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Col. Bosques de las Lomas, Mexico

Pandarinath K.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Dominguez-Dominguez H.,Polytechnic University of the State of Morelos
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

A detailed study on the solute geothermometry of thermal water (18 springs and 8 drilled wells) of La Primavera geothermal field (LPGF) in Mexico has been carried out by employing a geochemical database compiled from the literature and by applying all the available solute geothermometers. The performance of these geothermometers in predicting the reservoir temperatures has been evaluated by applying a geochemometrics (geochemical and statistical) method. The springs of the LPGF are of bicarbonate type and the majority have attained partial-equilibrium chemical conditions and the remaining have shown non-equilibrium conditions. In the case of geothermal wells, water is dominantly of chloride-type and, among the studied eight geothermal wells, four have shown full-equilibrium chemical conditions and another four have indicated partial-equilibrium conditions. All springs of HCO3- type water have provided unreliable reservoir temperatures, whereas the only one available spring of SO42- type water has provided the reservoir temperature nearer to the average BHT of the wells. Contrary to the general expected behavior, spring water of non-equilibrium and geothermal well water of partial-equilibrium chemical conditions have indicated more reliable reservoir temperatures than those of partially-equilibrated and fully-equilibrated water, respectively. Among the chemical concentration data, Li and SiO2 of two springs, SO42- and Mg of four springs, and HCO3 and Na concentrations of two geothermal wells were identified as outliers and this has been reflected in very low reservoir temperatures predicted by the geothermometers associated with them (Li-Mg, Na-Li, Na-K-Mg, SiO2 etc.). Identification of the outlier data points may be useful in differentiating the chemical characteristics, lithology and the physico-chemical and geological processes at the sample locations of the study area.In general, the solute geothermometry of the spring waters of LPGF indicated a dominantly (94%) of underestimated deep reservoir temperatures, whereas in the case of the geothermal wells, many temperatures (54%) are underestimated, some are (43%) overestimated and a very small number (3%) are similar to an average bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) of the wells. 28 out of the total applied 29 geothermometers for spring waters have predicted the deep reservoir temperatures that are characterized by statistically significant large differences compared to the average BHTs of the geothermal wells. In the case of waters of the geothermal wells, 23 out of the total applied 28 geothermometers have predicted the reservoir temperatures similar (statistically no significant differences) to the BHTs of the corresponding geothermal wells. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Freyre-Gonzalez J.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Trevino-Quintanilla L.G.,Polytechnic University of the State of Morelos | Valtierra-Gutierrez I.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gutierrez-Rios R.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Alonso-Pavon J.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are two of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms. Previous analyses of their transcriptional regulatory networks have shown that they exhibit high plasticity during evolution and suggested that both converge to scale-free-like structures. Nevertheless, beyond this suggestion, no analyses have been carried out to identify the common systems-level components and principles governing these organisms. Here we show that these two phylogenetically distant organisms follow a set of common novel biologically consistent systems principles revealed by the mathematically and biologically founded natural decomposition approach. The discovered common functional architecture is a diamond-shaped, matryoshka-like, three-layer (coordination, processing, and integration) hierarchy exhibiting feedback, which is shaped by four systems-level components: global transcription factors (global TFs), locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. The first mathematical criterion to identify global TFs, the κ-value, was reassessed on B. subtilis and confirmed its high predictive power by identifying all the previously reported, plus three potential, master regulators and eight sigma factors. The functionally conserved cores of modules, basal cell machinery, and a set of non-orthologous common physiological global responses were identified via both orthologous genes and non-orthologous conserved functions. This study reveals novel common systems principles maintained between two phylogenetically distant organisms and provides a comparison of their lifestyle adaptations. Our results shed new light on the systems-level principles and the fundamental functions required by bacteria to sustain life. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Trevino-Quintanilla L.G.,Polytechnic University of the State of Morelos | Freyre-Gonzalez J.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez-Flores I.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Current Genomics | Year: 2013

In bacteria, transcriptional regulation is a key step in cellular gene expression. All bacteria contain a core RNA polymerase that is catalytically competent but requires an additional σ factor for specific promoter recognition and correct transcriptional initiation. The RNAP core is not able to selectively bind to a given σ factor. In contrast, different σ factors have different affinities for the RNAP core. As a consequence, the concentration of alternate σ factors requires strict regulation in order to properly control the delicate interplay among them, which favors the competence for the RNAP core. This control is archived by different σ/anti-σ controlling mechanisms that shape complex regulatory networks and cascades, and enable the response to sudden environmental cues, whose global understanding is a current challenge for systems biology. Although there have been a number of excellent studies on each of these σ/anti-σ post-transcriptional regulatory systems, no comprehensive comparison of these mechanisms in a single model organism has been conducted. Here, we survey all these systems in E. coli dissecting and analyzing their inner workings and highlightin their differences. Then, following an integral approach, we identify their commonalities and outline some of the principles exploited by the cell to effectively and globally reprogram the transcriptional machinery. These principles provide guidelines for developing biological synthetic circuits enabling an efficient and robust response to sudden stimuli. ©2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Garrido-Hoyos S.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Romero-Velazquez L.,Polytechnic University of the State of Morelos
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2015

Arsenic has been classified as a toxic and carcinogenic chemical element. It therefore presents a serious environmental problem in different regions of the country and the world. In the present work, two adsorbent media were developed and evaluated to remove arsenic from water in the Pájaro Verde mine shaft, Huautla, Tlaquiltenango, Morelos. The media were synthesized and characterized, obtaining a surface area of 43.04 m2 g-1 for the goethite and 2.44 m2 g-1 for silica sand coated with Fe(III). To conduct the sorption kinetics and isotherms, a 23 factorial design was performed for each medium in order to obtain the optimal conditions for the factors of arsenic concentration, pH and mass of the adsorbent. The best results were obtained for goethite, with a removal efficiency of 98.61% (C0 of As(V) 0.360 mg L-1), and an effluent concentration of 0.005 mg L-1, a value that complies with the modified Official Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA1-1994 [1] and WHO guidelines (2004) [2]. The kinetic equation that best fit the experimental data was the pseudo-second-order, resulting in the highest values for the constants for synthetic goethite, with a rate constant sorption of 4.019 g mg-1 min-1. With respect to the sorption isotherms, both media were fitted to the Langmuir-II linear model with a sorption capacity (qm) of 0.4822 mg g-1 for goethite and 0.2494 mg g-1 for silica sand coated with Fe(III). © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Galvez G.H.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Probst O.,Technological Institute of Nuevo Leon | Lastres O.,Istmo University of Mexico | Rodriguez A.N.,Istmo University of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2012

The design of autonomous systems for the rural electrification is a complex task due to the diversity of variables involved in such processes. The absence of programs and methods that carry out this task in a clear and precise manner constitutes a barrier to the dissemination of these systems, although some tools have been developed that present other possible limitations. The exclusion of the environmental dimension in the design and evaluation process of hybrid systems means that the true benefits are not evaluated in terms of quality and quantity. In an attempt to overcome such deficiencies, this work presents a new method of design; approached from the multi-objective optimization of systems. The multi-objective optimization by means of enumerative search implemented by the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable program is used to generate a set of solutions optimized economically by the value of the net present cost (NPC). The analysis of greenhouse gas emissions (in tCO 2-eq.) in the life cycle of each one of the system components is carried out and a set of solutions with the values of the two objective functions is generated, namely NPC and NAE SLC (net avoided emissions in the system life cycle). The method is applied to a case study in a Cuban rural community. The compromise solution obtained by means of the proposed algorithm includes a wind turbine (WT) of 25.4 and 8kW of photovoltaic panels, while that of the HOGA includes a WT of 76 and 21kW of photovoltaic panels. Both commitment solutions consider hydrogen storage instead of storage in batteries, as a better option for the energy storage. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. Source

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