme applied to planar parallel robots. A PID algorithm regulates the robot end-effector position, and rejects constant disturbances perturbing the active robot joints. Instead using the La Salle invariance theorem, the stability analysis provided here relies on a strict Lyapunov function. Experiments on a redundant planar parallel robot validate the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2013 by ASME. Source


Hernandez-Berriel M.C.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo | Hernandez-Berriel M.C.,Toluca Technological Institute | Manon-Salas M.C.,Polytechnic University of the Valley of Mexico | Buenrostro-Delgado O.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Engineering and Management Journal | Year: 2014

Anaerobic degradation (AD) of municipal solid waste (MSW) depends on the moisture and nutrient distribution within the bioreactor; these factors are affected by leachate recirculation. In this work, the effects of leachate recirculation of 15 to 120 by volume percentage (%V) on AD were studied. The ojectives of this study are as follows: a) to determine which recirculation rate provides the best conditions for accelerated anaerobic degradation (AD) and b) to determine the optimal range of recirculation rates for methane (CH4) generation. In the first group of experiments, denoted as the exploratory range, laboratory-scale bioreactors (LSBs) were operated at leachate recirculation rates of 15, 30, 60 and 120% V. In a second group of experiments (denoted as narrowed range), a group of seven LSBs were operated at rates of 40, 60 and 80% V, and seven were employed as control, without recirculation. In this stage, LSBs were periodically dismantled to allow testing of the digested MSW. The AD rate was monitored for 201 days along with other variables, including the total volatile solids, holocellulose, lignin, organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH of the MSW matrix, the characteristics of the produced and recirculated leachates and CH4 production rates. The results indicated that methane production during the methanogenic fermentation stage is directly correlated with the recycling rates. The 120%V recirculation rate was observed to cause washout in the waste matrix. The suggested range on the basis of CH4 generation per liter of recirculated leachate was 30 to 40% V. © 2014, Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iasi. All rights reserved. Source


Alvarez I.,Polytechnic University of the Valley of Mexico | Poznyak A.,CINVESTAV
ICCAS 2010 - International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems | Year: 2010

Traffic congestion is an issue in every major city. Among many approaches the game theory has presented feasible solutions. In this paper, a noncooperative approach which gives rise to a noncooperative game is studied, we propose to model signalized intersections as finite controlled Markov chains and a solution to optimize the congestion into an avenue. Each intersection is seen as noncooperative game where each player try to minimize its queue, so ∈-Nash's equilibrium and Stackelberbg equilibrium are the solutions. This paper is focused on the traffic light control problem for urban traffic, using Game Theory and Extraproximal Method for its realization. The examples show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. ©ICROS. Source


Montoya Tena G.,Electric Research Institute of Mexico | Hernandez C. R.,Electric Research Institute of Mexico | Montoya T. J.I.,Polytechnic University of the Valley of Mexico
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2010

The bird excrement, combined with humidity, causes line outages in transmission lines. In order to standardize the criteria to solve the problem, a research project was developed in México. The solutions found in worldwide review can be classified into four groups: elimination of birds, devices of dissuasion, physical barriers, and covering devices. The first group includes all bird elimination techniques. These alternatives are forbidden in México, and in most of the countries. The second group has shown to be effective at the beginning of its application; however once the birds are habituated to the device, it loses its effectiveness. The efficiency of the third group, the use of physical barriers, is high, as demonstrated by more than a few review reports informing drastic reductions of flashovers on the transmission lines where they have been installed. The fourth group is conformed by components whose function is to protect or to cover the insulation. According to the experience in Mexico, covering devices have shown to be very effective. The contamination by bird excrement has not a unique solution. The most viable solution is a combination of alternatives. Even though, a solution adopted for a region may not be suitable for another region. Therefore, each case should be approached according to the particular conditions of the region. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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