Barcelona, Spain

UPC , currently referred to as BarcelonaTECH and commonly named just as UPC, is the largest engineering university in Catalonia, Spain - albeit encompassing other disciplines such as mathematics and architecture.BarcelonaTECH's objectives are based on internationalization, as it is Spain's technical university with the highest number of international PhD students and Spain's university with the highest number of international master's degree students. BarcelonaTECH is a university aiming at achieving the highest degree of engineering/technical excellence and has bilateral agreements with several top-ranked European universities.The Polytechnic University of Catalonia is a member of the Top Industrial Managers for Europe network, which allows for student exchanges between leading European engineering schools. It is also a member of several university federations, including the Conference of European Schools for Advanced Engineering Education and Research and UNITECH.The university was founded in March 1971 as the Universitat Politècnica de Barcelona through the merger of engineering and architecture schools originally founded during the 19th century. As of 2007 it has 25 schools in Catalonia located in the cities of Barcelona, Castelldefels, Manresa, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Terrassa, Igualada, Vilanova i la Geltrú and Mataró. UPC has about 30,000 students and 2,500 professors and researchers.Template:When? Wikipedia.

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Malo S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Malo S.,Ingeteam Technology S.A. | Grino R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2010

This paper presents the development of an energy-conditioning system for a proton exchange membrane (PEM) type fuel cell (FC). The developed system provides 230 V ac rms at 50 Hz, with a nominal output power of 1 kVA, and is able to handle sporadic high-power demands up to 5 kVA. An auxiliary power unit (APU), using a bank of supercapacitors as energy-storing device, provides this extra power during a certain amount of time. The output current ripple and step response constraints of the FC unit are considered in the design. A frequency-decoupling scheme is used, in which the FC provides only the low-frequency requirements, while the fast/high-frequency demands are supplied by the APU. A detailed description is given for its different constructive modules, their control design, and implementation. © 2010 IEEE.

Passos F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Uggetti E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Carrere H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ferrer I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Tello Alonso M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Tello Alonso M.,Institute Catala Of Ciencies Del Clima | Lopez-Dekker P.,German Aerospace Center | Mallorqui J.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

Radar data have already proven to be compressible with no significant losses for most of the applications in which it is used. In the framework of information theory, the compressibility of a signal implies that it can be decomposed onto a reduced set of basic elements. Since the same quantity of information is carried by the original signal and its decomposition, it can be deduced that a certain degree of redundancy exists in the explicit representation. According to the theory of compressive sensing (CS), due to this redundancy, it is possible to infer an accurate representation of an unknown compressible signal through a highly incomplete set of measurements. Based on this assumption, this paper proposes a novel method for the focusing of raw data in the framework of radar imaging. The technique presented is introduced as an alternative option to the traditional matched filtering, and it suggests that the new modes of acquisition of data are more efficient in orbital configurations. In this paper, this method is first tested on 1-D simulated signals, and results are discussed. An experiment with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) raw data is also described. Its purpose is to show the potential of CS applied to SAR systems. In particular, we show that an image can be reconstructed, without the loss of resolution, after dropping a large percentage of the received pulses, which would allow the implementation of wide-swath modes without reducing the azimuth resolution. © 2010 IEEE.

Rockhill A.A.,American Superconductor Corporation | Liserre M.,Polytechnic of Bari | Teodorescu R.,University of Aalborg | Rodriguez P.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Rodriguez P.,University of Aalborg
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper describes the design procedure and performance of an LCL grid filter for a medium-voltage neutral-point clamped converter to be adopted for a multimegawatt (multi-MW) wind turbine. The unique filter design challenges in this application are driven by a combination of the medium-voltage converter, a limited allowable switching frequency, component physical size and weight concerns, and the stringent limits for allowable injected current harmonics. Traditional design procedures of grid filters for lower power and higher switching frequency converters are not valid for a multi-MW filter connecting a medium-voltage converter switching at low frequency to the electric grid. This paper demonstrates a frequency-domain-model-based approach to determine the optimum filter parameters that provide the necessary performance under all operating conditions given the necessary design constraints. To achieve this goal, new concepts, such as virtual-harmonic content and virtual filter losses are introduced. Moreover, a new passive-damping technique that provides the necessary damping with low losses and very little degradation of the high-frequency attenuation is proposed. © 2011 IEEE.

Guimaraes L.D.N.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Gens A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Sanchez M.,Texas A&M University | Olivella S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Geotechnique | Year: 2013

The paper presents a chemo-mechanical model for expansive clays that takes into account the effects of cation content and cation exchange. These factors play a key role in the mechanical behaviour of very active clays, particularly with regard to volumetric behaviour. The model is based on an existing double-structure formulation that distinguishes specifically between micro structure and macrostructure. Chemical effects are defined at the micro structural level, the seat of the basic physico-chemical phenomena affecting highly swelling clays. The micro structural model accounts for changes in both osmotic suction and in cation content. Microstructural strains are considered to be reversible; material irreversibility arises from the interaction between the two structural levels. The formulation is developed for general unsaturated conditions; saturation is considered as a limiting case. The model is successfully applied to the reproduction of experimental behaviour observed in oedometer tests on saturated bentonite subjected to chemo-mechanical loadings, and in hydration tests of unsaturated bentonite performed using different solute concentrations. © 2013 Thomas Telford Ltd.

Geyer A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Bindeman I.,University of Oregon
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2011

It has been suggested that deglaciations have influenced volcanism in several areas around the world increasing productivity of mantle melting and eruptions from crustal magma chambers. However, the connection between glaciations and increased volcanism is not straightforward. Investigation of Ar-Ar, U-Pb, and 14C ages of caldera-forming eruptions for the past million years in the glaciated arc of Kamchatka has lead to the observation that the majority of large-volume ignimbrites, which are associated with the morphologically preserved calderas, correspond in time with "maximum glacial" conditions for the past several glacial cycles. In the field, the main proof is related to the fact that glaciated multi-caldera volcanoes hosted thick glacial ice caps. Additional evidence comes from clustering Kamchatka-derived marine ash layers with glacial moraines in DSDP cores. Here we present a set of new results from numerical modelling using the Finite Element Method that investigate how the glacial load dynamic may affect the conditions for ring-fault formation in such glaciated multi-caldera volcanoes. Different scenarios were simulated by varying: (1) the thickness and asymmetric distribution of the existing ice cap, (2) the depth and size of the magmatic reservoir responsible for the subsequent collapse event, (3) the thickness and mechanical properties of the roof rock due to the alteration by hydrothermal fluids, (4) the existence of a deeper and wider magmatic reservoir and (5) possible gravitational failure triggered, in part, by subglacial rock mass build up and hydrothermal alteration. The results obtained indicate that: (1) Any ice cap plays against ring fault formation; (2) Asymmetric distribution of ice may favour the initiation of trap-door type collapse calderas; (3) Glacial erosion of part of volcanic edifice or interglacial edifice failure may facilitate subsequent ring fault formation; (4) hydrothermal system under an ice cap may lead to a quite effective hydrothermal rotting of the intracaldera roof rocks and hence to variations of their mechanical properties and inhibit/deflect ring fracture propagation; and (5) rock surface topography/load influenced by glacial erosion and ice volume change during the interstadials. Although, the analysis of the stress field may inform us about the possibility of ring-fracture initiation, it does not ensure its complete propagation. Parameters controlling this phenomenon are also discussed here. Overall, the maximal glacial time represent the most dynamic time in a multi-caldera volcano life (as compared to more quiet interglacial) promoting physical and chemical feedbacks. We consider that brief interstadial periods during maximal glacial creates most favourable conditions for initiation of caldera-forming eruption, largely through its influence on surface topography by glacial action, mass wasting, and influencing magma vesiculation/discharge as a function of rapidly changing overload. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Dias E.O.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Alvarez-Lacalle E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Carvalho M.S.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | Miranda J.A.,Federal University of Pernambuco
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Conventional viscous fingering flow in radial Hele-Shaw cells employs a constant injection rate, resulting in the emergence of branched interfacial shapes. The search for mechanisms to prevent the development of these bifurcated morphologies is relevant to a number of areas in science and technology. A challenging problem is how best to choose the pumping rate in order to restrain the growth of interfacial amplitudes. We use an analytical variational scheme to look for the precise functional form of such an optimal flow rate. We find it increases linearly with time in a specific manner so that interface disturbances are minimized. Experiments and nonlinear numerical simulations support the effectiveness of this particularly simple, but nontrivial, pattern controlling process. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Agell N.,Ramon Llull University | Sanchez M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Prats F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Rosello L.,Ramon Llull University
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

This paper presents a new approach based upon qualitative reasoning techniques for representing and synthesising the information given by a group of evaluators. A mathematical formulation is developed that contributes to decision-making analysis in the context of multi-attribute and group decision-making. This method, is applied in choice and ranking problems and can work at different precision levels. To represent non-trivial domain knowledge, the patterns or alternatives to be ranked are characterised by a set of features, which are evaluated by each member of the group through linguistic labels corresponding to ordinal values. Different levels of precision are considered to draw the distinctions required by evaluators' reasoning processes. The method used for ranking alternatives is based on comparing distances against an optimal reference point. A theorem on the consistency of the proposed method is presented and proved. Three real-life applications are presented to outline areas of management where the proposed method has been implemented and achieved interesting results. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sun K.,Tsinghua University | Zhang L.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Xing Y.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Guerrero J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Guerrero J.M.,University of Aalborg
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011

Modular generation system, which consists of modular power conditioning converters, is an effective solution to integrate renewable energy sources with conventional utility grid to improve reliability and efficiency, especially for photovoltaic generation. A distributed control strategy based on improved dc bus signaling is proposed for a modular photovoltaic (PV) generation system with battery energy storage elements. In this paper, the modular PV generation system is composed of three modular dc/dc converters for PV arrays, two grid-connected dc/ac converters, and one dc/dc converter for battery charging/discharging and local loads, which is available of either grid-connected operation or islanding operation. By using the proposed control strategy, the operations of a modular PV generation system are categorized into four modes: islanding with battery discharging, grid-connected rectification, grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation. The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information carrier to distinguish different modes and determine mode switching. Control methods of modular dc/dc converters, battery converter, and grid-connected converter are addressed. An autonomous control method for modular dc/dc converters is proposed to realize smooth switching between CV operation and maximum power point tracking operation, which enables the dc bus voltage regulation capability of modular dc/dc converters. Seamless switching of a battery converter between charging and discharging and that of a grid-connected converter between rectification and inversion are ensured by the proposed control methods. Experiments verify the practical feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies. © 2006 IEEE.

Masdemont J.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Computational Finance | Year: 2014

Measuring the contribution of individual transactions inside the total risk of a credit portfolio is a major issue in financial institutions. Value-at-risk (VaR) contributions and expected shortfall (ES) contributions have become two popular ways of quantifying these risks. However, the usual Monte Carlo approach is known to be a very time-consuming method for computing the risk contributions. In this paper, we accurately calculate the ES and we decompose the VaR and the ES into a sum of risk contributions from individual obligors representing the marginal impact on the total portfolio risk. We take the Vasicek one-factor model as the model framework. © Incisive Media Ltd. All rights reserved.

Morales-Narvaez E.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Hassan A.-R.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Hassan A.-R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Hassan A.-R.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | Merkoci A.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Turned ON by a pathogen: A highly sensitive pathogen-detection system has been designed and evaluated for the sensing of E. coli bacteria in diverse matrices. It employs antibody-quantum dot (Ab-QD) probes and exploits the extraordinary two-dimensional structure and fluorescence-quenching capabilities of graphene oxide. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Sempau J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Badal A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Brualla L.,Universitatsklinikum Essen
Medical Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: Two new codes, PENEASY and PENEASYLINAC, which automate the Monte Carlo simulation of Varian Clinacs of the 600, 1800, 2100, and 2300 series, together with their electron applicators and multileaf collimators, are introduced. The challenging case of a relatively small and far-from-axis field has been studied with these tools. Methods: PENEASY is a modular, general-purpose main program for the PENELOPE Monte Carlo system that includes various source models, tallies and variance-reduction techniques (VRT). The code includes a new geometry model that allows the superposition of voxels and objects limited by quadric surfaces. A variant of the VRT known as particle splitting, called fan splitting, is also introduced. PENEASYLINAC, in turn, automatically generates detailed geometry and configuration files to simulate linacs with PENEASY. These tools are applied to the generation of phase-space files, and of the corresponding absorbed dose distributions in water, for two 6 MV photon beams from a Varian Clinac 2100 CD: a 40 40 cm 2 centered field; and a 3 5 cm 2 field centered at (4.5, -11.5) cm from the beam central axis. This latter configuration implies the largest possible over-traveling values of two of the jaws. Simulation results for the depth dose and lateral profiles at various depths are compared, by using the gamma index, with experimental values obtained with a PTW 31002 ionization chamber. The contribution of several VRTs to the computing speed of the more demanding off-axis case is analyzed. Results: For the 40 × 40 cm 2 field, the percentages 1 and 1.2 of voxels with gamma indices (using 0.2 cm and 2 criteria) larger than unity and larger than 1.2 are 0.2 and 0, respectively. For the 3 5 cm 2 field, 1 0. These figures indicate an excellent agreement between simulation and experiment. The dose distribution for the off-axis case with voxels of 2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm 3 and an average standard statistical uncertainty of 2 (1σ) is computed in 3.1 h on a single core of a 2.8 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo processor. This result is obtained with the optimal combination of the tested VRTs. In particular, fan splitting for the off-axis case accelerates execution by a factor of 240 with respect to standard particle splitting. Conclusions: PENEASY and PENEASYLINAC can simulate the considered Varian Clinacs both in an accurate and efficient manner. Fan splitting is crucial to achieve simulation results for the off-axis field in an affordable amount of CPU time. Work to include Elekta linacs and to develop a graphical interface that will facilitate user input is underway. © 2011 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Camacho A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Castilla M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Miret J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Vasquez J.C.,University of Aalborg | Alarcon-Gallo E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

Ancillary services for distributed generation (DG) systems become a challenging issue to smartly integrate renewable-energy sources into the grid. Voltage control is one of these ancillary services which can ride through and support the voltage under grid faults. Grid codes from the transmission system operators describe the behavior of the energy source, regulating voltage limits and reactive power injection to remain connected and support the grid under fault. On the basis that different kinds of voltage sags require different voltage support strategies, a flexible control scheme for three-phase grid-connected inverters is proposed. In three-phase balanced voltage sags, the inverter should inject reactive power in order to raise the voltage in all phases. In one-or two-phase faults, the main concern of the DG inverter is to equalize voltages by reducing the negative symmetric sequence and clear the phase jump. Due to system limitations, a balance between these two extreme policies is mandatory. Thus, over-and undervoltage can be avoided, and the proposed control scheme prevents disconnection while achieving the desired voltage support service. The main contribution of this work is the introduction of a control algorithm for reference current generation that provides flexible voltage support under grid faults. Two different voltage sags have been experimentally tested to illustrate the behavior of the proposed voltage support control scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

Lopez-Benitez M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Lopez-Benitez M.,University of Surrey | Casadevall F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2013

This paper addresses the problem of accurately modeling the spectrum occupancy patterns of real radio communication systems, which is an essential aspect in the study of cognitive radio (CR) networks. The main drawbacks and limitations of previous works are identified, and the methodological procedures on which they rely are improved and extended. Two sophisticated measurement platforms, providing low and high time resolutions, are used to obtain extensive real-world data from a multiband spectrum measurement campaign, embracing a wide variety of spectrum bands of practical interest for CR applications. A comprehensive, systematical, and rigorous analysis of the statistical properties observed in the measurement data is then performed to find accurate models capable of capturing and reproducing, within reasonable complexity limits, the statistical properties of temporal patterns, at both short and long timescales, in real wireless systems. Innovative modeling approaches capable of simultaneously describing statistical properties at both timescales are developed as well. In summary, this paper contributes realistic and accurate time-dimension spectrum usage models for their application to the study and development of CR. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

Fernandez-Baena A.,Ramon Llull University | Susin A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Lligadas X.,LABSID SL.
Proceedings of the 2012 4th International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems, INCoS 2012 | Year: 2012

New and powerful hardware like Kinect introduces the possibility of changing biomechanics paradigm, usually based on expensive and complex equipment. Kinect is a marker less and cheap technology recently introduced from videogame industry. In this work we conduct a comparison study of the precision in the computation of joint angles between Kinect and an optical motion capture professional system. We obtain a range of disparity that guaranties enough precision for most of the clinical rehabilitation treatments prescribed nowadays for patients. This way, an easy and cheap validation of these treatments can be obtained automatically, ensuring a better quality control process for the patient's rehabilitation. © 2012 IEEE.

Sevilla R.,University of Swansea | Fernandez-Mendez S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Huerta A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering | Year: 2011

The development of NURBS-Enhanced Finite Element Method (NEFEM) is revisited. This technique allows a seamless integration of the CAD boundary representation of the domain and the finite element method (FEM). The importance of the geometrical model in finite element simulations is addressed and the benefits and potential of NEFEM are discussed and compared with respect to other curved finite element techniques. © 2011 CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain.

Guasch O.,Ramon Llull University | Codina R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2013

Numerical simulations have proved that Variational Multiscale Methods (VMM) perform well as pure numerical large eddy simulation (LES) models. In this paper we focus on the orthogonal subgrid scale (OSS) finite element method and make an analysis of the statistical behavior of its stabilization terms in the quasi static approximation. This is done by resorting to results from classical statistical fluid mechanics concerning two point velocity, pressure and combined correlation functions of various orders. Given a fine enough mesh with characteristic element size h in the inertial subrange of a turbulent flow, it is shown that the rate of transfer of subgrid kinetic energy provided by the OSS stabilization terms does not depend on h and that it equals the molecular physical dissipation rate (up to a dimensionless constant that only depends on the finite element shapes) for a proper redesign of the standard parameters of the formulation. This is a noteworthy fact taking into account that the subgrid stabilization terms do not arise from physical considerations, but from the mathematical necessity to allow equal interpolation for the pressure and velocity fields, as well as to control convection. Therefore, the obtained results contribute somehow to the line of reasoning supporting that pure numerical approaches (i.e., without introducing additional physical models) could probably suffice in the LES simulation of turbulent flows. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Blazquez-Sanz D.,Sergio Arboleda University | Pantazi C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Nonlinearity | Year: 2012

In this work, we unfold some differential algebraic aspects of Darboux first integrals of polynomial vector fields. An interesting improvement is that our approach can be applied both to autonomous and non-autonomous vector fields. We give a sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of a Darboux first integral of a specific form for a polynomial vector field with some known algebraic invariant hypersurfaces. For the autonomous case, the classical result of Darboux is obtained as a corollary. For the non-autonomous case our characterization improves a known criterium. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.

Bravo E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Martinez-Pinedo G.,TU Darmstadt | Martinez-Pinedo G.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

Background: Type Ia supernovae contribute significantly to the nucleosynthesis of many Fe-group and intermediate-mass elements. However, the robustness of nucleosynthesis obtained via models of this class of explosions has not been studied in depth until now. Purpose: We explore the sensitivity of the nucleosynthesis resulting from thermonuclear explosions of massive white dwarfs with respect to uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates. We put particular emphasis on indentifying the individual reactions rates that most strongly affect the isotopic products of these supernovae. Method: We have adopted a standard one-dimensional delayed detonation model of the explosion of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf and have postprocessed the thermodynamic trajectories of every mass shell with a nucleosynthetic code to obtain the chemical composition of the ejected matter. We have considered increases (decreases) by a factor of 10 on the rates of 1196 nuclear reactions (simultaneously with their inverse reactions), repeating the nucleosynthesis calculations after modification of each reaction rate pair. We have computed as well hydrodynamic models for different rates of the fusion reactions of 12C and of 16O. From the calculations we have selected the reactions that have the largest impact on the supernova yields, and we have computed again the nucleosynthesis using two or three alternative prescriptions for their rates, taken from the JINA REACLIB database. For the three reactions with the largest sensitivity we have analyzed as well the temperature ranges where a modification of their rates has the strongest effect on nucleosynthesis. Results: The nucleosynthesis resulting from the type Ia supernova models is quite robust with respect to variations of nuclear reaction rates, with the exception of the reaction of fusion of two 12C nuclei. The energy of the explosion changes by less than ∼4% when the rates of the reactions 12C+12C or 16O+16O are multiplied by a factor of ×10 or ×0.1. The changes in the nucleosynthesis owing to the modification of the rates of these fusion reactions are also quite modest; for instance, no species with a mass fraction larger than 0.02 experiences a variation of its yield larger than a factor of 2. We provide the sensitivity of the yields of the most abundant species with respect to the rates of the most intense reactions with protons, neutrons, and α. In general, the yields of Fe-group nuclei are more robust than the yields of intermediate-mass elements. Among the species with yields larger than 10 -8MâŠ", 35S has the largest sensitivity to the nuclear reaction rates. It is remarkable that the reactions involving elements with Z>22 have a tiny influence on the supernova nucleosynthesis. Among the charged-particle reactions, the most influential on supernova nucleosynthesis are 30Si+p⇄31P+γ, 20Ne+α⇄24Mg+γ, and 24Mg+α⇄27Al+p. The temperatures at which a modification of their rate has a larger impact are in the range 2â‰T≠4 GK. Conclusions: The explosion model (i.e., the assumed conditions and propagation of the flame) chiefly determines the element production of type Ia supernovae and derived quantities such as their luminosity, while the nuclear reaction rates used in the simulations have a small influence on the kinetic energy and final chemical composition of the ejecta. Our results show that the uncertainty in individual thermonuclear reaction rates cannot account for discrepancies of a factor of 2 between isotopic ratios in type Ia supernovae and those in the solar system, especially within the Fe group. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Ferreira S.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Castellano C.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Castellano C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Pastor-Satorras R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012

Recent work has shown that different theoretical approaches to the dynamics of the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model for epidemics lead to qualitatively different estimates for the position of the epidemic threshold in networks. Here we present large-scale numerical simulations of the SIS dynamics on various types of networks, allowing the precise determination of the effective threshold for systems of finite size N. We compare quantitatively the numerical thresholds with theoretical predictions of the heterogeneous mean-field theory and of the quenched mean-field theory. We show that the latter is in general more accurate, scaling with N with the correct exponent, but often failing to capture the correct prefactor. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Ribas I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Leisten R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Framinan J.M.,University of Seville
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

In this paper, an extensive review of recently published papers on hybrid flow shop (HFS) scheduling problems is presented. The papers are classified first according to the HFS characteristics and production limitations considered in the respective papers. This represents a new approach to the classification of papers in the HFS environment. Second, the papers have been classified according to the solution approach proposed. These two classification categories give a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of the problem and can guide the reader with respect to future research work. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.1 | Award Amount: 5.50M | Year: 2010

ACCORDANCE introduces a novel ultra high capacity (even reaching the 100Gbps regime) extended reach optical access network architecture based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) technology/protocols, implemented through the proper mix of state-of-the-art photonics and electronics. Such architecture is not only intended to offer improved performance compared to evolving TDMA-PON solutions but also inherently provide the opportunity for convergence between optical, radio and copper-based access.\nAlthough OFDM has been used in radio and copper-based communications, it is only recently that is making its way into optics and is expected to increase the system reach and transmission rates without increasing the required cost/complexity of optoelectronic components. ACCORDANCE hence aims to realize the concept of introducing OFDMA-based technology and protocols (Physical and Medium Access Control layer) to provide a variety of desirable characteristics, such as increased aggregate bandwidth and scalability, enhanced resource allocation flexibility, longer reach, lower equipment cost/complexity and lower power consumption, while also supporting multi-wavelength operation. In addition, it enables the convergence of the optical infrastructure with standard wireless solutions, thus offering a way to integrate dominant wired and wireless technologies in a hybrid access network supporting seamless ubiquitous broadband services.\nACCORDANCE, despite being a focused STREP, is supported by 4 major EU industry partners who will contribute to EU leadership in the particular topics and will support the adoption of ACCORDANCE concepts as global standards. The partners strongly believe that the proposed architecture will provide fertile ground for the creation of wider market opportunities from new classes of applications and accelerated uptake of next generation services, by changing the way low-cost ultra-broadband connectivity is provided to end users.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2013.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.01M | Year: 2013

Amongst the few distinctive European alliances carrying the promise of making a lasting impact in software-defined networking (SDN) and the IT industry is the research and industrial communities pursuing developments in the Path Computation Element (PCE), an effort made-in-the-EU. In regards to PCE design, deployment, and evolution, Europeans are amongst todays leaders in the process of transitioning PCE from software-defined concept to interoperable networking standards. This is particularly the case in the standardization bodies of IETF and ETSI, including the areas of advanced optical networks, sensor networks as well as frameworks for the Internet of Things (IoT).\nWe are still facing a number of open challenges in the SDN areas, yet to be addressed through PCE design. First, current Open Networking Foundation (ONF) specifications lack control systems and well-defined interfaces with external (non-ONF) functions, which represents a not-to-be-missed opportunity for the PCE-based architecture. Second, the new ETSI initiative on Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is leveraging virtualization concepts, with the growing role of PCE concepts. Third, Application-based Network Operations (ABNO) an architecture proposed, developed and led within the IETF by leading members of our consortium uses a variety of PCE-based tools and techniques.\nPACE seizes this great opportunity of consolidation of the existing PCE developments, thereby facilitating a one-stop solution for all PCE-related issues, with an open-source software repository, workshops, standardization activities, plugin marketplace, etc. PACE will bring together a community of standardization and community leaders, developers, and academics. PACE will ensure that different aspects of PCE are not developed in isolation, while addressing interoperability issues, and thus avoiding any delays in innovation, and in sealing European leadership in the sector.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.1.1-07 | Award Amount: 2.84M | Year: 2013

The E-GEM project proposes to evolve the current status of GNSS Reflectometry (GNSS-R) methods for the purpose of Earth monitoring, paving the way for operational applications in the domains of ocean altimetry and scaterometry (mainly wave height and surface winds, but also soil moisture, and biomass, monitoring of ice layers). The approach of the E-GEM project is to bring together lead experts in GNSS-R technologies and experienced teams in Earth Observation domains, in order to address the data needs and requirements of GMES services and other Earth monitoring initiatives, and how can GNSS-R methods best respond to the identified challenges in these domains. A strong connection with the users basis as well as with institutional, public and private stakeholders interested in the development and usage of the technology, will also steer the projects efforts, and increase the awareness of this promising technology. Within the E-GEM project, three experimental platforms will be developed for GNSS-R data acquisition: a space-borne, an airborne and a ground instrument will acquire large amounts of data to support the development of algorithms. This data, together with the large effort put on the development and validation of algorithms and processing chains, will aim at obtaining high-resolution products for altimetry, wave height and surface winds. The expected improvements should largely result from the usage of the GPS P code (with the space- and airborne acquired signal), and Galileos AltBOC signals. For these purposes, the E-GEM project will rely strongly on the achievements of the GNSS-R community so far - in which European teams have historically had a leading role so far - and will bring together the individual efforts and other on-going projects into a joint working platform dedicated to the development and integration of GNSS-R technologies into GMES operational services.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-30-2015 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2016

The objective of the BIG IoT project is to ignite really vibrant Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystems. We will achieve this by bridging the current interoperability gap between the vertically integrated IoT platforms and by creating marketplaces for IoT services and applications. Despite various research and innovation projects working on the Internet of Things, no broadly accepted professional IoT ecosystems exist. The reason for that are high market entry barriers for developers and service providers due to a fragmentation of IoT platforms. The goal of this project is to overcome these hurdles by Bridging the Interoperability Gap of the IoT and by creating marketplaces for service and application providers as well as platform operators. We will address the interoperability gap by defining a generic, unified Web API for smart object platforms, called the BIG IoT API. The establishment of a marketplace where platform, application, and service providers can monetize their assets will introduce an incentive to grant access to formerly closed systems and lower market entry barriers for developers. The BIG IoT consortium is well suited to reach the outlined goals, as it comprises all roles of an IoT ecosystem: resource providers (e.g., SIEMENS, SEAT), service and application developers (e.g., VODAFONE, VMZ), marketplace providers (e.g., ATOS), platform providers (e.g., BOSCH, CSI, ECONAIS), as well as end users connected through the public private partnerships of WAG and CSI or the user-focused information services that VMZ provides for the city of Berlin. The major industry players cover multiple domains, including mobility, automotive, telecommunications, and IT services. Four university departments will help to transfer the state of the art into the state of the practice and solve the open research challenges. This consortium will mobilise the necessary critical mass at European level to achieve the goals and to reach the ireach the impacts set out in this project.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: Ocean.2010-1 | Award Amount: 14.85M | Year: 2011

The Arctic is engaged in a deep climatic evolution. This evolution is quite predictable at short (year) and longer scales (several decades), but it is the decadal intermediate scale that is the most difficult to predict. This is because the natural variability of the system is large and dominant at this scale, and the system is highly non linear due to positive and negative feedback between sea ice, the ocean and atmosphere. Already today, due to the increase of the GHG concentration in the atmosphere and the amplification of global warming in the Arctic, the impacts of climate change in the region are apparent, e.g. in the reduction in sea ice, in changes in weather patterns and cyclones or in the melting of glaciers and permafrost. It is therefore not surprising that models clearly predict that Artic sea ice will disappear in summer within 20 or 30 years, yielding new opportunities and risks for human activities in the Arctic. This climatic evolution is going to have strong impacts on both marine ecosystems and human activities in the Arctic. This in turn has large socio-economic implications for Europe. ACCESS will evaluate climatic impacts in the Arctic on marine transportation (including tourism), fisheries, marine mammals and the extraction of hydrocarbons for the next 20 years; with particular attention to environmental sensitivities and sustainability. These meso-economic issues will be extended to the macro-economic scale in order to highlight trans-sectoral implications and provide an integrated assessment of the socio-economic impact of climate change. An important aspect of ACCESS, given the geostrategic implication of Arctic state changes, will be the consideration of Arctic governance issues, including the framework UNCLOS (United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea). ACCESS dedicates a full work package to integrate Arctic climate changes, socioeconomic impacts and Arctic governance issues.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 18.27M | Year: 2008

The End-to-End Efficiency (E3) project is an ambitious FP7 EC Integrated Project (IP) aiming at integrating cognitive wireless systems in the Beyond 3G (B3G) world, evolving current heterogeneous wireless system infrastructures into an integrated, scalable and efficiently managed B3G cognitive system framework. The key objective of the E3 project is to design, develop, prototype and showcase solutions to guarantee interoperability, flexibility and scalability between existing legacy and future wireless systems, manage the overall system complexity, and ensure convergence across access technologies, business domains, regulatory domains and geographical regions.\n\nCognitive radio systems are seen by many actors of the wireless industry as a core technical evolution towards exploitation of the full potential of B3G systems. It is under way to revolutionize wireless communications just as the PC revolution. E3 will ensure seamless access to applications and services and exploitation of the full diversity of corresponding heterogeneous systems, in order to offer an extensive set of operational choices to the users, application and service providers, operators, manufacturers and regulators. E3 will optimise the use of the radio resources and spectrum, following cognitive network paradigms. The management functions will be distributed over different network elements at various levels of the system topology.\n\nThe E3 consortium will bring together major key European players in the domain of cognitive radios and networks, self-management and end-to-end reconfigurability. E3 will build on several key achievements from the successful FP6 E2R Programme, pursuing research into the most promising directions, in order to facilitate the vision of true end-to-end connectivity.\n\nThe E3 project addresses the core of the Strategic Objective ICT-2007.1.1 The Network of the Future from Challenge 1 Pervasive and Trusted Network and Service Infrastructures.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2013-3 | Award Amount: 13.68M | Year: 2013

RESEEPE will bring together design and decision making tools, innovative building fabric manufacturers and a strong demonstration programme to demonstrate the improved building performance through retrofitting. The core idea of the RESSEEPE project is to technically advance, adapt, demonstrate and assess a number of innovative retrofit technologies. Reductions in the area of 50% will be achieved in terms of energy consumption .A systemic process will be also implemented that will allow the selection of the best possible retrofiting mix, customised to the needs of the particular building.. Several remarkable innovative technologies and materials will be integrated in the retrofitting process: - Envelope Retrofitting: Ventilated Facades, Aerogel-based Superinsulating mortar, Wooden Insulating Wall Panel and VIP Panel - Integration of RES: PV Energy, Thermal Collectors - Energy Storage Systems: Thermal storage and PCMs - Nanotechnologies and smart materials: EC/PV Windows - ICT: Strategies at building and district level - Intelligent Building Controls: HVAC systems The RESSEEPE framework will be validated and refined by a strong demonstration programme, envisaging the renovation of 102.000 square meters of public buildings, arriving to a total renovation of 205.000 square meters that will be deployed in the following years. The estimated average of energy consumption in the renovated demo sites, on final energy, will be 66 kWh/m2year, representing a 63% of reduction in energy consumption compared to the current situation. CO2 emissions will be 48,15 kg/m2year, corresponding to more than 60 % of reduction. The total emissions avoided by the demo sites will be 2257 tCO2/year. Associated investment costs to building renovation are expected to represent a maximum of 19% on average of the total costs of building an equivalent new building in the same location. On average, the return on investment will be around 7,6 years.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 9.17M | Year: 2008

NEWCOM\\ is the acronym of a proposed Network of Excellence in Wireless COMmunications, submitted to Call 1 of the VII Framework Programme under the Objective ICT-2007.1.1: The Network of the Future, mainly in its target direction Ubiquitous network infrastructure and architectures. The current proposal draws inspiration, shape/form, and substantive direction from its successful predecessor, the NoE NEWCOM, which was approved and funded by the EC for 36 months starting March 1st, 2004 and ending February 28, 2007. At the same time, NEWCOM\\ aspires to inject new vision, expanded roles, ever-higher degrees of research integration, and a definitive roadmap to financial security for the long-term life of this undertaking in the European research and higher-learning space. The core concept of NEWCOM\\ is that of an NoE of medium size, greatly reduced from the initial NEWCOM Consortium, formed by keeping the most committed and performing partners, exploiting the successful integration tools that NEWCOM designed and activated, and which is created for the purpose of scientifically addressing medium/long term, complex, interdisciplinary, fundamental research problems in the field of wireless networks, focused towards identifying, posing in the right modelling perspective, and at least partially characterizing the information-communication theoretical limits. Its main objectives are: Identify a selective set of scenarios, Define suitable performance measures that take into account the wireless channel nature, Perform a detailed analysis of the main theoretical results available, Evaluate information-theoretical bounds on the achievable performance, Design and analyze transmitting/receiving algorithms and protocols in order to approach those limits, Analyze implementation aspects of the above algorithms in flexible, energy-aware user terminals, Output the major findings into an integrated simulation library, Enhance the already good cooperation level among research

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.50M | Year: 2015

Biomedical imaging is a research field that is producing ground breaking scientific discoveries that enhance the health and life quality of European citizens and have a huge economic impact. In order to maintain Europes leading position in the field, it is crucial to invest in the people who will lead R&D, and to promote the academic-private sector partnerships that will transfer the novel technologies to the market. In order to meet these needs, BE-OPTICAL will provide a unique and structured training programme to 14 ESRs in a wide range of optical imaging technologies and signal processing tools, including fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy, optical coherence tomography, optogenetics, engineered nanomaterials and signal processing tools. The research is structured in 4 WPs: super-resolution optical imaging for the analysis of cellular processes (WP1), high-resolution optical imaging of cardiac tissue (WP2), advanced instrumentation for ophthalmic imaging (WP3), and optical components, methods and software for image analysis (WP4). Comprising 7 leading academic groups and 2 non-academic partners in 5 European countries, BE-OPTICAL brings together an interdisciplinary team of physicists, engineers and medical doctors, with complementary expertise in optical imaging, nanotechnology, computer science, complex systems and data analysis. The non-academic partners are a leading company in fluorescence instrumentation and an internationally recognised ophthalmology clinic, with the most advanced technology and expertise in ocular diseases. The training programme will provide the ESRs with a broad understanding of how a wide range of optical imaging technologies and data processing tools work, and will open for them a wide range of job opportunities. The ESRs will apply this knowledge to advance the early diagnosis of highly significant diseases. The ESRs will also gain insight into clinical studies of novel imaging technologies and the commercialization process.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 2.08M | Year: 2015

AdMoRe: Empowered decision-making in simulation-based engineering: Advanced Model Reduction for real-time, inverse and optimization in industrial problems aims at providing in-depth training of Early Stage Researches (ESRs) in the development and application of state-of-the-art computational models and numerical methods to solve cutting-edge engineering problems. The main driving factors of all the beneficiaries are reduced order modeling techniques for real-time, inverse and optimization problems. In fact, these issues are seen by industry as a major asset to increase performance and competitiveness. The ultimate goal is to produce the next generation of European research engineers, leaders in the use of these methodologies for industry related problems. To achieve the ETN objectives, AdMoRe is based on training-through-research of ESRs with personalized frontier-research projects and active participation in network activities (viz. industrial placements, AdMoRe schools, conferences, dissemination, organization of events). Training will involve multi-disciplinary modeling (i.e. solids, fluids, structures, electromagnetics, acoustics), inter-disciplinary modeling (i.e. fluid-structure interaction, electro-magneto-mechanics, thermo-mechanics, aerodynamic noise) and new emerging scientific fields (i.e. geometrically enhanced finite elements/volumes, reduced order techniques, validation), with a highlighted industrial edge bringing necessary transversal skills (i.e. through active involvement of the industrial partners). Furthermore, ESRs will be trained to develop core entrepreneurial skills to successfully move ideas into commercial practice through a series of transversal-entrepreneurship modules, as part of their training. The active involvement of industrial partners in AdMoRe ensures that both the research development and the ESR training will deliver research engineers that will be able to lead computer modeling in European industry and enterprise.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 4.46M | Year: 2009

The aim of IMPRINTS is to contribute to reduce loss of life and economic damage through the improvement of the preparedness and the operational risk management for Flash Flood and Debris Flow [FF/DF] generating events, as well as to contribute to sustainable development through reducing damages to the environment. To achieve this ultimate objective the project is oriented to produce methods and tools to be used by emergency agencies and utility companies responsible for the management of FF/DF risks and associated effects. Impacts of future changes, including climatic, land use and socioeconomic will be analysed in order to provide guidelines for mitigation and adaptation measures. Specifically, the consortium will develop an integrated probabilistic forecasting FF/ DF system as well as a probabilistic early warning and a rule-based probabilistic forecasting system adapted to the operational use by practitioners. These systems will be tested on five selected flash flood prone areas, two located in mountainous catchments in the Alps, and three in Mediterranean catchments. The IMPRINTS practitioner partners, risk management authorities and utility company managers in duty of emergency management in these areas, will supervise these tests. The development of such systems will be carried out using and capitalising the results of previous and ongoing research on FF/DF forecasting and warning systems, in which several of the partners have played a prominent role. One major result of the project will be a operational prototype including the tools and methodologies developed under the project. This prototype will be designed under the premise of its ultimate commercialization and use worldwide. The consortium, covering all the actors involved in the complex chain of FF & DF forecasting, has been carefully selected to ensure the achievement of this. Specific actions to exploit and protect the results and the intellectual property of the partners have been also defined.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.48M | Year: 2011

Dry fermented sausage production comprises an important segment of the European meat industry and market. However, the European meat processing industry is extremely fragmented and characterised by businesses of very small size. Small and medium enterprises play an important role in the food sector, both in economical and social terms. The traditional and farm workshops are often based in rural area where the density of inhabitants is low and, for this reason, the diversification of the production has direct implications for employment and the maintenance of these traditional enterprises has a great economic impact. The sensory characteristics of food products are essential for consumers and the challenge for consortium SME sausage producers lies in increasing production while minimizing product variability, maintaining flavour and desired texture and assuring product safety. Fermentation and maturation play a pivotal role in the final sausages quality. Maturation requires the precise control of two critical parameters relative humidity and temperature that are crucial for the products final sensory characteristics and safety. The main objective of this project is to design and develop: (i) an analytical system that could be incorporated in ripening/drying chambers to provide information on the evolution of the relative water content and distribution in representative sausage samples along the chamber, as well as a local indication of the temperature and relative humidity values near those samples. (ii) A drying chamber control system which uses the information from the multi-sensor system to readapt the environmental conditions in the chamber for a correct drying process. The proposed DryCheck project will give SMEs a practical tool with which improve the production of quality sausage with a user-friendly albeit advanced technology product at an affordable cost.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 1.94M | Year: 2010

As the range of phenomena that need to be simulated in engineering practice broadens, the limitations of conventional computational methods, such as finite elements (FE), finite volumes or finite difference methods, have become apparent. There are many problems of industrial and academic interest which cannot be easily treated with these classical methods. To overcome the limitations of classical methods, several advanced discretization techniques (mesh-free methods, extended/generalized FE or Dicontinuous Galerkin methods) have recently become very popular in the research community. However, despite their high potential and the important effort devoted to them in the last decade, advanced techniques require still very much attention to reach the popularity of conventional techniques for industrial applications. In fact, engineers are usually not trained in these techniques. The purpose of the ITN research project is to advance in the development and analysis of advanced techniques, with special attention to particular industrial applications of interests in the framework of computational mechanics. However, the introduction of new techniques in industry is only possible if industrial researchers have a deep knowledge and confidence on these techniques and are aware of their advantages. The ITN training program is addressed to researchers that, in the future, may be incorporated in industry. It is based on training-through-research with individual research projects, active participation in network activities and a wide offer of specific courses. In present, the network partners have a wide offer of training courses (joint Erasmus Mundus Master of Science in Computational Mechanics, etc). No experienced researchers or visiting professors are considered in this proposal. The dimension of the academic network teams and the scientific production of all of them clearly demonstrate that they are able to carry out the planned training program.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES | Award Amount: 256.90K | Year: 2011

The passage of electric current through interfaces between media with different electrochemical properties is accompanied by changes in the solution composition close to the interfaces (concentration polarization). Another phenomenon occurring at solid-liquid interfaces is the charge separation and formation of (equilibrium and non-equilibrium) double electric layers. Subject to external and/or spontaneously arising electric fields and ion-composition gradients, the space charges give rise to volume-transfer phenomena. Their intensity is strongly dependent on the ion composition of the liquid phase, which can change considerably close to current-polarized interfaces. This is one of the mechanisms of coupling between the ion- and volume-transfer phenomena in heterogeneous systems. At the same time, the space-charge-related volume transfer can strongly modify the solution composition close to polarized interfaces via convective transfer of solutes. This is another mechanism of coupling between the phenomena of interest. The interplay of these two mechanisms gives rise to a number of non-linear, non-1D and non-stationary phenomena. Their modeling is difficult but important for the optimization of applications in clean energy, advanced water treatment, micro-analysis, and so on. Because of complexity of the objects involved, such a model cannot be formulated from first principles and has to use input parameters determined experimentally. Therefore, fundamental experimentation is an indispensable constituent part of the modeling effort. Important elements of this model and/or corresponding fundamental experimentation have been developed in the previous studies of the Proposers. The purpose of this project is to facilitate the knowledge transfer between them to make possible further development and integration of these elements into a self-consistent and comprehensive model. Its utility will be validated via optimization of several practically-relevant systems/processes.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-01-2014 | Award Amount: 13.89M | Year: 2015

The overall aim of the SOTERIA project is to improve the understanding of the ageing phenomena occurring in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and in the internal steels (internals) in order to provide crucial information to regulators and operators to ensure safe long-term operation (LTO) of existing European nuclear power plants (NPPs). SOTERIA has set up a collaborative research consortium which gathers the main European research centres and industrial partners who will combine advanced modelling tools with the exploitation of experimental data to focus on four technical objectives: i) to carry out experiments aiming to explore flux and fluence effects on RPV and internals in pressurised water reactors, ii) to assess the residual lifetime of RPV taking into account metallurgical heterogeneities, iii) to assess the effect of the chemical and radiation environment on cracking in internals and iv) to develop modelling tools and provide a single platform integrating developed modelling tools and experimental data for reassessment of structural components during NPPs lifetime. Building on industry-specific key questions and material, SOTERIA will fill current gaps in safety assessment related to ageing phenomena, by providing a set of modelling tools directly applicable in an industrial environment. Guidelines for better use of modelling, material testing reactors and surveillance data will also be an output of paramount importance. Another important parallel objective is the education of the nuclear engineering and research community of SOTERIA results to improve and harmonise knowledge about NPPs ageing and thereby ensure a high impact of project results. The knowledge and tools generated in SOTERIA will contribute to improving EU nuclear safety policy, to increasing the leadership of the EU in safety related equipment and information and to contribute to improved NPP safety world-wide. The SOTERIA proposal received the NUGENIA label on 10 August 2014.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.2 | Award Amount: 4.47M | Year: 2012

MOTIVATION: By 2013 an estimated 85% of all commercial software packages will include OSS\n\nPROBLEM: Failure rates in OSS projects are reported to be higher than 50%. In 2011, inadequate risk management was identified among the top 5 mistakes to avoid when implementing OSS-based solutions. Understanding, managing and mitigating OSS adoption risks is therefore crucial to avoid potentially significant adverse impact on the business, in terms of time to market, customer satisfaction, revenue and brand image\n\nAPPROACH: The RISCOSS project will offer novel risk identification, management and mitigation tools and methods for community-based and industry-supported OSS development, composition and life cycle management to individually, collectively and/or collaboratively manage OSS adoption risks. Using advanced software engineering techniques, RISCOSS will deliver a risk-aware technical decision-making management platform integrated in a business-oriented decision-making framework, which together support placing technical OSS adoption decisions into organizational, business strategy as well as the broader OSS community context\n\nOBJECTIVES: To offer:\n- OSS risk management techniques and practices. Scalable, flexible and efficient quantitative and qualitative decision-making techniques\n- Business models for OSS solutions. Flexible, customizable business models for OSS adoption considering involved stakeholders, their strategies and decision-making\n- Strategic modelling and analysis of OSS ecosystems. Modelling approach to map out relevant organizational and OSS community context\n- Tool Support. Rich, usable, collaborative and customisable web-based software platform offering integrated risk-management techniques developed in this, and reused from other, projects\n\nKEY RESULTS: 1) The RISCOSS sustainable platform. 2) Know-how about the stated objectives. 3) Improved competitiveness of IT European Industry. 4) Exploitation in the project through several case studies

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.9.2 | Award Amount: 824.55K | Year: 2009

EU, Belarus and Ukraine face common ICT R&D opportunities and challenges that create a favourable environment for strategic collaboration. The main aim of SCUBE-ICT is to increase co-operation between ICT researchers from the three regions. The project will achieve its overall aim via a range of activities: 1. Assessing the ICT collaboration potential for the three regions. This involves production of a White Paper on ICT R&D in Belarus and Ukraine; mapping the Belarusian and Ukrainian ICT actors; reporting on opportunities for Bel/Ukr ICT actors in the EU; and reporting on opportunities for EU ICT actors in Bel/Ukr; 2. Organising awareness-raising and training events about the ECs ICT R&D programmes for Bel/Ukr ICT actors. Also, organising networking/partnership events with motivated EU and Bel/Ukr ICT actors to initiate research collaborations between them; 3. Providing advanced support services to competent Bel/Ukr ICT actors to build long-term relationships with key EU counterparts. Central to this will be implementation of Joint Action Plans, which are mini roadmaps describing in detail how to reach research collaboration goals; 4. Enhancing ICT R&D policy dialogue between policy makers and stakeholders from EU and Bel/Ukr ICT communities. ICT R&D Policy Working Groups will be established in Bel/Ukr that meet to discuss co-operation in areas of mutual interest and develop a Road Map towards a Joint Strategy in ICT R&D. The SCUBE-ICT projects measurable results will include: a. Website and online database with information about 100-150 ICT actors in Bel/Ukr; b. 4 awareness raising/training events in Bel/Ukr concerning FP7 ICT; c. 6 ICT networking events; d. Support to at least 15 Bel/Ukr ICT actors to establish Joint Action Plans with EU actors; e. Support to at least 10 Bel/Ukr ICT actors to make FP7 proposals; f. ICT R&D Policy Working Groups involving EU and Bel/Ukr; and g. Roadmap towards a Joint Strategy in ICT R&D.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.10.3 | Award Amount: 1.36M | Year: 2013

TUCAN3G is built upon the basic premise that considers information and communications as a key factor of human development. The diffusion of ICT in developing countries has been very asymmetric between densely populated urban areas and isolated rural areas. Geographical conditions have often conditioned solutions for Internet connectivity in rural areas, often based on wireless 2G cellular technologies. From a technological and socio-economical), this project proposes to study the introduction of 3G Femtocells (and its evolution to 4G) in outdoor environments, with backhauling heterogeneous WiLD (WiFi for Long Distances) - WiMAX - VSAT, to provide access to voice and data services to remote rural areas in developing countries. More specifically, the project aims to three specific objectives framed in: (SO1) technology development, (SO2) market research and elaboration of business models, and (SO3) in verification through proofs of concept in platforms installed in basins of the rivers Napo and Putumayo (Peru), which will allow deploying several femtocells in 4 remote rural locations. The technological objective (SO1) aims at optimizing access networks FWI (Femto-WiFi Integration) and heterogeneous transport networks WWVI (WiLD-WiMAX Integration VSAT) to provide 3G service to isolated rural populations in a progressive way . This objective will adopt interference management solutions studied in the ICT project FREEDOM ( for the outdoor rural scenario and will introduce LIPA (IP Local Access) and SIPTO (Selected IP Traffic Offload) features to reduce the burden on the transport network. On its turn, optimal solutions for resource allocation and flow control for WiLD transport networks (WiFi parameterization for long distance and quality of service management) and VSAT (hard & soft acceleration) will be derived. In all cases we will consider the critical factors associated to the energy consumption.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 20.70M | Year: 2008

Future networks became a central topic with a large debate whether moving towards the new networked society will be evolutionary or disruptive. In the future networked society the physical and the digital worlds will merge based on the massive usage of wireless sensor networks. Objects will be able to identify and locate themselves and to communicate through radio interfaces. Self-organized edge networks will become more and more common. Virtualization and programmability will allow for providing different networking environments over the same infrastructure. Autonomic networking will deal with the increasing complexity of IandC systems. End-users empowerment will increase with his capacity of providing services and content, as well as connectivity support.\nThis new environment forces the scientific community to develop new principles and methods to design/dimension/control/manage future multi-technology architectures. The new paradigms raise new challenging scientific and technological problems embedded in complex policy, governance, and worldwide standards issues. Dealing with the diversity of these scientific and socio-economic challenges requires the integration of a wide range of research capacities; a role that Euro-NF will fulfil.\nIndeed, Euro-NF extends, in scope and duration, the successful Euro-NGI/FGI NoE that has integrated the required critical mass on the networks of the future and is now a major worldwide player in this area. The consortium has evolved in order to have an optimal coverage of the new scope. Euro-NF will therefore cover the integration of a wide range of European research capacities, including researchers and research and dissemination activities. As such Euro-NF will continue to develop a prominent European center of excellence in Future networks design and engineering, acting as a Collective Intelligence Think Tank, representing a major support for the European Society leading towards a European leadership in this area.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 4.36M | Year: 2008

The project aims at provisioning a ubiquitous wireless solution to reach bit rates higher than 100Mbps with peak throughputs higher than 1Gbps, based on Reconfigurable OFDMA Cooperative Networks enabled by agile spectrum use (ROCKET). While increasing peak rates is a natural must-do for new standards, providing homogeneous high rate coverage is equally important as it guarantees a constant user experience over the whole served area and is the key enabler to a higher average spectral efficiency of the system. Those goals are inline with the IMT-Advanced requirements described in [ITU-R M1645] and match the requirements of the IEEE 802.16 Task Group m (TGm) for Advanced Air Interface.\n\nIn order to guarantee a strong focus and efficiency in the project, we propose to limit the scope of our investigations to two questions which we believe will be at the centre of future IMT-advanced system design:\n1. How can we increase the bandwidth and make the whole system benefit from it?\n2. How can we increase system spectral efficiency and provide ubiquitous high-rate coverage?\n\nThose questions are addressed by devising methods for improved spectrum usage, advanced multiuser cooperative transmission and ultra-efficient MAC design. Providing inputs to standardization bodies, generating IPR and demonstrating capabilities of some algorithms on a test-bed are the way the project plans to have actual impact.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES | Award Amount: 306.60K | Year: 2011

The objective of the EVANS project is to increase researchers mobility between EU countries and China to obtain better understanding of network virtualisation for future Internet infrastructure. In particular, the knowledge transfer, as a result of researchers mobility, will focus on the management aspects of the virtualised network resources rather than the virtualisation techniques themselves. As far as the types of network platforms are concerned, there are not only optical networks and IP networks for the core networks that constitute the Internet backbone but also various broadband wireless network technologies for mobile access. In order to provide an end-to-end service solution to end users, wireless mobile access network technologies have to be considered as an increasing number of users use mobile devices to get access to the Internet. The EVANS project aims to investigation into the creation of a network virtualisation environment over a fully heterogeneous network infrastructure and to provide an integrated network management system across different types of network platforms. The project will investigate into two complementary aspects of such an integrated network resource management system: (1) vertical management of virtualised resource for service heterogeneity, which is performed by infrastructure providers, and (2) horizontal management of virtualised resource for network heterogeneity, which is for the interest of service providers. This staff exchange programme will also help develop new research links and deepen and strengthen the current research links amongst the partners and help build up long-term, world-class research in future Internet technology.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.2.5-02 | Award Amount: 7.20M | Year: 2014

EnReMilk will achieve significant water and energy savings in representative dairy case studies, mozzarella and milk powder production, across the supply chain. The dairy industry is an important food industry sector with sales of 124.3 billion and added value of 17.4 billion p.a. It is a high energy and water consumer, both overall and per unit production: up to 6.47 MWh (5.55 MWhth and 0.92 MWhel) and 60 m3 of water per tonne processed milk. 98 % of the fresh water used is of drinking water quality with 80% of energy consumed in process heating, pasteurisation, sterilisation, drying and cleaning operations. During EnReMilk, energy savings of at least 20% and water savings of at least 30% will be achieved in case studies (3 months production), replicable in both SME and larger dairies. These savings will be validated against a consumption baseline of existing operation, being validated in model simulations and in physical trials. Emerging and novel engineering technologies will be optimised and implemented in key dairy unit operations to provide significant and simultaneous saving of water and energy, while ensuring food quality and safety. It will: (i) identify and monitor water and energy consumption patterns of along the entire supply chain, (ii) model and simulate to evaluate savings potential of a vast array of technological scenarios, (iii) optimise selected technologies in case studies with highest water and energy saving potential, (iv) optimise resource supply and use strategies, and (v) ensure benefits for food producers and equipment manufacturers, while reconciling sustainability imperatives. It will ensure a smooth translation into practical implementation, providing an innovation-driven increase in the competitiveness of the EU dairy sector. EnReMilk will ensure that engineering innovations are verified as environmentally sustainable, economically viable and socially responsible, and that food quality and safety is not compromised.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 9.98M | Year: 2015

HYDRALAB is an advanced network of environmental hydraulic institutes in Europe, which has been effective in providing access to a suite of major and unique environmental hydraulic facilities from across the whole European scientific community. A continuation project will prepare environmental hydraulic modelling for the upcoming urgent technical challenges associated with adaptations for climate change. A multi-disciplinary approach is essential to meet these challenges. We denote the project HYDRALAB\, in recognition of the added value that will follow from our network changing to enhance the collaboration between specialists and engaging with a new range of stakeholders. The issues associated with climate change impacts on rivers and coasts are significant enough to ask the scientific community to which we open up our facilities to focus their research efforts on adaptations for climate change. We plan to issue themed calls for proposals for access to the facilities, with scientific merit as the main selection criterion, but with preference to the proposals that also address issues of adaptation to climate change impact. In HYDRALAB\, with the prospect of climate change, we will build networking activities that will also involve the wider hydraulic community in the process of generating the deliverables of the project. The first Workshop in the project will be devoted to working together with the larger European hydraulics community not directly involved in HYDRALAB. Increased emphasis will be placed by HYDRALAB\ on engagement with industry a theme that will be delivered initially through the vehicle of a focussed Workshop between HYDRALAB researchers and industry. We will work together with industry to have HYDRALAB\ become part of the innovation cycle by bringing development to market this is particularly relevant for the instruments we develop - to involve industry in our range of project deliverables.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.1 | Award Amount: 6.77M | Year: 2010

Due to the need of supporting diversified services with vastly expanded use of wireless access, the Future Internet will set the networks under stress for resources. This motivates the quest for efficiency, through technologies that achieve: (i) higher utilization of resources; (ii) lower transmission powers and energy consumption (decisions with green footprint); (iii) reductions in the total cost of ownership. OneFIT proposes a solution that achieves these targets, and thus, creates important value-adding opportunities for the user and the wireless industry.\nThe solution comprises: (i) opportunistic networks, which are operator-governed (through the provision of spectrum, policies, information and knowledge, exploited for their creation), temporary, coordinated extensions of the infrastructure that may include network elements, and devices potentially organized in an infrastructure-less manner; (ii) cognitive systems for managing the opportunistic networks (CMONs) and for coordinating the infrastructure (CSCIs); (iii) control channels for the cooperation of the cognitive management systems (C4MS).\nScenarios in which efficient business and service offerings are enabled have been defined. These are cases requiring the resolution of congestion situations or the expansion of the coverage of the infrastructure, or involving localized application/service provision.\nCMON/CSCI functionality and the C4MS will provide the means for determining the suitability, creating, maintaining and releasing opportunistic networks. The SOTA will be progressed in the areas: node/infrastructure discovery, candidate node determination, spectrum opportunity identification/generation, spectrum allocation, routing, QoS control, forced termination handling. Validation will rely on simulation, and on experiments with a powerful hardware platform and social networking and prosumer applications. C4MS standardization and regulation, and overall dissemination/training, activities will be done.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SPIRE-06-2015 | Award Amount: 5.91M | Year: 2015

To pave the way forward for IS as a solution for more efficient processing and energy systems for the process industry, we will develop a secure ICT platform (SHAREBOX) for the flexible management of shared process resources that will provide plant operations and production managers with the robust and reliable information that they need in real-time in order to effectively and confidently share resources (plant, energy, water, residues, and recycled materials) with other companies in a symbiotic eco-system. A suite of new analysis and optimisation tools for flexible energy use and material flow integration will be developed for optimising symbiosis among companies. These tools will be based on input-output (IO) modelling for resource (waste and energy) supply-demand matching and process efficiency analysis (to understand physical and technological conditions), game theoretical (GT) approach for integrating company behaviour in cost-, benefit-, and resource-sharing (to understand economic conditions), and agent-based modelling (ABM) for designing the (economic, environmental, and social) optimal symbiotic network (to have the holistic optimum). The outputs from the SHAREBOX controller will provide plant and operations managers with commands for actions to be taken and/or recommendations for decision support. It will be ensured that all commands and recommendations a) fulfil plant operations requirements, b) are within the constraints of any contractual obligations, c) are in compliance with all regulatory thresholds, and d) deliver optimal impacts in terms of cost/savings and ecological footprints. The historical data that is generated by the SHAREBOX platform will be processed by data mining tools that will provide the production/process BIG DATA for symbiotic shared resources optimisation. The platform will be co-created, implemented and tested at 4 demo locations in EU, using realistic industrial streams and process conditions.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: NFRP-10-2014 | Award Amount: 3.18M | Year: 2016

The present situation of nuclear energy in Europe asks for a continuing effort in the field of Education and Training aimed to assure a qualified workforce in the next decades. In this scenario, the present proposal is aimed at enhancing and networking the Europe-wide efforts initiated in the past decades by different organisations belonging to academia, research centres and industry to maintain and develop Education and Training in the nuclear fields. This will allow consolidating, developing and better exploiting the achievements already reached in the past and to tackle the present challenges in preparing the European workforce in the nuclear fields. The main objectives of the proposal are: 1. SURVEY AND COORDINATION OF NETWORKING IN E&T AND VET IN THE NUCLEAR AREAS 2. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF COORDINATED E&T AND VET EFFORTS (Master and Summer Courses for continuous professional development) 3. GENERATIONAL TRANSFER OF EXPERTISE (Sustainable production of educational material) 4. CROSS BORDER TRANSFER OF EXPERTISE (Implementation of ECVET based exchanges among industrial bodies) 5. REINFORCING ETI ACTIONS FOR SHARING AND ENHANCING NUCLEAR SAFETY CULTURE COMPETENCE 6. FACILITATING THE NUCLEAR TRANSITION IN FUSION: COORDINATING THE E&T ACTIONS The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), as coordinator of the proposed action, together with the other Participants, is committed to pursue the above objectives, being fully coherent with the ones suggested in the call (NFRP10) and proposed by the SET Plan Roadmap for Education and Training for the nuclear sector, tightening at the same time the links among the different nuclear areas and better coordinating their contributions in the E&T fields. Strict links with the SNE-TP; IGD-TP and MELODI platforms and other relevant associations and bodies (EHRO-N, NUGENIA, EUTERP, IAEA, HERCA, etc.) will be implemented to assure coherence of this effort with similar other efforts going on in Europe.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-06-2015 | Award Amount: 3.27M | Year: 2015

SKHINCAPS project will explore an innovative and sustainable in situ self-assembly nanoencapsulation technology to deliver novel products for skin healthcare applications, with increased efficiency and cost benefits, leading to ground-breaking innovations on the actual products. Using this safe, sustainable and easily scalable technology, different actives will be addressed for nanoencapsulation: phase-change materials (PCMs), a cocktail of vitamins and antioxidants, and natural essential oils. The nanocapsules will be engineered to achieve three possible release mechanisms, enhancing actives efficiency. Different demonstrators will be developed with these customised and safe nanocapsules for skin healthcare applications: - First layer garments with no-release nanocapsules loaded with PCMs, to improve thermal management and skin comfort; - Creams with triggered nanocapsules containing the cocktail, to improve the anti-ageing effect on the end-users skin; - Lotions and textiles containing targeted nanocapsules loaded with natural essential oils to prevent or even mitigate bacterial infections on the end-users skin. These demonstrators will be fully tested for their safety and performance assessment to fulfil the present regulation requirements. SKHINCAPS comprises SMEs from different stages of the supply chain, so it will promote stronger collaborations between materials suppliers, manufacturers and end-users. SKHINCAPS is therefore entirely aligned with the European 2020 strategy, contributing to boost competitiveness and support the creation of jobs and new sources of growth. SKHINCAPS is also committed with the flagships initiatives, and with a number of wider H2020 objectives including: control healthcare expenditure, H2020 strategic cosmeceuticals sector and plural H2020 Key Enabling Technologies (KETs).

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-1-2014 | Award Amount: 2.40M | Year: 2015

The making of policies coping with Global Systems is a process that necessarily involves stakeholders from diverse disciplines, each with their own interests, constraints and objectives. People play a central role in such collective decision making and the quest for solutions to a problem generally intertwines its very specification. Simulators can assist in this process provided they employ adequate high-level modelling to separate the political question from the underlying scientific details. Domain-specific Languages (DSL) embedded in Functional Programming (FP) languages offer a promising way to implement scalable and verifiable simulators. But the use of simulators is essentially a trial-and-error process too tedious for execution in a group session. A paradigm shift is needed towards active problem solving where stakeholders objectives can be taken along from the very beginning. Constraint Programming (CP) has demonstrated to enable such a shift for e.g. managed physical systems like water and power networks. This project lays the base for a DSL aimed at building scalable Rapid Assessment Tools for collective policy making in global systems. This can be achieved through foundational scientific work at different levels: from the high-level, political modelling, adapting the social discipline of Group Model Building (as used in business organizations), through visual forms of CP as well as gamification aspects, down to the needs for a host language, combining CP and FP. Special emphasis is put on domain-specific constraints, constraint composition, and composable solvers and heuristics. Results are applied and validated for the problem case of Climate-Resilient Urban Design, but the ambition is a general framework applicable to many other systems. The case study is assessed by an external multi-disciplinary Advisory Board of Stakeholders that guides the specification process and evaluates needs and usability of the tools.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: DRS-01-2015 | Award Amount: 14.54M | Year: 2016

The ultimate purpose of ANYWHERE is to empower exposed responder institutions and citizens to enhance their anticipation and pro-active capacity of response to face extreme and high-impact weather and climate events. This will be achieved through the operational implementation of cutting-edge innovative technology as the best way to enhance citizens protection and saving lives. ANYWHERE proposes to implement a Pan-European multi-hazard platform providing a better identification of the expected weather-induced impacts and their location in time and space before they occur. This platform will support a faster analysis and anticipation of risks prior the event occurrence, an improved coordination of emergency reactions in the field and help to raise the self-preparedness of the population at risk. This significant step-ahead in the improvement of the pro-active capacity to provide adequate emergency responses is achievable capitalizing on the advanced forecasting methodologies and impact models made available by previous RTD projects, maximizing the uptake of their innovative potential not fully exploited up to now. The consortium is build upon a strong group of Coordinators of previous key EC projects in the related fields, together with 12 operational authorities and first responders institutions and 6 leading enterprises of the sector. The platform will be adapted to provide early warning products and locally customizable decision support services proactively targeted to the needs and requirements of the regional and local authorities, as well as public and private operators of critical infrastructures and networks. It will be implemented and demonstrated in 4 selected pilot sites to validate the prototype that will be transferred to the real operation. The market uptake will be ensured by the cooperation with a SME and Industry Collaborative Network, covering a wide range of sectors and stakeholders in Europe, and ultimately worldwide.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.70M | Year: 2015

The growth of cities, impacts of climate change and the massive cost of providing new infrastructure provide the impetus for this proposal entitled Training in Reducing Uncertainty in Structural Safety (TRUSS) which will maximize the potential of infrastructure that already exists. If flaws in a structure can be identified early, the cost of repair will be vastly reduced, and here an effective monitoring system would allow identifying the optimum time to repair as well as improving structural safety. But safety is difficult to quantify and requires a deep understanding of the uncertainty associated to measurements and models for the structure and the loads. TRUSS will gather this understanding by bringing together an intersectoral and multidisciplinary collaboration between 4 Universities, 11 Industry participants and 1 research institute from 6 European countries. The consortium will combine and share expertise to offer training at an advanced level as new concepts for monitoring, modelling and reliability analysis of structures are emerging all the time. TRUSS will make knowledge of structural safety grow by incorporating these emerging technologies (hi-tech monitoring and manufacturing, computing, etc.) into the training programme and it will support job creation by enabling a wider talent pool of skilled and accredited engineering graduates with business, entrepreneurship, communication, project management and other transferrable skills. The training programme will be structured into taught modules combined with original research supported by secondments that will expose 14 fellows to both academia and industry. While developing tools that will reduce uncertainty in structural safety and improve infrastructure management, TRUSS will lay the basis for an advanced doctoral programme that will qualify graduates for dealing with the challenges of an aging European infrastructure stock, thereby enhancing their career prospects in both industry and academia.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: DS-03-2015 | Award Amount: 7.02M | Year: 2016

In recent years, the majority of the worlds Critical Infrastructures CIs evolved to become more flexible, cost efficient and able to offer better services and conditions for business opportunities. Towards this evolution, CIs and companies offering CI services had to adopt many of the recent advances of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) field. This adaptation however, was rather hasty and without thorough evaluation of its impact on security. The result was to leave CIs vulnerable to a who the new set of threats and attacks that impose high levels of risk to the public safety, economy and welfare of the population. In so far, the main approach to protect CIs is to handle them as comprehensive entities and offer them a complete solution for their overall infrastructures and systems (IT&OT departments). However Complete CI protection solutions exist in the form of individual products from individual companies. These products integrate only and tools/solutions designed by the same company, thus offering limited technical solutions. The main aim of CIPSEC is to create a unified security framework that orchestrates state-of-the-art heterogeneous security products to offer high levels of protection in IT (information technology) and OT (operational technology) departments of CIs. As part of this framework CIPSEC will offer a complete security ecosystem of additional services that can support the proposed technical solutions to work reliably and at professional quality. These services include vulnerability tests and recommendations, key personnel training courses, public-private partnerships (PPPs) forensics analysis, standardization and protection against cascading effects. All solutions and services will be validated in three pilots performed in three different CI environments (transportation, health, environment). CIPSEC will also develop a marketing strategy for optimal positioning of its solutions in the CI security market.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.53M | Year: 2013

Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands have become a very popular cost effective and green technology for treatment of waste water throughout Europe and the rest of the world. Original predictions over the longevity of constructed wetlands were approximately 50 -100 years (Conley et al 1991). However, it has become disappointingly apparent that these systems are clogging and have on average a lifetime of less than 10 years (Griffin et al 2008). Currently when a wetland becomes clogged, the whole site has to be refurbished and the reeds regrown, which takes several years and has significant economic consequences for the operators. Our project ARBI aims to develop and trial an Autonomous Reed Bed Installation containing a magnetic resonance probe, can be deployed in several locations within a wetland to give measurements at different depths. By measuring the relaxation times of MR, sufficient information can be obtained to determine the clog state of the gravel bed of a wetland. This would enable the operators to isolate those areas of the bed where the problem resides and make a partial intervention, without the need to remove and re-plant the whole reed bed. When the system is developed, we will have potential for application in other water treatment systems based on subsurface flows like: slow rate sand filters, and river bank filtration. The project will have major benefits for those organisations who would like to install reedbeds but have resisted doing because of concerns over performance and maintenance costs. These will increase the potential size of the market for reedbed installers and benefit the SMEs in the consortium who currently are operating in a constrained market which has not achieved its true potential.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.10.1.3 | Award Amount: 1.56M | Year: 2011

In the last two decades networks, and especially the Internet, have become part of the critical infrastructure of governments, businesses, homes and schools. The current Internet architecture, designed about 30 years ago, has suffered many extensions in recent years, to include new functionalities, which were unforeseen in the original design. Many network experts now consider it is necessary to undertake the study of alternative architectures for the Future Internet as a truly effective way to resolve many of the pressing problems that currently afflict the Internet.\n\nHowever, one serious obstacle to effective adoption of such innovations has been the inability to validate them convincingly. The reduction in real-world impact of any given network innovation is due to the enormous installed base of equipment and protocols, and the reluctance to experiment with production traffic, which have created an exceedingly high barrier to entry for new ideas. The result is that most new ideas from the networking research community go untried and untested, leading to the commonly held belief that the Internet infrastructure has ossified.\n\nHaving recognized the problem, the network research community is developing alternative solutions for experimental FI research, using programmable testbed networks such as those of GENI in the USA, AKARI in Japan and FIRE in Europe. The main goal of the FIBRE project is the design, implementation and validation of a shared Future Internet research facility between Brazil and Europe, supporting the joint Future Internet experimentation of European and Brazilian researchers. In order to achieve this goal the project will carry out four main activities:\n\tThe development and operation of a new experimental facility in Brazil, including the setup of equipment to support experimentation with various technologies (fixed layer 2 and layer 3, wireless, optical) as well as the design and implementation of a control framework to automate the use and operation of the testbed.\n\tThe development and operation of a Future Internet facility in Europe based on enhancements and the federation (interoperability) of two existing FIRE infrastructures: OFELIA and OneLab. Two of the OFELIA testbeds (i2CAT and UEssex) and the UTHs NITOS testbed will be enhanced by i) adding more physical resources to be able to cope with a bigger number of users and different use cases, ii) improving its respective control frameworks and iii) adding more manpower to operate the facilities.\n\tThe federation of the Brazilian and European experimental facilities, both at the physical connectivity and control framework level, to support the provisioning of slices using resources from both testbeds. This work will allow FIBRE experimenters to use the FIBRE facility as a unified, intercontinental testbed.\n\tThe design and implementation of pilot applications of public utility that showcase the power of a shared Europe-Brazil Future Internet experimental facility.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.1 | Award Amount: 12.51M | Year: 2010

Internet traffic has been growing quickly for many years, despite adverse economic conditions and this growth will continue in the future. To cope with this evolution, the cost of todays network solutions is still too high.\nIn addition, in line with the EC goal of reducing the overall emissions, energy efficiency should be widely improved, using whenever possible optics instead of electronics where only transport is required.\nMoreover, due to the unpredictable traffic increase, flexible bandwidth management has to be used instead of fixed allocated bandwidth.\nFor these reasons, the key requirements of innovative ultra-high bandwidth networks refer to scalability, flexibility, assurance of end-to-end quality of service and energy efficiency, beside reduction of total cost of ownership.\nIn the data plane, current equipment and network architectures still provide limited scalability, are not cost-effective and do not properly guarantee end-to-end quality of service.\nIn the control plane, the open issue is to define an end-to-end control structure that allows different technologies and domains to inter-work efficiently, incorporating virtualization of network resources.\nBased on these rationales, STRONGESTs main objective is:\nTo design and demonstrate an evolutionary ultra-high capacity multilayer transport network, compatible with Gbit/s access rates, based on optimized integration of Optical and Packet nodes, and equipped with a multi-domain, multi-technology control plane. This network will offer:\nHigh scalability and flexibility\nGuaranteed end-to-end performance and survivability\nIncreased energy efficiency\nReduced total cost of ownership\nFeasibility studies and experimental implementation and demonstration of prototypes will be key activities, as well.\nSTRONGEST will also feed the collaboration with other Projects and the submission of specific contributions to ITU-T, OIF, IETF, thus reinforcing European position in standardization bodies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.1 | Award Amount: 12.49M | Year: 2012

Traffic demand is increasing dramatically, year on year, with typical growth figures of up to 60% for Internet based traffic. Such traffic increase is impacting on both network costs and power consumption. Moreover, traffic is not only increasing but becoming much more dynamic, both in time and direction. For these reasons, transport network evolution from current DWDM systems towards elastic optical networks, based on flexgrid transmission and switching technologies, could significantly increase both transport network scalability and flexibility. Further benefits come from multilayer interworking mechanisms enabling electronic switching technologies (IP/MPLS, OTN, etc) to directly control the bandwidth of the Bandwidth Variable Transponders (BVT) for optical bandwidth optimization purposes.This then defines the key objective behind IDEALIST: To research in detail a cost and power efficient transport network architecture able to carry a wide range of signal bandwidths, each of which will be varying in real time in direction and magnitude, and some of which will be extremely large and possibly exceeding 1Tb/s. The network architecture proposed by IDEALIST is based on four technical pillars: Transport systems enabling flexible transmission and switching beyond 400Gbps per channel. Control plane architecture for multilayer and multidomain elastic optical networks. Dynamic network resources allocation at both IP and elastic optical layers Multilayer network optimization tools enabling both off-line planning and on-line network re-optimization in elastic optical networks.The intention is that the IDEALIST network architecture will be easily industrialised. Therefore, feasibility studies and experimental implementation and demonstration of prototypes will be key activities, as well. IDEALIST will also feed the collaboration with other Projects and the submission of contributions to ITU-T, OIF, IETF, thus reinforcing European position in standardization bodies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.2.1 | Award Amount: 8.09M | Year: 2011

The ARCAS project proposes the development and experimental validation of the first cooperative free-flying robot system for assembly and structure construction. The project will pave the way for a large number of applications including the building of platforms for evacuation of people or landing aircrafts, the inspection and maintenance of facilities and the construction of structures in inaccessible sites and in the space.\nThe detailed scientific and technological objectives are:\n1)New methods for motion control of a free-flying robot with mounted manipulator in contact with a grasped object as well as for coordinated control of multiple cooperating flying robots with manipulators in contact with the same object (e.g. for precise placement or joint manipulation)\n2)New flying robot perception methods to model, identify and recognize the scenario and to be used for the guidance in the assembly operation, including fast generation of 3D models, aerial 3D SLAM, 3D tracking and cooperative perception\n3)New methods for the cooperative assembly planning and structure construction by means of multiple flying robots with application to inspection and maintenance activities\n4)Strategies for operator assistance, including visual and force feedback, in manipulation tasks involving multiple cooperating flying robots\nThe above methods and technologies will be integrated in the ARCAS cooperative flying robot system that will be validated in the following scenarios: a) Indoor testbed with quadrotors, b) Outdoor scenario with helicopters, c) free-flying simulation using multiple robot arms.\nThe project will be implemented by a high-quality consortium whose partners have already demonstrated the cooperative transportation by aerial robots as well as high performance cooperative ground manipulation. The team has the ability to produce for the first time challenging technological demonstrations with a high potential for generation of industrial products upon project completion.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.WATER INNO&DEMO-1 | Award Amount: 8.04M | Year: 2013

Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region are facing the challenge of managing its water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and concerns about water quality. Already, the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is one of the major factors limiting socio economic development. Innovative water management strategies such as the storage of reclaimed water or excess water from different sources in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes can greatly increase water availability and therefore improve water security. Main objective of the proposed project MARSOL is to demonstrate that MAR is a sound, safe and sustainable strategy that can be applied with great confidence and therefore offering a key approach for tackling water scarcity in Southern Europe. For this, eight field sites were selected that will demonstrate the applicability of MAR using various water sources, ranging from treated wastewater to desalinated seawater, and a variety of technical solutions. Targets are the alleviation of the effect of climate change on water resources, the mitigation of droughts, to countermeasure temporal and spatial misfit of water availability, to sustain agricultural water supply and rural socio-economic development, to combat agricultural related pollutants, to sustain future urban and industrial water supply and to limit seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Results of the demontration sites will be used to develop guidelines for MAR site selection, technical realization, monitoring strategies, and modeling approaches, to offer stakeholders a comprehensive, state of the art and proven toolbox for MAR implementation. Further, the economic and legal aspects of MAR will be analyzed to enable and accelerate market penetration. The MARSOL consortium combines the expertise of consultancies, water suppliers, research institutions, and public authorities, ensuring high practical relevance and market intimacy.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IRSES | Award Amount: 438.90K | Year: 2012

This proposal aims to bring together the complementary expertise of world leading groups carrying out research on the engineering assessment, prevention and mitigation of geohazards, the main ones being floods, landslides, and earthquakes considering also the effect of climate change and human activity on soil degradation. To mitigate these disasters it is necessary to improve our understanding of the failures taking place in flood defence embankments, to have better models for a more rational risk assessment of areas prone to flooding, to investigate the geomechanical conditions leading to the onset of landslides more in depth, to model debris flows and mudflows to estimate run-out distances and destructive power of the landslide materials, etc. In other words, prevention, preparedness and mitigation of geohazards rely on sound geo-engineering which requires competences in geomechanics, numerical modelling, constitutive models for soils, hazard zonation and risk assessment. The goals of this proposal are: i) to investigate the key aspects of major geohazards (floodings, landslides, earthquakes) to bridge the current gaps in knowledge to improve significantly the current capabilities of prevention, preparedness and mitigation by bringing together specialists engaged in cutting edge research; ii) to enable knowledge exchange among experts in complementary research fields; iii) to train several Early Stage Researches (ESRs) to expand their knowledge during their stay at the host institution; iv) to improve the current normative standards and codes ruling geohazard prevention; v) to generate new approaches to the problems dealt with through exposure to different methodologies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SPA.2009.2.2.01 | Award Amount: 765.44K | Year: 2010

The NEWA project aims at addressing and fully characterizing limiting factors in EU which limit the access to required technology and capabilities, creating large dependence on critical technologies from outside Europe specifically in space techniques applications. This mainly originates from the large number of past and on-going efforts conducted in space-based and air-based surveillance systems design and development in the US. In particular NEWA will be focussed on Techniques and Technology development in the MTI framework. The idea for space-based MTI capabilities was envisaged several years ago, and experiments and pre-cursor programs were implemented in the US since 90ies. However, achievements and findings are not generally public due to dual-use of such components (Defence and Security), which poses restrictions on their export. NEWA Action is intended to perform a thorough Technology Assessment and identify ad hoc Roadmaps for EU Research & Development in the field of space-based Reconnaissance & Surveillance (R&S), which allow reducing the mentioned dependence from non EU capabilities and technologies. The NEWA results will offer a way to European policy makers and main stakeholders (industrial players and institutions) for efficiently directing common efforts towards a shared objective: the establishment of next-generation space-based R&S capabilities in support of the European Security and Defence Policy.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.8.3 | Award Amount: 2.86M | Year: 2008

Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system NEUROCHEM will develop novel computing paradigms and biomimetic artefacts for chemical sensing taking inspiration from the biological olfactory pathway. This project proposes to build computational models of its main building blocks: olfactory receptor layer, olfactory bulb, and olfactory cortex. To reduce the model complexity, models, they will go through an abstraction stage in which their processing capabilities are captured by algorithmic solutions. To demonstrate this approach, a biomimetic demonstrator will be built featuring a large-scale sensor array mimicking the olfactory receptor neuron layer. In addition, the olfactory receptor array will be interfaced to a full-scale parallel simulation model of the rat olfactory bulb and cortex. In addition, abstracted biomimetic algorithms will be implemented in an embedded system that will interface the chemical sensors. This research will provide a radically new way to process chemical signals, and it will bring performances exceeding the current state of the art provided by chemometrics.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-14-2014 | Award Amount: 8.21M | Year: 2015

SESAME targets innovations around three central elements in 5G: the placement of network intelligence and applications in the network edge through Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV) and Edge Cloud Computing; the substantial evolution of the Small Cell concept, already mainstream in 4G but expected to deliver its full potential in the challenging high dense 5G scenarios; and the consolidation of multi-tenancy in communications infrastructures, allowing several operators/service providers to engage in new sharing models of both access capacity and edge computing capabilities. SESAME proposes the Cloud-Enabled Small Cell (CESC) concept, a new multi-operator enabled Small Cell that integrates a virtualised execution platform (i.e., the Light DC) for deploying Virtual Network Functions (NVFs), supporting powerful self-x management and executing novel applications and services inside the access network infrastructure. The Light DC will feature low-power processors and hardware accelerators for time critical operations and will build a high manageable clustered edge computing infrastructure. This approach will allow new stakeholders to dynamically enter the value chain by acting as host-neutral providers in high traffic areas where densification of multiple networks is not practical. The optimal management of a CESC deployment is a key challenge of SESAME, for which new orchestration, NFV management, virtualisation of management views per tenant, self-x features and radio access management techniques will be developed. After designing, specifying and developing the architecture and all the involved CESC modules, SESAME will culminate with a prototype with all functionalities for proving the concept in relevant use cases. Besides, CESC will be formulated consistently and synergistically with other 5G-PPP components through coordination with the corresponding projects.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 382.50K | Year: 2017

Networks are present in our lives in numerous different environments: to name just a few, networks can model social relationships, they can model the Internet and links between web pages, they might model the spread of a virus infection between people, and they might represent computer processors/sensors that have to exchange information. This project aims to obtain new insights into the behaviour of networks, which are studied from a geometric and computational perspective. Thereto, the project brings together researchers from different areas such as computational geometry, discrete mathematics, graph drawing, and probability. Among of the topics of research are enumerative problems on geometric networks, crossing numbers, random networks, imprecise models of data, restricted orientation geometry. Combinatorial approaches are combined with algorithms. Algorithmic applications of networks are also studied in the context of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and in the context of musical information retrieval (MIR). The project contains the work packages: Geometric networks, Stochastic Geometry and Networks, Restricted orientation geometry, Graph-based algorithms for UAVs and for MIR, and Dissemination and gender equality promotion. The project connects researchers from 14 universities located in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Italy, Mexico, and Spain, who will collaborate and share their different expertise in order to obtain new knowledge on the combinatorics of networks and applications.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: PILOTS-02-2016 | Award Amount: 9.44M | Year: 2017

PROTECT aims to introduce to the market One step antimicrobial finish processes for polymeric materials used in i) specialty textiles for public areas and hospitals, ii) water treatment membranes, and iii) implantable medical devices. Compared to main existing manufacturing routes, the proposed one-step coating technologies are simple, fast, and reproducible. For this, PROTECT uses as a starting point four existing pilot lines emanated from high successful FP7 projects SONO, NOVO and BioElectricSurface. PROTECT will upgrade the nanocoating One step process platform comprising: two roll to roll (R2R) pilots (sonochemical and spray coating) for functional textiles production, a R2R thermo-embedding pilot for antibacterial/biofilm preventing water treatment membranes, and a batch sonochemical pilot for antibacterial/antibiofilm/biocompatible medical devices. This platform will cover a wide range of applications due to their specific characteristics by the following objectives: a) Incorporating antibacterial antibiofilm biocompatible novel nanoparticles(NPs) of the following categories: inorganic (CuxZn1-xO ,5 Ga@C-dots, Si/TiO2 composite) polymer (polypyrrole, PPy)) and biologicals (antibacterial enzymes, functionalized lipids (FSLs), hybrid antibacterials) to obtain biocompatible nanostructured surfaces with antimicrobial and anti-adhesive properties. b) Implementing real time characterization methods for monitoring at the nanoscale to characterise relevant materials, process properties and product features for real-time nanoscale characterization to ensure reproducibility and quality of the nano-coated products c) Improving coating efficiency, production capacity, reproducibility, robustness, cost-effectiveness, safety and sustainability of the processes in relation to the targeted applications. d) Introducing a Labs Network (PLN) that will include also lab scale processes of the proposed technologies for training and knowledge dissemination.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.2.7.1 | Award Amount: 6.23M | Year: 2013

In the recent years due to tremendous development and integration of renewable energy resources in Europe, hydraulic turbines and pump-turbines are key technical components to contribute to renewable energy production and to compensate for the stochastic nature of the variable energy sources, preserving thus the electrical grid stability. As a result, the overarching objective of the project is the enhanced hydropower plant value by extending the flexibility of its operating range, while also improving its long-term availability. More specifically, the project aims to study the hydraulic, mechanical and electrical dynamics of several hydraulic machines configurations fresh and seawater turbines, reversible pump-turbines under an extended range of operations : from overload to deep part load. A two-pronged modelling approach will rely on numerical simulations as well as reduced-scale physical model tests. Upon suitable concurrence between simulations and reduced-scale physical models results, validation will take place on carefully selected physical hydropower plants properly equipped with monitoring systems. To address this ambitious research plan, a consortium has been assembled featuring three leading hydraulic turbines, storage pumps, reversible pump-turbine and electric equipment manufacturers, SME, as well as world-renowned academic institutions. Extensive tests both on both experimental rigs and real power plants will be performed in order to validate the obtained methodological and numerical results.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 4.84M | Year: 2008

The DICONET proposal is targeting a novel approach to optical networking providing a disruptive solution for the development of the core network of the future. It is the vision and goal of our consortium to provide ultra high speed end-to-end connectivity with quality of service and high reliability through the use of optimised protocols and routing algorithms that will complement a flexible control and management plane offering flexibility for the future network infrastructure. We plan to investigate, design, implement and test new routing and wavelength assignment algorithms considering as constraints physical impairments that arise in transparent core networks. These algorithms will be incorporated into a novel dynamic network planning tool that would consider dynamic traffic characteristics, varying physical impairment and component characteristics and a reconfigurable optical layer. The use of this novel planning tool in conjunction with proper extensions to the control plane of core optical networks that will be designed, implemented and tested by our consortium will make possible to realize the vision of transparency, while offering efficient resource utilization and strict quality of service guarantees based on certain service level agreements. The combinations of the tools, algorithms and protocols that will developed by the uniquely qualified DICONET consortium together with new technologies and architectures that will be considered as enablers for the network of the future will assist in overcoming the expected long term limitations of current core network capabilities. The DICONET scope and objectives, address dynamic cross-layer network planning and optimization while considering the development of a future transport network infrastructure which ensures fail-safe network configuration and operation. Our approach will greatly contribute as a basic element in achieving resilience and transparency of the Future Internet.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2011.1.1 | Award Amount: 5.55M | Year: 2012

NEWCOM# is a Network of Excellence (NoE) proposal submitted in response to challenge FP7-ICT-2011-8 1.1, Future Networks. A group of 14 partners in 14 different countries (12 of which come from the former FP7 NoE NEWCOM\\) decided to capitalize on the high degree of integration in research they already at-tained to build an NoE with the following objectives: i) to produce medium to long term results in the area of design and performance evaluation of wireless networks; ii) to strengthen the integration of partners re-search activities and agendas, both at the theoretical and experimental levels; iii) to foster Industry-academia cooperation, dissemination, and liaison by making academic research closer to industrial needs and interests; iv) to provide a unique training environment for a new generation of researchers in both theo-retical and experimental research; v) to contribute to the long-term sustainability of the NoE by creating a permanent environment for cooperative research.\nIn a Theoretical Research track, the NEWCOM# researchers will pursue long-term, interdisciplinary re-search on the most advanced aspects of wireless communications like Finding the Ultimate Limits of Com-munication Networks, Opportunistic and Cooperative Communications, Energy- and Bandwidth-Efficient Communications and Networking. A second track will be devoted to the EUropean lab of Wireless commu-nications for the future INternet, a federation of three sites in three European Countries that will host re-searchers working on a few general themes like Radio Interfaces, Internet of Things, and Flexible Communi-cation Terminals. The third track will have a number of initiatives to foster excellence like the creation of seasonal schools, a series of publication on journals and books, and an action directed towards strengthen-ing relations with European companies, which will participate to the NoE as Affiliate Partners, through a number of in-company dissemination events.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CS | Phase: JTI-CS-2012-1-SGO-03-017 | Award Amount: 199.95K | Year: 2012

In the conventional aircraft approach the aircraft receives clearance from Air Traffic Control to descent from the bottom level of the holding stack to a given altitude where it would fly level until intercepting the 3 degree glidepath to the runway. In this flight level segment the aircraft requires additional engine power to maintain constant speed, resulting in an increase of fuel consumption and noise. A new approach procedure called Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) has been developed and is becoming widespread. In CDA procedures the aircraft stays higher for longer and then descends continuously, avoiding level segments, to the intercept point of the 3 degree glidepath. The CDA approaches reduce fuel consumption, CO2 and NOx emissions as well as noise levels. To take full advantage of CDA approaches, the continuous descent paths can be optimized to decrease even more the fuel consumption and noise and pollutant emissions. This proposal addresses an onboard fast optimiser for continuous descent approaches which calculates descent profiles minimizing the use of engine thrust and speed brakes while meeting ATC time requirements and maintaining airport landing capacity. To ensure a successful development of the fast optimiser, the Fastop proposal has been written by a consortium with remarkable parties skills that cover all the mathematical, programming and management needs required by the topic.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.48M | Year: 2008

Powder Metallurgy (P/M) is a major manufacturing route for many industries. While the demand for P/M parts in its traditional automotive market is predicted to grow, future sector expansion depends directly upon its capability to manufacture zero-defect, complex mechanical P/M parts for industries such as aerospace and medicine. To comply with such standards, parts manufacturing must be optimized. However, consortium SMEs lack time-efficient and systematic instruments and procedures for the inspection of the inner structure of parts, as well as expert guidance to solve the complex problem of P/M, zero-defect optimization, constituting this a significant threat to their cost-effectiveness and competitiveness within the industry. The lack of an adequate inspection system has important implications from the point of view of quality assurance, since it increases the design costs and the time of a tool set for a new product, which is made with a trial-and-error procedure and which generates surplus costs. Consortium SMEs have identified a clear need for a non-invasive instrument for determining the porosity of P/M parts. The proposed SINTEST technology will increase consortium SME Powder Metallurgy competitive advantage by offering a highly effective and cost-efficient in-situ system that can detect deficiencies in sintered parts. Through the project, a new efficient and cost-effective inspection tool will be developed based on ultrasonic technology, which makes it possible to provide a global density map of sintered parts. The commercial objective of this SINTEST proposal is the development of a technology to better control the P/M output into the market, increasing manufacturer reliability for the supply of complex parts and EU competitiveness, as well as opening up a host of new markets for the sector, both within Europe and worldwide.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 4.75M | Year: 2008

The BONE-proposal builds on the foundations laid out by the ePhoton/ONe projects in the previous Framework Programme. This Network of Excellence has brought together over several years the research activities within Europe in the field of Optical Networks and the BONE-project intends to validate this effort by stimulating a more intensified collaboration, exchange of researchers and building on Virtual Centres of Excellence that can serve to European industry with education and training, research tools and testlabs and pave the way to new technologies and architectures.\nThe Network of the Future, which is the central theme of this Call, will have to cope with a wide variety of applications running on a wide variety of terminals and with an increasing number of connected devices and increasing speed and data-loads. The BONE-proposal does not look into issues as convergence between mobile and fixed networks, nor does it consider issues regarding the optimised broadband access in the last mile using a wide variety of technologies such as DSL, cable, WiMAX, WiFi, PLC,... The BONE-proposal looks further into the future and takes as the final Network of the Future:\n- a high capacity, flexible, reconfigurable and self-healing optical Core and Metro network which supports the transport of massive amounts of data\n- a FTTx solution in which the x is as close as possible to the home, at the home, or even in the home. From this point the user is connected using terminal-specific technologies (wireless to handheld devices, fiber to home cinema, wireless to laptop, fixed connection to desktop,...)\nBONE clearly identifies the existence of the current technologies and also recognizes the fact that users also require the mobility of wireless access, but this mobile connection ends at a gateway or access points and from there a fixed connection is required and this fixed connection will finally be an optical link.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.3.4-01 | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2012

The focus of APROPOS is to develop novel eco-efficient bio-mechanical processing solutions to enrich intermediate fractions from industrial high protein and oil-containing process residues originating from agriculture and fisheries. Enzyme-aided modification steps are developed for the intermediate fractions to obtain value-added nutritive and bio-active components, chemical as well as functional bio-materials suitable for exploitation in food, skin care, wound healing, bio-pesticide and soil improvement product applications. Mentioned residues are voluminous in Europe and globally significant. Zero waste concepts to be developed aim at avoidance of unnecessary purification of the components, establishment of local and distributed processing units in connection with the primary production and new business opportunities essentially for SMEs in Europe and beyond. An emphasis is directed to East Africa and India to support their needs to process local residues to components directed to nourish infants and fight against pests, respectively, in rural areas of both regions. The success of technological developments will be assessed in terms of economical feasibility, raw material efficiency and environmental impacts. The assessment will also include study on how the developed residue producer-end use value chain will affect the existing value chain from the residue producer to feed or energy. The multidisciplinary research group and cross-industrial SME group together cover the whole value chain from residue producers and processors to various end-users. The expertises of the partners include crop and fish processing, process hard ware manufacture, mechanical, chemical and biotechnical biomaterial processing, biomaterial up-grading and analytics, enzyme technology, end-product applications, assessment of eco-efficiency and value chains, technology transfer and commercialization. Feasibility of the developed processes is verified by demonstrations. Bio-mechanical processi

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2015

The coastal area is the most productive and dynamic environment of the world ocean with significant resources and services for mankind. JERICO-NEXT (33 organizations from 15 countries) emphasizes that the complexity of the coastal ocean cannot be well understood if interconnection between physics, biogeochemistry and biology is not guaranteed. Such an integration requires new technological developments allowing continuous monitoring of a larger set of parameters. In the continuity of JERICO(FP7), the objective of JERICO-NEXT consists in strengthening and enlarging a solid and transparent European network in providing operational services for the timely, continuous and sustainable delivery of high quality environmental data and information products related to marine environment in European coastal seas Other objectives are: Support European coastal research communities, enable free and open access to data, enhance the readiness of new observing platform networks by increasing the performance of sensors, showcase of the adequacy of the so-developed observing technologies and strategies, propose a medium-term roadmap for coastal observatories through a permanent dialogue with stakeholders. Innovation JERICO-NEXT is based of a set of technological and methodological innovations. One main innovation potential is to provide a simple access to a large set of validated crucial information to understand the global change in coastal areas. Although JERICO-NEXT already includes industrial partners, it will be open to other research institutes, laboratories and private companies which could become associated partners to the project. Added values of JERICO NEXT JERICO-RI shall send data and information in an operational mode to European data systems, with dedicated service access. One of the strengths of JERICO-NEXT lies in the fact that technological and methodological developments shall be deployed in natural environment.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2008-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.97M | Year: 2009

The project covers the structuring, organisation, coordination and implementation of training schemes in cooperation with local, national and international training organisations, to provide training to professionals active in nuclear organisations or their contractors and subcontractors. The training schemes provide a portfolio of courses, training sessions, seminars and workshops for continuous learning, for upgrading knowledge and developing skills. The training schemes allow the individual to acquire qualifications and skills, as required by specific positions in the nuclear sector, which will be documented in a training passport. The essence of such passport is to be recognised within the EU by the whole nuclear sector, which provides mobility to the individual looking for employment and an EU wide recruitment field for the nuclear employers. The recognition is subject to qualification and validation of the training courses according to a set of commonly agreed criteria, which can be ratified by law or established on a consensus basis within a network. The training schemes cover profiles for each of the following: - the basic training in selected nuclear topics of non nuclear engineers and personnel of nuclear facilities contractors and subcontractors; - the technical training for the design and construction challenges of GEN III plants, and the design of GEN IV plants. The training schemes consists of three distinct phases: - Courses, seminars, learning, scientific and technical visits, case studies; - Participation to selected activities within the scope of the training in different organisations; - Autonomous conduction of activities within the scope of the training under supervision of a mentor in one or in different organisations The first phase can be provided by universities and training centers, the second and third phases can be provided by industries, research centers and future employers.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: EE-07-2014 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2015

Within the Roadmaps for Energy (R4E) project the partners will work together to develop a new type of energy strategy through visions and roadmaps for the 8 partner cities, in co-creation with local stakeholders. The stakeholders include the benefactors of the strategy, such as citizens, as well as relevant research and industry partners, to offer a clear picture of the future potential of the city. In the R4E project a four step process is applied. The FIRST step sets the ambitions for the project. The ambitions of the participating cities on sustainable energy and Smart Cities in general are set, as well as the partner cities choice for 2 focus areas within Smart Energy Savings: 1.Smart Buildings, 2. Smart Mobility or 3. Smart Urban Spaces. The SECOND step is to develop desired scenarios for the cities for the selected focus areas. During the THIRD step the roadmap will be created, existing and future technologies and other developments will be identified, which enable the realization of the desired future scenarios. Opportunities and developments will be plotted on a timeline to provide insight in the required steps and milestones towards the favoured scenarios. The roadmaps will contain generic parts that are common for the partner cities, as well as specific parts that cater for the specific context of the cities. During the final and FOURTH step a project portfolio will be generated with new projects and initiatives to reach the ambitions, visions and roadmaps of the cities. This portfolio provides an overview of individual and joint projects and includes a cross-city learning plan and a financial plan. At the end of the project each partner city will each have 2 future scenarios, 2 roadmaps and a portfolio of individual and joint projects to implement sustainable energy policies and measures. Also the visioning and roadmapping capacities within the municipalities are developed to spur future development and implementation of innovative energy solutions.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-23-2014 | Award Amount: 5.72M | Year: 2015

AEROARMS proposes the development of the first aerial robotic system with multiple arms and advanced manipulation capabilities to be applied in industrial inspection and maintenance (I&M). The objectives are: 1. R&D on aerial manipulation to perform I&M. This includes: 1.1 Based on previous partner results, developing systems which are able to grab and dock with one or more arms and perform dexterous accurate manipulation with another arm. Also develop helicopter-based aerial manipulators, with greater payload and flight endurance, and with a dexterous arm to provide advanced manipulation capabilities by means of force interactions and hand-eye coordination using a movable camera with another light arm; 1.2 New methods and technologies for platforms which can fly and manipulate with the coordinated motion of the arms addressing constrained scenarios in which it is dangerous to use the helicopter and where it is not possible to grab to perform I&M operation. 2. Validation of 1.1 in two applications: 1) Installation and maintenance of permanent NDT sensors on remote components; 2) Deploy and maintain a mobile robotic system permanently installed on a remote structure. To achieve the above objectives AEROARMS will develop the first aerial telemanipulation system with advanced haptic capabilities able to exert significant forces with an industrial robotic arm, as well as autonomous control, perception and planning capabilities. Special attention will be paid to the design and system development in order to receive future certification taking into account ATEX and RPAS regulations. AEROARMS is strongly related to ICT 232014: Robotics enabling the emergence of aerial robots, with manipulation capabilities to operate in industrial I&M, which will be validated in in oil and gas plants to reach TRL5. The consortium combines excellent capabilities in aerial robotics with leadership in aerial manipulation and key partners for the successful application of I&M.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 5.73M | Year: 2017

We envision a radical redesign of Earth observation platforms for sustained operation at significantly lower altitudes than the current state of the art, using a combination of new aerodynamic materials, aerodynamic control and air-breathing electric propulsion for drag-compensation, for a variety of observation methods with the aim of creating a new platform paradigm. This vision requires foundational research in spacecraft aerodynamic characterization, in material aerodynamics and atomic oxygen resistance, in electric propulsion, and control methods. These activities are by their nature multidisciplinary covering atmospheric science, surface chemistry and material characterization, control engineering, spacecraft design, payload engineering, etc.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 877.50K | Year: 2017

Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and overall numerical fabrication methods have been recognized by stakeholders as the next industrial revolution bringing customers needs and suppliers offers closer. It cannot be dissociated to the present trends in increased virtualization, cloud approaches and collaborative developments (i.e. sharing of resources). AM is likely to be one good option paving the way to Europe re-industrialization and increased competitiveness. AMITIE will reinforce European capacities in the AM field applied to ceramic-based products. Through its extensive programme of transnational and intersectoral secondments, AMITIE will promote fast technology transfer and enable as well training of AM experts from upstream research down to more technical issues. This will provide Europe with specialists of generic skills having a great potential of knowledge-based careers considering present growing needs for AM industry development. To do that, AMITIE brings together leading academic and industrial European players in the fields of materials science/processes, materials characterizations, AM technologies and associated numerical simulations, applied to the fabrication of functional and/or structural ceramic-based materials for energy/transport, and ICTs applications, as well as biomaterials. Those players will develop a new concept of smart factory for the future based on 3D AM technologies (i.e. powder bed methods, robocasting, inkjet printing, stereolithography, etc.) and their possible hybridization together or with subtractive technologies (e.g. laser machining). It will allow for the production of parts whose dimensions, shapes, functionality and assembly strategies may be tailored to address todays key technological issues of the fabrication of high added value objects following a fully-combinatorial route. This is expected to lead to a new paradigm for production of multiscale, multimaterial and multifunctional components and systems

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.1.1 | Award Amount: 5.03M | Year: 2014

The Internet as the global communications infrastructure has been successful in shaping the modern world by the way we access and exchange information. The Internet architecture designed in the 1960s has been supporting a variety of applications and offering a number of services till now but emerging applications demand better quality, programmability, resilience and protection. Any alterations to the Internet architecture have become restricted to simple incremental updates and plug-ins instead of radical changes by introducing new solutions. RINA is an emerging clean-slate programmable networking approach, centring on Inter-Process Communication (IPC) paradigm, which will support high scalability, multi-homing, built-in security, seamless access to real-time information and operation in dynamic environments. The heart of this networking structure is naturally formed and organised by blocks of containers called Distributed Information Facilities - DIFs where each block has programmable functions to be attributed to as they required. A DIF is seen as an organizing structure, grouping together application processes that provide IPC services and are configured under the same policies. Virtualization is a fundamental attribute of the architecture itself. Based on the above fundamental aspect, PRISTINE intends to: Design and implement the innovative internals of this clean-slate architecture that include the programmable functions for: security of content and application processes, supporting QoS and congestion control in aggregated levels, providing protection and resilience, facilitating more efficient topological routing, and multi-layer management for handling configuration, performance and security. Demonstrate the applicability and benefits of this approach and its built-in functions in three use-cases driven by the service providers and vendors in the consortium. This will ensure that the applications and tools we develop will be deployable by providers.

An inspiration for INVADE are the world-wide agreements on minimisation of human caused effects to climate change and energy efficiency targets set at the European Union with ambitious goals for reduction of greenhouse gas emission and for increase of renewable energy share. To enable a higher share of renewable energy sources to the smart grid and gain a traction in the market place a few critical barriers must be overcome. There is a deficiency of 1) flexibility and battery management systems 2) exploration of ICT solutions based on active end user participation 3) efficient integration of energy storage and transport sector (EVs), 4) novel business models supporting an increasing number of different actors in the grid. INVADE addresses these challenges by proposing to deliver a Cloud based flexibility management system integrated with EVs and batteries empowering energy storage at mobile, distributed and centralised levels to increase renewables share in the smart distribution grid. The project integrates different components: flexibility management system, energy storage technologies, electric vehicles and novel business models. It underpins these components with advanced ICT cloud based technologies to deliver the INVADE platform. The project will integrate the platform with existing infrastructure and systems at pilot sites in Bulgaria, Germany, Spain, Norway and the Netherlands and validate it through mobile, distributed and centralised use cases in the distribution grid in large scale demonstrations. Novel business models and extensive exploitation activities will be able to tread the fine line between maximizing profits for a full chain of stakeholders and optimizing social welfare while contributing to the standardization and regulation policies for the European energy market. A meaningful integration of the transport sector is represented by Norway and the Netherlands pilots with the highest penetration of EVs worldwide.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.1.1 | Award Amount: 10.05M | Year: 2014

The role of Data Centres (DCs) is vital for the Future Internet. However, DC infrastructures are already stressed by data volumes and service provisioning and consumption trends. Emerging demands cannot be addressed by todays DCs and call for a massive redesign or even transformation of DC architectures.COSIGN proposes a new DC architecture empowered by advanced optical technologies and will demonstrate novel solutions capable of sustaining the growing resource and operational demands of next generation DC Networks. COSIGN aims to move away from todays vendor specific, manually controlled, performance and scale limited DCs towards scalable DC solutions able to support future-proof dynamic, on-demand, low-latency, energy efficient and ultra-high bandwidth DC solutions. COSIGN introduces disruptive transformations in the data plane, significant advances to the control plane and major innovations in the DC virtualization and service orchestration: In the DC Data Plane, COSIGN will deliver an entirely-optical solution enabling scalable top-of-rack switches, ultra-low latency and high volume DC interconnects with high spatial dimensioning. In the DC Control Plane, COSIGN will build upon and extend the Software Defined Networks (SDN) paradigm leveraging capabilities from high-performance optical technologies while developing technology agnostic protocols for software/user defined routing and control. For the DC Management and Orchestration, COSIGN will implement a coherent framework for optical network and IT infrastructure abstraction, virtualization and end-to-end service orchestration.COSIGN brings together a unique combination of skills and expertise able to deliver, for the first time, a coordinated hardware and software architecture, which will guarantee the scale and performance required for future DCs. Results will be demonstrated in challenging industrial setting, leveraging a DC validation platform from Interoute a leading European service provider

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: H2020-TWINN-2015 | Award Amount: 960.12K | Year: 2016

FOWARIM (Fostering Water-Agriculture Research and Innovation in Malta) objective is to strengthen the research capacity of the Malta College of Arts, Science & Technology (MCAST)s Water Research and Training Centre in 4 crucial themes related to the field of water use in agriculture: (a) Decreasing Water Demand, (b) Making Use of Alternative Sources of Water (c) Renewable Desalinization, On-Farm Desalinization and Utilization of Saline Water and (d) Decreasing Negative Environmental Externalities Caused by Nutrient-Rich Farm Waters. This will be achieved by creating a favourable environment for capacity building targeting Maltese researchers, research institutions networking, research policy development. MCAST will be supported in addressing research deficiencies and networking gaps by EU partners of established scientific excellence in the targeted research topics. The proposal will develop over 3 years and is articulated into 5work packages, including one for management and coordination, involving: capacity building through several targeted and advanced training courses, short-term staff exchanges, summer schools and virtual training; research networking and knowledge sharing through providing technical assistance to establish new demonstration sites to promote innovations and best practices in agricultural water management, (iii) helping foster new collaborations through co-design of research questions, and (iv) developing a joint strategy for high impact research and dissemination; designing a research strategy and performing dissemination and outreach activities. This will lead to strengthening MCASTs research and S&T capacity in water use in agriculture, enhance the dynamism between the different partners, extending the partnership of research Institutions in the sector in question contribute, to an increase in peer-reviewed publications and complement in more ways than one Maltas Smart Specialization Strategy.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 707.70K | Year: 2013

This is a project for a partnership between leading Brazilian and European research groups in dynamical systems, a prominent subject in mathematics. An extensive consortium of European and Brazilian institutions will collaborate to provide world leading critical mass and support for research on the very forefront of the field. Work Packages reflect parallel priorities in the research. Transfer of knowledge is facilitated by two large conferences and five smaller workshops. The project has excellent strategic value in view of the development of closer ties in higher education and research between the European Research Area and Brazil.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 224.20K | Year: 2012

The SHuMED project proposal is aimed to support and strengthen the different existing collaboration actions between Europe and Mediterranean Partner Countries (MCP) for research and research training in the field of the sustainable development and the relating monitoring initiatives, thanks to the staff exchange opportunities offered by IRSES. This multidisciplinary exchange programme aims at propose a corporate-view approach for measuring the level of human development in sustainability terms by considering the contribution of corporates and their networks. The programme has 5 Work Packages. WP1 (management) will define the management structure of the project. WP 2 (methodologies), through the expected 4 Training Activities in the 4 target MCP Countries, will develop the Sustainable Human Development Index (SHDI). In this work package, starting from the SHDI macroeconomic model and thanks to the research and to the knowledge transfer coming from the training sessions in MCP, processes of joint learning and coevolution will be analysed. WP 3 (case studies on human development), strictly connected with WP2, will analyse some case studies in Europe, thanks to the numerous visits foreseen in Italy and Spain. These case studies will support the analysis of processes that could affect research practices in the area of sustainable human development and corporate social responsibility. Associated partners that will support the project in EU Countries will be the target users of this SHDI (not only using but also contributing in enhancing the index). The WP4, with its reporting activities, will contribute to analyse the dynamic capabilities of SMEs within networks and clusters in order to develop a tool for enhancing and monitoring them. The final WP 5 (communication and dissemination) will define the communication and dissemination strategy of the project. The project duration is 36 months.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2012-7 | Award Amount: 9.21M | Year: 2012

The FLEXICAST project presents knowledge-based technologies that aim to follow the way to transform the conventional (batch-by-batch) foundry process into a flexible (mold-by-mold) process. The proposal technologies will be applicable not only to new cast iron foundry lines, but also is readily available to be retro-fitted to existing plants. The specific objectives are:a)A cast iron production cell. Together with melting, treatment and pouring sub processes in a cast iron production cell is essential and imperative. We propose to install the melting shop closer to the pouring system kept closed on the mould carrousel, while the transfer and treatment ladle is removed. The widespread adoption of new melting shop as an operating process is in itself fostering the creation of even more powerful induction-plasma power supplies, versatile melt control technology, high-power density furnaces, temperature control systems, nodularization systems(magnesium vapour), inoculation systems, and automated pouring systems.b)Integration of Artificial Intelligence-based Control System. The objective is to develop a software platform. This can help us to the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties, to asses casting quality in the foundry. In this point, also, three specific methodologies will be studied and improved:DTA analysis and on-line microstructural analysis and X-ray for on-line inspection.c)A robot cell for automated metal finishing processes. d)Demo pilot plant in real industrial settings in order to demonstrate a clear breakthrough using project development in comparison with the state-of-art solutions. Some results are:a)Cast iron manufacturing cell represents, at least, 30% energy reduction in comparison with conventional melting systems.b)Drastic reduction melt temperature scattering during molding process. Reduce metal transport (No transfer and treatment ladles).c)Overheating reduction.d)Reduce rejection of casting pieces

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.6 | Award Amount: 5.21M | Year: 2010

The flourishing of user driven demand, the heterogeneity of networks, the multiplicity of new devices, all mean that the Internet as we know it is reaching a saturation point. One of the main challenges of Future Internet research is to address the surge in complexity that service and network developers are facing.\n\nBuilding on top of the on-going actions to support large-scale experimentation for Future Internet protocols, TEFIS brings evaluation processes one step further. TEFIS provides an open platform to support experimentations at large-scale of resource demanding Internet services in conjunction with upcoming Future Internet networking technologies and user-oriented living labs.\n\nIt will act as a single access point to a variety of existing and next generation of experimental facilities.\n\nTEFIS outcome will be:\n\tOpen platform to integrate and use heterogeneous testbeds based on a connector models, and exposed as a classical service.\n\tIntegration of 8 complementary experimental facilities, including network and software testing facilities, and user oriented living labs.\n\tPlatform to share expertise and best practices.\n\tCore services for flexible management of experimental data and underlying testbeds resources during the experiment workflow\n\tSingle access point to testbeds instrumented with a large number of tools to support the users throughout the whole experiment lifecycle (compilation, integration, deployment, dimensioning, user evaluation, monitoring, etc) and allow them to work together by sharing expertise.\n\nA specific action is foreseen via an Open Call to engage new experimentations and to gradually expand TEFIS.\nCombining the efforts of the software and service industry, the FIRE community and the user-centric Living Labs, TEFIS will foster research and business communities in collaboratively elaborating knowledge about the provisioning of Future Internet services.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 5.33M | Year: 2012

Neural Engineering is an inherently new discipline that coalesces engineering, physics and neuroscience for the design and development of braincomputer interface systems, cognitive computers and neural prosthetics. For the implementation of future transformative technologies a new breed of young researchers must be trained to integrate ideas and skills from a broad range of disciplines. NETT is composed of seven full network partners and ten associated partners including one international industrial company and eight SMEs. NETT will provide a European focus for the development of those aspects of Complexity Science most relevant to Neural Engineering, and ensure that we do not fall behind research in the US and Japan. We have identified some of the key challenges in this field and designed a set of inter-related multi-disciplinary projects that, by combining the skills of NETT members will generate transformative technologies such as novel speech recognisers, neural- inspired laser networks for information processing and robots with cognitive skills. To address key priority areas of FP7 in multi-disciplinary research, NETT will train ESRs and ERs using a structured, industry-focussed selection of training courses, with leading expertise in mathematics, physics, neuroscience and bioengineering from academia and the private sector. Each ESR will benefit from a secondment to another host country and an internship with an associated partner on problems of genuine real-world relevance. In this way ESRs will acquire a unique set of essential multi-disciplinary skills that will enhance research activity in the ERA and improve their career perspectives in both the public and private sectors. NETT is thus a Marie-Curie ITN whose activities are designed to benefit the development of transformative technologies that could not be developed in isolation, and simultaneously maximise the use of shared resources and facilities for both training and research.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.3 | Award Amount: 8.69M | Year: 2011

While access to anonymised official microdata for researchers is still uneven both at national and at European level, access to highly detailed and sensitive microdata is now increasingly on the agenda. Different member states have substantially different outcomes for research access to Official data, and the issue is not just efficiency, but real harm to the contribution of the social sciences to democracy in an information society. Therefore the primary impact of this application is to prepare the essential relationships and build trust, common view and agreements on standards between the European Statistical System led by Eurostat, other stakeholders as the Central banks, the Data Archives European network (CESSDA) and the researchers who are the final users; from access as a postcode lottery, to an integrated model where the best solutions for access are available irrespective of national boundaries and are flexible enough to fit national arrangements. It aims at a) discussing frameworks and proposing pilots for a European accreditation and a distributed remote access for confidential microdata to be expanded later to other partners, both for national and European datasets; b) fostering discussions and promoting improvements and solutions for the entire communities through annual/bi-annual European data Forum, regional workshops, users conferences, training sessions, staff visits c) preparing an easy and single point of access (What data are available? How can I access them?) for the researchers, to be linked to the CESSDA portal where NSIs metadata could be harvested when not available through the CESSDA archives still providing access to official microdata; d) immediately enhancing access to official data making European datasets more useable (metadata, routines) and supporting foreign researchers transnational access both on site and through remote access system to countries official microdata. Close coordination with the European Statistical System discussions and initiatives as well as with on-going and future related projects is developed to ensure maximum synergy and incorporation of outputs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.3.5 | Award Amount: 5.06M | Year: 2008

EURO-FOS aims at creating a powerful pan-European network on photonic subsystems by clustering top European systems groups with proven track record in the design, development and evaluation of photonic subsystems. EURO-FOS aims at bridging the gap between research on device-level physics and new architectures from the network-level. The first objective of the project is the integration of researchers through exchange and mobility, allowing for innovation and reinforcing common research thrusts. The second objective is the access to expensive infrastructure creating economies of scale in the development and testing of photonic subsystems. The third objective is the strengthening of European research by creating a mechanism for partners to access devices developed in complementary European projects on photonic components. Functional integration of devices will create new ideas through the design and development of new subsystems within the project. EURO-FOS fourth objective is to complement European Commission efforts for combating Europes difficulty to turn scientific know-how developed in universities into exploitable technology. This will be achieved through the creation of an academic pan-European laboratory with strong industrial links. The creation of this lab can bridge the gap created by the shutdown or downsizing of major R&D industrial labs and help innovative SMEs that find it increasingly difficult to allocate R&D expenditure for basic research and expensive testing facilities. EURO-FOS is expected to have a high impact on Europes research through integration of people and clustering of research groups under the guidance of European industry. The creation of a unified and coherent European network of researchers with excellence in this field will ensure that Europe excels in this crucial part of the photonic systems development chain that links device-level physics and network architectures. Moreover, the creation of the pan-European research lab with diverse R&D capabilities, highly-skilled scientific personnel and state-of-the-art testing facilities, will critically assist Europes industry to perform innovative research and evaluate their developed technology in a system environment with advanced equipment and using accurate methods defined by EURO-FOS researchers.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 8.77M | Year: 2009

SafeLand will develop generic quantitative risk assessment and management tools and strategies for landslides at local, regional, European and societal scales and establish the baseline for the risk associated with landslides in Europe, to improve our ability to forecast landslide hazard and detect hazard and risk zones. The scientific work packages in SafeLand are organised in five Areas: Area 1 focuses on improving the knowledge on triggering mechanisms, processes and thresholds, including climate-related and anthropogenic triggers, and on run-out models in landslide hazard assessment; Area 2 does an harmonisation of quantitative risk assessment methodologies for different spatial scales, looking into uncertainties, vulnerability, landslide susceptibility, landslide frequency, and identifying hotspots in Europe with higher landslide hazard and risk; Area 3 focuses on future climate change scenarios and changes in demography and infrastructure, resulting in the evolution of hazard and risk in Europe at selected hotspots; Area 4 addresses the technical and practical issues related to monitoring and early warning for landslides, and identifies the best technologies available both in the context of hazard assessment and in the context of design of early warning systems; Area 5 provides a toolbox of risk mitigation strategies and guidelines for choosing the most appropriate risk management strategy. Maintaining the database of case studies, dissemination of the project results, and project management and coordination are defined in work packages 6, 7 and 8.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-11c-2015 | Award Amount: 7.99M | Year: 2016

A key EU policy aims to reduce the Union dependency on raw materials imports, in particular (candidate) Critical Raw Materials that are vital for the EU innovative technologies. Topic SC5-11c-2015 scope focuses on developing new highly-automated technological sustainable solutions for deep mining in the sea bed combined with in-situ processing of minerals. An existing but challenging raw material resource concerns polymetallic nodules. These round to elongated concretions of 115 cm diameter form on sediment-covered deep-sea plains in all oceans between 4-6000m water depth. The challenge to harvest and transport the nodules to the EU shore is taken on by Blue Nodules. The governing project principle is: industrial viability within the context of a realistic and technical, economic and environmentally balanced business case for the complete Polymetallic Nodules value chain of mining, processing and valorisation. Blue Nodules will develop and test to TRL6 maturity a new highly-automated and technologically sustainable deep sea mining system. Key features are: an annual production capability of 2 Million Tons nodules in water depths up to 6000m, in-situ processing of the nodules and intrinsic safe working conditions. Technical WPs are dedicated to subsea harvesting equipment & control technology, in-situ seafloor processing of polymetallic nodules and sea surface, land operations & processes. A dedicated WP focuses on environmental issues and on an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A WP setting requirements and assessing the developed technology controls the entire work plan structure. High credibility is obtained by linking the project work to a nodule field licence owned by a project partner and located in the most promising known nodule deposit: the Clarion Clipperton Zone. The project consortium contains 14 leading industry and research partners from 9 EU member states. The project duration is 48 months, the required funding amounts to 8 Million.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.1 | Award Amount: 3.35M | Year: 2012

The main objective of the LIGHTNESS project is the design, implementation and experimental evaluation of high performance data centre interconnects through the introduction of innovative photonic switching and transmission inside data centres. Harnessing the power of optics will enable data centres to effectively cope with the unprecedented demand growth to be faced in the near future, which will be driven by the increasing popularity of computing and storage server-side applications in the society. Indeed, the deployment of optical transmission systems leveraging Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) allows the transmission of more than a hundred of wavelength channels operating at 10, 40, 100 Gb/s and beyond. This effectively results in unlimited bandwidth capacities of multiple Terabit/s per fibre link, which can be efficiently utilized through next-generation all-optical switching paradigms like Optical Circuit Switching (OCS) or Optical Packet Switching (OPS).In this context, the LIGHTNESS project will join efforts towards the demonstration of a high-performance all-optical hybrid data plane for data centre networks, combining both OCS and OPS equipment to implement transport services tailored to the specific applications throughput and latency requirements. To this goal, an OPS node suitable for intra- data centre connectivity services will be developed and prototyped during the project, together with an enhanced Top of the Rack (TOR) switch seamlessly connecting servers in each rack to the hybrid OCS/OPS inter-cluster network. As an additional achievement of LIGHTNESS, the OCS/OPS inter-cluster network will be empowered with a control plane entity able to dynamically provision both OCS and OPS transport services in response of either the data centre management plane or the enhanced ToR switch. Such a control plane will also be developed and prototyped for integration in the final LIGHTNESS demo throughout the project.The LIGHTNESS project, joining partners with broad expertise in all data centre, optical data plane and optical control plane worlds, will bring innovation to the realization of data centre networking solutions meeting the real needs in such environments.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INCO-2009-1.3 | Award Amount: 1.85M | Year: 2009

ENLACE aims at supporting the bi-regional dialogue between the EU and the Central America Countries (CAC) on S&T issues, identifying common interests in research areas, setting up S&T priorities, supporting capacity building activities, and enhancing the dialogue within the region. The planned activities are: policy dialogue meetings between EU and CA stakeholders to identify research priorities of mutual interest; training activities to set up the network of FP7 National Contact Point in Central America and an Enterprise Europe Network correspondent. In addition, the project foresees a set of activities to enhance the networking among EU and CA researchers and to raise awareness on FP7 in CA. Dissemination events from one side and travel allowances for researchers from the other side will provide concrete tools to boost the participation of CA in FP7. The consortium includes 14 multi-skilled partners, 6 from the EU and 8 from the Central America, that will ensure the fulfillment of ENLACEs objectives.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 1.20M | Year: 2009

Many potentially hazardous compounds are traded as chemicals or incorporated as additives in products. Their release to the environment has been a concern of EC, UNO, WHO and OECD. The discussion of the assessment and management of chemicals and products led to the OECD program Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The World Summit encouraged countries to implement GHS with a view of having the system operating by 2008. The need to form GHS on a global scale is part of EU policy. GHS aims to have the same criteria worldwide to classify the responsible trade and handling of chemicals and at the same time protect human health. The EU will ensure transition from the current EU Classification & Labelling (C\L) to the GHS which harmonizes with REACH. Countries like Japan and the USA announced to implement GHS in the near future. UNITAR supports other countries. However, a complete picture on the global state of implementation is not available. With the growing level of worldwide trade we however face unsafe products on the marked. Only last year reports about toys releasing hazardous components made it to headlines. Vietnam reported that all kind of plastic gets recycled and sold back to the market. This shows that global trade in a circular economy is not acceptable without globally agreed assessment methods and harmonised C\L. A ECB study revealed that the EU regulation REACH will require 3.9 mill. additional test animals if no alternative methods are accepted. The number of additional tests are unknown when GHS is implemented in a global scale. The CA RISKCYCLE will include experts from OECD, UNEP, SusChem, country experts from Asia, America and Europe. The overall objective of the project is to define with international experts future needs of R\D contributions for innovations in the field of risk-based management of chemicals and products in a global perspective using alternative testing strategies to minimize animal tests.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2010

Cement is the primary binding phase of concrete. It is millennia old and ubiquitous worldwide. As a building material, it is unrivalled in terms of tonnage used, price per tonne, and CO2 production per tonne. Yet its very success means that cement production account for about 5% of global man-made CO2 emissions. The cement industry urgently requires more sustainable cement based products with equal or better performance to current materials over the life time of buildings and infra-structure (~100 years). Most of the CO2 associated with cement manufacture comes mainly from the breakdown of limestone into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. Therefore improvements must come from better materials with different chemistries. If the construction industry is to embrace new materials, then it must trust them. Water transport underpins almost all degradation. Degradation must be understood to ensure durability, which is the major obstacle to the introduction of new, more sustainable cementitious materials. Hence the industry is calling urgently for the researchers with the ability to predict water transport in concretes. Without this, there can be no confidence in the introduction and use of new materials; the status quo based on years of experience but relatively little scientific understanding will prevail for decades to come. Through the TRANSCEND Initial Training Network we will provide the trained personnel who can. (i) Enable the construction industry to predict water transport in cements and concretes and hence design appropriate tests to predict concrete degradation. (ii) Provide a basis for user confidence which enables the cement industry to introduce new more sustainable cements. The network will closely integrate the academic and private sectors. The later will directly employ 4 of the 15 fellows. The formal training programme will provide the basis for a European doctoral school in Cement and Concrete Science and technology.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2011.1.2-3 | Award Amount: 4.96M | Year: 2012

The shortage of drinking water in many regions on the planet constitutes a real problem and hazard. The use of seawater, brackish water and wastewater for human consumption is not a new concept. In spite of the success of membrane technology in water reclamation, membrane separation systems suffer from a serious problem: membrane fouling. The main downside is an inevitabe increase in operation and maintenance costs as well as an adverse effect on the lifespan of the membrane (harsh cleaning treatment). LbLBRANE is an ambitious project ensuring competent input right from the membrane concept down to lab-scale production and optimisation before scaling-up in pilot plants for end users. LbLBRANE applies novel nanotechnology tools, namely the layer-by-layer (LbL) technology to develop a versatile and generic procedure for the fast fabrication of low-cost, stable, chemical-resistant polyelectrolyte membranes. The LbL technology is the way to go for a bottom-up nano-engineered membrane whereby the modification is performed stepwise in a controlled manner - the thickness can be finely tuned by the number of layers deposited, the architecture of the film can be compartmentalised by incorporating functional species (polyelectrolyte as well as nanoparticles with specific functions, such as antibacterial properties) and the morphology of the film can be modulated via the pH, charge density and type of polyelectrolyte pairs to create pore size (hence permeability) tailored according to the specific need of the membranes. Our concern is focused towards high performance, regenerable membranes which could be cleaned in-situ and hybrid membranes with extremely high flux with high permselectivity and mechanical robustness. The ultimate aim is towards implementation of LbL on large industrial scale, from module design and construction to end user, especially for water reuse and metal/acid recovery.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.17M | Year: 2008

One of the greatest challenges to the olive-oil sector is the optimization of the oil production and extraction process, given the large number of factors that must be integrated and the many variables that can affect production, such as paste fineness, mixing time and temperature. Currently, operational control of extraction equipment is generally carried out manually by an experienced operator, posing inherent problems related to subjectivity of human judgment. The standard method to control oil extraction efficiency is the measurement of oil content and moisture in the by-product using chemical extraction, which is usually performed by a laboratory external to the olive oil mill. Given that laboratory data, essential for the optimization of extraction, is obtained long after sampling, there is no access to real-time information on extraction efficiency. Consequently, the process cannot be instantly optimised. As such, SMEs consortium partners have identified a clear need to develop a real-time measurement and automatic control of critical parameters throughout the entire production process as there are currently no automatic control systems for olive-oil mills in the market. The commercial objective of the project is to develop an automatic control system to optimise the oil extraction process in terms of oil yield and working hours, and reduce the pollution levels of the resulting wastewater. Near Infrared technology and predictive control models will be researched for the improvement and maximisation of olive oil extraction. A new and specific NIR sensor, fulfilling the requirements of the olive oil industry, will be developed for on-line measurement of oil and moisture content and an automatic control system with software based on predictive control models will be developed to process sensor data and automatically optimise the olive oil extraction process.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-2.2-2014 | Award Amount: 12.03M | Year: 2015

The ITRAIL -Information Technologies for Shift to rail proposal, first step towards the long term IP4 -IT for an Attractive Railway SHIFTRAIL Innovation Programme, aims at providing a new seamless travel experience, giving access to a complete multimodal travel offer which connects the first and last mile to long distance journeys. This is achieved through the introduction of a ground breaking Technical Enabler based on two concepts: the traveler is placed at the heart of innovative solutions, accessing all multimodal travel services (shopping, ticketing, and tracking) through its travel-companion. An open published framework is providing full interoperability whilst limiting impacts on existing systems, without prerequisites for centralized standardization. This Technical Enabler will be completely settled in the context of the SHIFTRAIL IP4, and ITRAIL is proposing a reduced approach to the scale of a specified use case without weakening any of the key concepts of IP4, such as the usage of Semantic Web technologies, meta planning on distributed data, travel companion with a protected and secured personal wallet stored in the cloud and including the rights to travel. The use case will be defined as a specific instantiation of our open concepts, and will benefit from a completely scalable architecture fully instantiated in IP4. This approach is addressing all the key challenges of the work program, supporting a complete door-to- door intermodal travel offer and proposing a seamless integration of the very diverse existing and future services for planning, one-stop-shop ticketing, and real-time re-accommodation. Moreover, thanks to an Interoperability framework which insulates travel applications from the standards fragmentation in multimodal transport, ITRAIL liberates business-model innovations in the market-place, guaranteeing the economic self-sustainability of these e-services in the long-term.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.11. | Award Amount: 8.61M | Year: 2013

The Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3) seeks to integrate European open ocean fixed point observatories and to improve access to these key installations for the broader community. These will provide multidisciplinary observations in all parts of the oceans from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor. Coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, UK, FixO3 will build on the significant advances achieved through the FP7 programmes EuroSITES, ESONET and CARBOOCEAN. With a budget of 7.00 Million Euros over 4 years (starting September 2013) the proposal has 29 partners drawn from academia, research institutions and SMEs. In addition 14 international experts from a wide range of disciplines comprise an Advisory Board. The programme will be achieved through: 1. Coordination activities to integrate and harmonise the current procedures and processes. Strong links will be fostered with the wider community across academia, industry, policy and the general public through outreach, knowledge exchange and training. 2. Support actions to offer a) access to observatory infrastructures to those who do not have such access, and b) free and open data services and products. 3. Joint research activities to innovate and enhance the current capability for multidisciplinary in situ ocean observation. Open ocean observation is currently a high priority for European marine and maritime activities. FixO3 will provide important data on environmental products and services to address the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and in support of the EU Integrated Maritime Policy. The FixO3 network will provide free and open access to in situ fixed point data of the highest quality. It will provide a strong integrated framework of open ocean facilities in the Atlantic from the Arctic to the Antarctic and throughout the Mediterranean, enabling an integrated, regional and multidisciplinary approach to understand natural and anthropogenic change in the ocean.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: GC.SST.2013-4. | Award Amount: 22.22M | Year: 2013

Electrification of the public transport is a raising trend in Europe, and electric buses are soon expected to enter markets as one of the most interesting options for matching urban environmental targets. Electrification is driven by both economics and politics. However, although technology is not yet fully matured and ready for wide commercialisation, a large demonstration project will facilitate the market up-take of electric buses in Europe. Furthermore, as unambiguous and extensive information about overall effects of electrified bus systems and related needs for changes on infrastructure do not exist today, UITP sees its objectives and those matching perfectly, and this led UITP to build a consortium of 40 partners, who were already considering their actions along this theme, and to collectively design the 42-months demonstration project ZeEUS Zero-Emission Urban Bus Systems. ZeEUS project focus on the todays challenge in the electrification of bus system, the extension of the fully-electric solution to a wider part of the urban network. This goes through the development of electric vehicles of large capacity, and the creation of an infrastructure capable of providing the required charging energy, operated according to non-disruptive and grid-balancing principles. The ZeEUS project will cover innovative electric bus solutions with different types of electrical power-train systems. Full-electric battery-based busses will be demonstrated in five locations (Barcelona, Bonn, Muenster, Plzen and Rome), whereas plug-in hybrid or range-extender type of power-trains will be demonstrated in three sites (London, Glasgow and Stockholm). The lifetime of project ZeEUS is long enough to collect sufficient amount of statistically valid data and make comprehensive analysis to deliver meaningful lessons learned, guidelines and provide feedback to the R&D activity of manufacturers and suppliers to make technology mature for wide commercialisation.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.67M | Year: 2011

Unexpected failure in an industrial production chain does not only involve the costs of failed parts replacement and the associated man-hour labour, but downtime costs have also have to be considered. To keep a machine functioning well it is a must to have good predictive maintenance, as it helps to reduce operating risk, avoids plant failures, provides reliable equipment, reduces operating costs, eliminates defects in operating plant and maximises production. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a phenomenon of transient elastic wave generation in materials under stress. When the material is subjected to stress at a certain level, a rapid release of strain energy takes place in the form of elastic wave which can be detected by transducers placed on it. Plastic deformation and growth of cracks are among the main sources of AE in metals. Though AE can came form any system under movement, the main source is doubtlessly from rotating machinery. Sources of AE in rotating machinery include impacting, cyclic fatigue cracks, friction, turbulence, material loss, cavitation, leakage, etc. In most cases the SMEs machine owner would be satisfied with a simple affordable device that is able to warn them from critical equipment failure. Recent developments in sensing technology, microprocessors, and miniaturised radio transceivers has enabled a new generation of Wireless Sensors Networks. The future of these sensors is to have an ubiquitous sensing nodes that will autonomously report on operating conditions, and that this data will be used to facilitate structural health monitoring, embedded test & evaluation, and condition based maintenance of critical industrial rotating machinery without the use of expensive cabling. In addition, in order to provide sensing networks which are truly autonomous, chemical batteries must be eliminated from the sensor and some kind of energy harvesting has to be foreseen. Piezoelectric materials have demonstrated their ability to convert vibration energy from vibrating machinery and rotating structures into electrical energy for powering a wireless sensing node. Hence, an acoustic emission self-powered wireless sensor is one of the main objectives to be achieved in this project. The sensor will measure using frequency as opposed to time which is an advancement from the state of the art.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: NMP.2013.4.0-3 | Award Amount: 6.15M | Year: 2014

Early detection of an incipient wound infection is a challenge for the attending physician , since its early diagnosis allows the timely initiation of treatment, thus reducing the severity of the disease . Currently, however, wound infection is not diagnosed until becoming already evident. As a consequence, the treatment of the patient is further complicated and more likely to have a negative outcome4. Often wounds are treated with antibiotics before even the infection appears, leading to overdoses and development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Considering that optimal efficiency is reached when a material serves multiple functions without compromise, consortium partners have discovered the means to convert wound dressings into a diagnostic tool capable to inform both patient and therapist about the wound status, thus directing towards the following therapeutic step. The proposed functional materials include a real time diagnostic reaction that positively influences the wound healing due to the timely intervention to treat infection or proteolytic stasis in the wound The novel InFact technology will be translated into a low-cost, real-time diagnostic tool as a constituent part of a wound dressing material, i.e. the triple-P materials concept: - Protective - by a decoy substrate for destructive proteases - Predictive providing a cumulative wound status signal to predict the infection transition - Proactive - changing the dressing according to a signal, rather than on a schedule base, will provide therapeutic response in time, and not too late. More specifically, the functional materials (e.g. absorbent fibres and hydrocolloid pads) will incorporate immobilized substrates for three enzymes: myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and elastase. Upon infection, these enzymatic activities are highly elevated in wound fluids, and can be detected by the color change of the functional materials, visible via a window in the dressing.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE.2010.3.5-02 | Award Amount: 1.26M | Year: 2011

More than water scarcity, diseases and civil wars, Africa is also the least wealthy continent, in terms of economic and financial resources. These combined and tightly linked problems have led to a restricted range of choices, affordable for African countries, to deal particularly with the water issue, as a major topic. Polluted water treatment before use has been their almost unique solution to deal with a growing water scarcity. The treatment of water and elimination of pollutants, mainly pathogenic organisms, xenobiotics and heavy metals, although itself presents significant challenges, is crucial for human health and environmental considerations. However, most regions in developing countries cannot afford the costs of advanced and specialized systems. Numerous water cleaning methods are based in natural, plants or micro-organisms, biochemical processes. Biotechnology is a useful tool that is delivering improved products and process for environmental sustainability, and promises a range of benefits to manage the industrial WW economically and effectively around the world. Some biotechnological techniques are quite sophisticated but others are simple, cost effective and adapted to local conditions and resources of developing countries. These natural biological treatment systems include lagooning, land treatment, phytodepuration, or constructed wetlands systems. They can be applied as secondary or tertiary purification treatment, allowing the removal of pathogenic microorganisms and the degradation of the organic pollutants, so that waste water can be recycled for irrigation and domestic use and hence reduce the pressure on the hydric resources. Other biotechnological techniques to be taken into account within this proposal are biofiltration, membrane bioreactors and algae and other aquatic crops application for wastewater purification.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.26 | Award Amount: 10.18M | Year: 2010

The co-ordinated and integrated approach of HYDRALAB aims at structuring the access to unique and costly hydraulic and ice engineering research infrastructures in the European Research Area. The network of HYDRALAB is unique in the hydraulic research community and has large experience in co-operating since its start in 1997. It began by informing and co-ordinating the activities of the partners in HYDRALAB I and II, and via strong collaboration in HYDRALAB III we will now realize further integration of our research services in Europe in HYDRALAB IV. Over the course of 10 years our network has grown from 8 participants in 1997 to a total of 30 participants from 15 countries today. Research in our infrastructures deals with complex questions regarding the interaction of water with environmental elements, sediment, structures and ice and goes beyond just hydraulic research: hence we have adopted the theme More than water. Questions that we need to answer deal with e.g. the development of adaptive strategies to climate change and sustainable measures against natural hazards, like floods. A fully integrated and balanced ensemble of Networking Activities (5), Joint Research Activities (4) and Transnational Access Activities (10) enhances the operation of our infrastructures and their instrumentation facilities beyond the present state-of-the-art and identifies potential future developments. By means of the common User Selection Procedure optimal access is guaranteed. With our dissemination events we foster a culture of co-operation between the participants and the wider user community. Further objectives of HYDRALAB IV are to improve access to experimental data, by providing researchers with a database on results of experiments, and bring young researchers and first time users from across Europe to the cutting edge of experimental research. As compared to the first proposal for HYDRALAB IV this proposal is improved with the recommendations made by the review panel.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: EEB-ICT-2011.6.4 | Award Amount: 4.15M | Year: 2011

Underground transportation systems are big energy consumers (e.g. 63,1 millions of kWh / year), and have significant impacts on energy consumption at a regional scale. One third of the networks energy is required for operating the subsystems of metro stations and surroundings, such as ventilation, vertical transportation and lightning. Although a relatively small percentage of energy can be saved with an optimal management of these subsystems, a large energy saving in absolute terms can be obtained. The objective of SEAM4US is to develop advanced technologies for optimal and scalable control of metro stations that will produce a 5% saving in non-traction electricity consumption in one year, which is equivalent to the electricity consumed in more than 700 households. The projects main outcomes will be the creation of systems for optimized integrated energy management, and the development of a decision support system to drive mid-term investments. SEAM4US will integrate additional energy metering and sensor-actuator networks with the existing systems (e.g. surveillance, passenger information and train scheduling), by means of middleware as abstraction layer, to acquire grounded user, environmental and scheduling data. The data set will update and enable a set of adaptive energy consumption and environmental models to proactively and optimally control the metro stations. The consortium consists of a large metro network operator, TMB; a major player in energy-efficient system management sector, COFELY; building and environmental physics and construction experts UNIVPM and UPC, respectively; R&D experts in middleware, FhG FIT and VTT; R&D experts in user and agent-based scheduling modeling, ALMENDE and UNIK; system integrator, CNET.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.6.1 | Award Amount: 4.94M | Year: 2014

The Smart_Rural_Grid project is aimed at developing an innovative smart grid approach targeted to the particular conditions of rural electricity distribution networks. The project will devote particular attention to highlight the differentiated specificities of rural electricity distribution and will target the need of gaining substantial improvements in terms of efficiency, quality and network resilience, favouring the introduction of new innovative business models in support of rural DSOs operations and of their future economic and industrial sustainability.\nBy exploring the convergence between electricity and telecom networks, the project is focused on the needs and visions for the future of DSOs with rural networks, and intends to face a systemic development of rural smart grids aimed at allowing DSOs to operate more efficiently, integrate local renewable electricity sources, interconnect prosumers and increase and guarantee the quality of electricity supply by allowing forming resilient and manageable electricity islands. The project will pave the way for new industrial opportunities for the production and deployment of new industrial products (systems and devices) as well as services for electricity distribution and network management and control, framed by a novel improved electricity distribution network management architecture.\nThe project key impacts are directly related with the delivery of significant cost and investment savings in rural electricity distribution (by overall reducing the percentage of electricity lost during electricity distribution and the gap between electricity generated and electricity consumed) also allowing for an increase potential to inherently accommodate the integration and distribution of renewable electricity sources and Combined Heat and Power (CHP), particularly of those connected to the distribution grid and of locally co-generated electricity (including prosumers) generated in vast rural territories.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-3 | Award Amount: 5.64M | Year: 2013

Coastal areas concentrate vulnerability to climate change due to high levels of population, economic activity and ecological values. Because of that RISES-AM- addresses the economy-wide impacts of coastal systems to various types of high-end climatic scenarios (including marine and riverine variables). It encompasses analyses from global to local scales across the full range of RCPs and SSPs. It considers the still significant uncertainties in drivers (physical and socio-economic) and coastal system responses (e.g. land loss or uses, biological functions, economic productivity) within a hazard-vulnerability-risk approach. The emphasis is on the advantages of flexible management with novel types of coastal interventions (e.g. green options) within an adaptive pathway whose tipping points will be identified/quantified in the project. The assessment of impacts and adaptation deficits will be based on modelling tools that will provide a set of objective and homogeneous comparisons. The extended/improved suite of models will be applied across scales and focusing on the most vulnerable coastal archetypes such as deltas, estuaries, port cities and small islands. This will lead to a motivated analysis of the synergies and trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation, including what level and timing of climate mitigation is needed to avoid social, ecological and economic adaptation tipping points in coastal areas. We shall evaluate the direct and indirect costs of high-end scenarios (e.g. the increasing demand for safety under increasingly adverse conditions) for coasts with/without climate change and contribute to determining which policy responses are needed at the European and global levels in the context of international climate discussions. The project will finally transfer results to authorities, users and stakeholders from all economic sectors converging in coastal zones, including the climate research community dealing with more generalistic assessments.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.2.1 | Award Amount: 25.61M | Year: 2013

In European robotics, ECHORD has successfully achieved integration on a large scale between industry and research that had never been done before. Capitalising on the major impact of ECHORD, the successor project ECHORD\\ (or E\\), will create new opportunities for European robotics researchers to work directly with SME/start-ups and new users/customers to create innovative markets.\n\nE\\ will continue ECHORDs two pillars, experiments and structured dialogue, taking advantage of experience and investment in the infrastructure. But E\\ will add another unique dimension: not only will we encourage ReIO and RoM to work together, but robot system customers and users will be involved connecting the suppliers directly with the market. To this end, there are two innovative new pillars: the Pre-Commercial-Procurement Pilots (PCPP) and the Knowledge and Innovation Centers (KIC). The PCPP will enable public procurers to become demanding buyers of new R&D. The complete PCP process will encompass robotics R&D for the first time, resulting in, demonstrable prototypes that can be evaluated together with the process at the end. The KICs are open experimental facilities that will that allow new robot customers and users to interact with roboticists with no entrance barrier and at very low cost so that new communities can form and radically new ideas can take shape. E\\s scientific work is structured in scenarios and research foci, directly derived from the SRA. They help steer the coordination between the experiments, KICs and PCPP to avoid unnecessary parallel work.\n\nE\\s implementation concept combines a team of excellent institutions with top-level researchers and the proven IT-backed processes. This will include highly effective quality management and monitoring.\n\nE\\ impact strategy is geared towards integration of stakeholder cooperation, SMEs, start-up sup-port and creating new markets ideally producing the next disruptive technologies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.2.2 | Award Amount: 25.84M | Year: 2009

The European robotics industry plays a key role in maintaining our continents industrial base. The robotics industry is strong, but fragmented and dispersed. In the future, cutting-edge technology resulting from top-level research will be the decisive factor for success. Europe not only has a powerful robotics industry, but can also boast superb research. By drawing on these resources, ECHORD aims at producing new knowledge through advancing the state of the art in selected research foci and developing novel technology from which new products can be derived. Within ECHORD, opportunities for knowledge advancement and technology transfer between academia and industry will be created across the whole continent. This will be achieved through the solicitation of focused, small-size RTD projects, so-called experiments, which can be rapidly negotiated, funded and executed. Via these experiments, ECHORD will bring about a large-scale introduction of robotic equipment into research institutions. This is expected to result in both tangible and measurable out-comes in terms of the accelerated development of technologies, as well as the deployment of robotics technology into new scenarios for the direct application of research results. For ECHORD, three such scenarios have been defined: human-robot co-working, hyper flexible cells, and cognitive factories. The foremost purpose of the scenarios is to define an environment that is both scientifically challenging to research institutions and commercially relevant to robot manufacturers.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2013-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.86M | Year: 2013

Medical exposures for radiological examinations represent the highest and fastest growing contribution to manmade radiation exposure in the EU underlying the need for medical physics experts (MPEs), regulators and scientists in industry to bring in new research results and expertise and to deploy resources in addressing this important issue. The EC recognized the urgency and the EU tender European guidelines for the Medical Physics Expert (MPE) (TREN/H4/1672009) was issued to develop and update the role of MPEs in Europe. The final report has been approved by the EC and includes an agreed mission statement and key activities for MPEs. The new qualification framework defines the MPE as an MP who, through planned advanced training and CPD, achieves the highest level possible (i.e., European Qualifications Level 8) in her/his specialty. However, it is recognized that few Member States have the expertise and facilities to provide the necessary training. A preliminary survey among National Organisations of MP and medical device companies showed that a dedicated training scheme has become a necessity. Three end-users were identified: the hospital MPE, the scientist in industry and regulators assessing exposures in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. The EUTEMPE-RX consortium will develop, put into practice and evaluate a new pilot EFTS for the MPE in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, which includes both face-to-face and on-line teaching. The aim is to ensure that candidates become knowledgeable about all current issues in radiation safety culture in hospitals and to make the MPE a radiation protection advocate for patients. The course will address the themes identified in the MELODI strategic research agenda, DoreMi and EMAN projects. A business plan will be developed for the sustainability of the network, which would provide a template for the development of similar programmes in the other specialties of medical physics.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.4.2 | Award Amount: 4.75M | Year: 2012

The goal of the X-LIKE project is to develop technology to monitor and aggregate knowledge that is currently spread across global mainstream and social media, and to enable cross-lingual services for publishers, media monitoring and business intelligence.In terms of research contributions, the aim is to combine scientific insights from several scientific areas to contribute in the area of cross-lingual text understanding. By combining modern computational linguistics, machine learning, text mining and semantic technologies we plan to deal with the following two key open research problems:- to extract and integrate formal knowledge from multilingual texts with cross-lingual knowledge bases, and- to adapt linguistic techniques and crowdsourcing to deal with irregularities in informal language used primarily in social media.As an interlingua, knowledge resources from Linked Open Data cloud ( will be used with special focus on general common sense knowledge base CycKB ( For the languages where no required linguistic resources will be available, we will use a probabilistic interlingua representation trained from a comparable corpus drawn from the Wikipedia.The solution will be applied on two case studies, both from the area of news. For the Bloomberg case study the domain will be financial news, while for the Slovenian Press Agency we will deal with general news. The technology developed in the project will be used to introduce cross-lingual and information from social media in services for publishers and end-users in the area of summarization, contextualization, personalization, and plagiarism detection. Special attention will be paid to analysing news reporting bias from multilingual sources. The developed technology will be language-agnostic, while within the project we will specifically address English, German, Spanish, and Chinese as major world languages and Catalan and Slovenian as minority languages.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.6.6 | Award Amount: 9.85M | Year: 2011

The SUPERHUB project aims at realizing a new services mobility framework supporting an integrated and eco-efficient use of multi-modal mobility systems in an urban setting.\nSUPERHUB provides a user-centric, integrated approach to multi-modal smart urban mobility systems, through an open platform able to consider in real time various mobility offers and provide a set of mobility services able to address user needs, promote user participation and to foster environmental friendly and energyefficient behavioural changes. Moreover, the take-up of virtuous behaviours, characterized by a reduced environmental footprint, is also facilitated by the SUPERHUB open platform matchmaking and negotiation capabilities between (public-private) providers and consumers of mobility offers and by the use of persuasive technologies to achieve wide adoption of results.\nTo achieve these objectives SUPERHUB will develop a persuasive engine based on captology principles to facilitate the voluntary adoption of environmentally-friendly multi-mobility habits, novel methods and tools for real-time reasoning on large data streams coming from heterogeneous sources, new algorithms and protocols for inferring traffic conditions from mobile users by coupling data from mobile operator networks with information coming from GPS based mobile phones and for dynamic matchmaking or resources that will generate journey plans best fulfilling user mobility needs and preferences while minimizing negative environmental impact.\nSpecific services and user studies will be realized to demonstrate the SUPERHUB concepts and technologies through field trials in Barcelona, Helsinki and Milan, involving large end-users communities. Results of SUPERHUB field trials shall influence local policy makers and municipalities in the definition of new energy-aware mobility strategies and planning.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-4.1.2 | Award Amount: 9.33M | Year: 2013

The CHANDA project main objective is to address the challenges in the field of nuclear data for nuclear applications and its acronym stands for solving CHAllenges in Nuclear DAta The project will prepare a proposal for an organization that will coordinate the nuclear data research program, and the infrastructures and capabilities of the EU Member States in a stable structure, well integrated with R&D coordination tools (EERA, HORIZON 2020) , and with priorities aligned with the SET Plan and the SRAs of the EURATOM Technological Platforms, including the following general objectives: - to provide the nuclear data required for the safe and sustainable operation, and development, of existing and new reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, - to prepare solutions for the challenges risen by the nuclear data measurements needed by nuclear systems, like the data for highly radioactive, short lived or rare materials, - to prepare tools that solve the challenges of quantifying and certifying the accuracy of the results of simulations based on available nuclear data and models (uncertainties), - to identify and promote synergies with other nuclear data applications. Using these tools will allow EU to upgrade the nuclear data up to the level needed by simulation codes to fulfill present requirements. In particular, the simulations should be able to: reduce the number of expensive experimental validations, to support the new tendencies in safety assessments to use best estimate codes to understand the limits of the plat safety towards extreme operational conditions, to optimize safety and performance of present and future reactors and other radioactive facilities. Other applications will benefit from this accuracy in nuclear data, notably in medical applications to optimize performance and minimize dose of radiation for diagnose and treatment.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.37M | Year: 2011

Undersafe is a system which will provide constant, round-the-clock monitoring of environmental and other conditions in underground sites open for recreational and tourist purposes. The UnderSafe system will be based on wireless technologies. The objective is to develop a safety system which will detect and provide early warning about a number of conditions that can pose a danger to those underground. It will be based on low cost and low consumption communication technology, which offers robust conditions in front of electromagnetic disturbances. The basic system will include a number of nodes along the underground space, located in the upper limits of the walls (Static Nodes). The different nodes have to be situated sight-to-sight with at least 2 nodes, accomplishing the communication channel. Visitors will wear specifically designed nodes (mobile nodes), which will communicate with static nodes. The system will include the following characteristics and capabilities: i) Only power wire is needed, in order to power supply to wall routers; ii) Low maintenance cost; iii) Low cost; iv) Robustness: IP compliant for hazardous ambient; v) Static node sensing of temperature, humidity, light, pressure, sound and gas (O, CO, CO2) sensing capabilities; vi) specialized static nodes for vibration sensing and landslide detection vii) mobile nodes.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.1.1-05 | Award Amount: 6.03M | Year: 2011

NEREIDS will bring innovate capablities based on EO to make a best exploitation of available space technologies. NEREIDS capabilities will bring enhancedEO capabilities by combining different sensors with innovative data fussion tecniques. NEREIDS will bring a toolbox apporach enabling share data an capabilities and support a comon maritime piture. NEREIDS will make an analysis of maritime surveillance in a cross-sectorial approach and will bring best capabilities using best use of available space assets.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2 | Award Amount: 3.14M | Year: 2010

In a global knowledge-based economy high performing clusters of different organisations are seen as the core of innovation, regional development and competitiveness for their members. Therefore there is a growing need for SMEs in Europe to engage and collaborate in networks and clusters. The European research project CADIC will help a large number of SME to set up and strengthen own clusters and engage in existing and suitable clusters on a much easier and more cost-efficient basis. To reach that aim, the Cross-organisational Assessment and Development of Intellectual Capital (CADIC) needs to be supported systematically by suitable methodologies and technical platforms. Based on the European InCaS methodology, CADICs IC Benchmarking system will enable SMEs to compare their own intangible resource base with other organisations in order to find suitable partners to collaborate and manage value-adding IC flows in SME-clusters. Based on the IC flow model, the CADIC framework provides methods and tools to support IC-based collaboration between SMEs, including a training programme for the roles Cluster Facilitator (cluster-level) and Cluster Manager (company-level) supporting catalyst SMEs in managing cluster activities. A specially designed web 2.0 platform will be developed and implemented integrating these supporting tools: The IC Benchmarking database may be accessed from there, and clusters can be managed in specially designed group spaces supported by collaboration tools. Apart from a sound business model which will ensure the running of the CADIC system managed by the consortium of SME-AGs and RTD performers in seven countries, a clear dissemination concept aims at attracting new national transfer partners and new SME-members for the CADIC network rapidly. CADIC also provides benefits to financial market institutions supporting the valuation of risks of investments based on comparisons of IC as the driver for future business success.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.4.4 | Award Amount: 3.46M | Year: 2012

Non-relational data management is emerging as a critical need for the new data economy based on large, distributed, heterogeneous, and complexly structured data sets. This new data management paradigm also provides an opportunity for research results to impact young innovative companies working on new RDF and graph data management technologies to start playing a significant role in this new data economy.Standards and benchmarking are two of the most important factors for the development of new information technology, yet there is still no comprehensive suite of benchmarks and benchmarking practices for RDF and graph databases, nor is there an authority for setting benchmark definitions and auditing official results. Without them, the future development and uptake of these technologies is at risk by not providing industry with clear, user-driven targets for performance and functionality.The goal of the Linked Data Benchmark Council (LDBC) project is to create the first comprehensive suite of open, fair and vendor-neutral benchmarks for RDF/graph databases together with the LDBC foundation which will define processes for obtaining, auditing and publishing results. The core scientific innovation of LDBC is therefore to define meaningful benchmarks derived from a combination of actual usage scenarios combined with the technical insight of top database systems researchers and architects in the choke points of current technology. LDBC will bring together a broad community of researchers and RDF and graph database vendors to establish an independent authority, the LDBC foundation, responsible for specifying benchmarks, benchmarking procedures and verifying/publishing results. The forum created will become a long-surviving, industry supported association similar to the TPC. Vendors and user organisations will participate in order to influence benchmark design and to make use of the obvious marketing opportunities.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2011.5.2-6. | Award Amount: 4.33M | Year: 2011

Growth in demand for rail transportation across Europe is predicted to continue. Much of this growth will have to be accommodated on existing lines that contain old infrastructure. This demand will increase both the rate of deterioration of these elderly assets and the need for shorter line closures for maintenance or renewal interventions. However, interventions on elderly infrastructure will also need to take account of the need for lower economic and environmental impacts. This means that new interventions will need to be developed. In addition tools will need to be developed to inform decision makers about the economic and environmental consequences of different intervention options being considered. MAINLINE proposes to address all these issues through a series of linked work packages that will target at least 300m per year savings across Europe with a reduced environmental footprint in terms of embodied carbon and other environmental benefits. It will: - Apply new technologies to extend the life of elderly infrastructure - Improve degradation and structural models to develop more realistic life cycle cost and safety models - Investigate new construction methods for the replacement of obsolete infrastructure - Investigate monitoring techniques to complement or replace existing examination techniques - Develop management tools to assess whole life environmental and economic impact. The consortium includes leading railways, contractors, consultants and researchers from across Europe, including from both Eastern Europe and the emerging economies. Partners also bring experience on approaches used in other industry sectors which have relevance to the rail sector. Project benefits will come from keeping existing infrastructure safely in service through the application of technologies and interventions based on life cycle considerations. Although MAINLINE will focus on certain asset types, the management tools developed will be applicable across a broader asset base.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2 | Award Amount: 2.58M | Year: 2010

Composting represents a sustainable solution for the treatment of organic waste, whatever its origin, however the economic returns of composting could be increased by improving the quality of the final product. The starting waste material from farms is more homogeneous and has a higher percentage of organic waste than household recycled waste. To this end, the final quality of the compost could be sufficiently high for use as a fertilizer not only on the farm where it has been produced, but also for its commercialisation. To achieve this, the production process needs to be well controlled. While the main biological and chemical parameters affecting the composting process are well known, the technological solutions available for monitoring and controlling the process are very limited. The present COMPO-BALL project will develop an on-line wireless system for the measurement of temperature and humidity at various points in the composting material. The proposed solution consists of a set of independent sensor nodes, i.e. the nodes will not require any external connections to feed or read the sensors, and which will be encapsulated in an inert material. COMPO-BALL could also be used in other types of composting processes whereby the starting material is quite homogeneous, as is the case with sewage for example, as well as for any other biological process where monitoring is essential, i.e. grain fermentation. Furthermore, we envisage this novel system as a starting point to extend this organic composting monitoring technology to monitoring the composting of household recycled waste. This would allow for a higher economic return, and smaller composting plants could be considered. Smaller composting plants could be located closer to the urban nucleus, which would reduce transport costs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: OCEAN.2011-3 | Award Amount: 16.99M | Year: 2012

The overall scientific objectives of PERSEUS are to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures on the Mediterranean and Black Seas, assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. Well-coordinated scientific research and socio-economic analysis will be applied at a wide-ranging scale, from basin to coastal. The new knowledge will advance our understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate descriptors and indicators of the MSFD. New tools will be developed in order to evaluate the current environmental status, by way of combining monitoring and modelling capabilities and existing observational systems will be upgraded and extended. Moreover, PERSEUS will develop a concept of an innovative, small research vessel, aiming to serve as a scientific survey tool, in very shallow areas, where the currently available research vessels are inadequate. In view of reaching Good Environmental Status (GES), a scenario-based framework of adaptive policies and management schemes will be developed. Scenarios of a suitable time frame and spatial scope will be used to explore interactions between projected anthropogenic and natural pressures. A feasible and realistic adaptation policy framework will be defined and ranked in relation to vulnerable marine sectors/groups/regions in order to design management schemes for marine governance. Finally, the project will promote the principles and objectives outlined in the MSFD across the SES. Leading research Institutes and SMEs from EU Member States, Associated States, Associated Candidate countries, non-EU Mediterranean and Black Sea countries, will join forces in a coordinated manner, in order to address common environmental pressures, and ultimately, take action in the challenge of achieving GES.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2013-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 85.21M | Year: 2013

This proposal details activities that will ensure the continued enhancement and ongoing operation of the leading-edge GANT network, supporting a range of network and added-value services, targeted at users across the GANT service area.\nIn the area of multi-domain network service operation, GN3plus plans to deliver fast, efficient provisioning of advanced services, develop operational support across management domains, and improve security to ensure service integrity and protect network resources. These initiatives will be complemented by the development of application services in a federated environment such as mobile and wireless roaming supported by safe and secure Authentication and Authorisation Infrastructure.\nNetworking Activities will provide management and support for all GN3plus activities through communication, promotion, international liaison and business development. Emphasis will be placed on supporting and encouraging service take-up among users by working closely with NRENs. GANT will increase digital inclusion through closer collaboration between NRENs, exchange of staff and specialist expertise, as well as by seeking synergies between public administrations and the GN3plus partners using their vast, shared knowledge base.\nJoint Research Activities will be targeted at providing critical analyses of future network and application technologies, with a view to future deployment of emerging technologies within and outside the GANT community.\nThe governance model aims to increase effectiveness and user influence. The GN3plus Partners Assembly will deal with overall policy and an Executive Board will oversee its implementation. An International User Advisory Committee and External Advisory Committee will ensure users views and senior industry and service provider expertise are channelled directly to the Assembly. Specialised Advisory Boards will ensure highly efficient decision making, and that the voice of the stakeholder community is heard.

Aracri E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Vidal T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

This work was conceived to investigate for the first time the effectiveness of the combined use of xylanase and laccase for the removal of hexenuronic acids (HexA) and lignin from sisal pulp fibres. To this end, xylanase (X) and laccase (L) treatments were used in an XLQPo sequence (where Q denotes a chelating stage and Po an oxygen-reinforced peroxide multi-step treatment) that was applied to pulp in order to obtain sisal fibres with a high cellulose content. The results of the XLQPo sequence were compared with those of an LQPo sequence. The L stage of both sequences was performed in the presence of either the natural compound sinapyl aldehyde (SLD) or the synthetic compound violuric acid (VA), employed as mediators, in order to compare their efficiency in aiding pulp bleaching and HexA removal. Changes in HexA content and the contributions of lignin and HexA to kappa number during each sequence were examined. The xylanase treatment was found to remove 47% of lignin, 15% of xylan and 27% of HexA from the initial pulp, whereas the laccase-VA system removed 28% of HexA and exhibited higher efficiency than the laccase-SLD system in reducing kappa number and increasing brightness. In any case, when the X treatment was applied, the sequence including laccase-SLD treatment resulted in the strongest delignification effect. The effluents from each stage of the bleaching sequences were analysed for COD, colour and toxicity, which peaked after the L stage and were significantly higher with SLD than with VA. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jaillet L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Porta J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Robotics: Science and Systems | Year: 2013

This paper presents an approach for optimal path planning on implicitly-defined configuration spaces such as those arising, for instance, when manipulating an object with two arms or with a multifingered hand. In this kind of situations, the kinematic and contact constraints induce configuration spaces that are manifolds embedded in higher dimensional ambient spaces. Existing sampling-based approaches for path planning on manifolds focus on finding a feasible solution, but they do not optimize the quality of the path in any sense. Thus, the returned paths are usually not suitable for direct execution. Recently, RRT∗and other similar asymptotically-optimal path planners have been proposed to generate high-quality paths in the case of globally parametrizable configuration spaces. In this paper, we propose to use higher dimensional continuation tools to extend RRT∗to the case of implicitly-defined configuration spaces. Experiments in different problems validate the proposed approach. © 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Rolan A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Corcoles F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Pedra J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion | Year: 2011

The aim of this paper is to analyze the dynamic behavior of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) subject to symmetrical voltage sags caused by three-phase faults. A simple control algorithm is considered and assumed ideal: the rotor current irf in the synchronous reference frame is kept constant. This hypothesis allows the electrical transient to be solved analytically, providing a comprehensive description of DFIG behavior under symmetrical sags. The fault-clearing physics of symmetrical sags is also analyzed. That is, the fault is cleared in the successive natural fault-current zeros, leading to a voltage recovery in one, two, or three steps. This clearing process, called discrete fault clearing in this paper, results in a more accurate sag modeling than the abrupt or instantaneous fault clearing (the usual modeling in the literature). The fault-clearing process has a strong influence on the rotor voltage required to control the rotor current after fault clearing. To compare the effects of both abrupt and discrete sags, different wind turbine (WT) operating points, which determine different generated powers, are considered. This study helps in the understanding of WT fault ride-through capability. © 2011 IEEE.

Ledesma C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Llorca J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming was tested over catalytic monoliths coated with CeO2, ZrO2, or Ce0.5Zr 0.5O2 and loaded with Cu, Zn, or CuZn and promoted with Pd. The best initial catalytic performance in terms of activity and yield toward the reforming products, H2 and CO2, was exhibited by CuPd/ZrO2, but it suffered strong deactivation. CuZn/ZrO2 showed less activity but a high selectivity and stability. In situ XPS and in situ IR studies showed a relationship between stability and surface copper species. A reactive formate intermediate as well as surface Cu°-Cu + species prevailed over CuZn/ZrO2 under reaction conditions, whereas a less reactive methoxy species, oxidized copper and carbonaceous residues prevailed over CuPd/ZrO2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Villanueva J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Nonlinear Science | Year: 2016

We compute invariant Lagrangian tori of analytic Hamiltonian systems by the parameterization method. Under Kolmogorov’s non-degeneracy condition, we look for an invariant torus of the system carrying quasi-periodic motion with fixed frequencies. Our approach consists in replacing the invariance equation of the parameterization of the torus by three conditions which are altogether equivalent to invariance. We construct a quasi-Newton method by solving, approximately, the linearization of the functional equations defined by these three conditions around an approximate solution. Instead of dealing with the invariance error as a single source of error, we consider three different errors that take account of the Lagrangian character of the torus and the preservation of both energy and frequency. The condition of convergence reflects at which level contributes each of these errors to the total error of the parameterization. We do not require the system to be nearly integrable or to be written in action-angle variables. For nearly integrable Hamiltonians, the Lebesgue measure of the holes between invariant tori predicted by this parameterization result is of (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is the size of the perturbation. This estimate coincides with the one provided by the KAM theorem. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Laage D.,CNRS PASTEUR Laboratory | Stirnemann G.,CNRS PASTEUR Laboratory | Sterpone F.,CNRS PASTEUR Laboratory | Rey R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | And 2 more authors.
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry | Year: 2011

The reorientation of a water molecule is important for a host of phenomena, ranging overin an only partial listingthe key dynamic hydrogen-bond network restructuring of water itself, aqueous solution chemical reaction mechanisms and rates, ion transport in aqueous solution and membranes, protein folding, and enzymatic activity. This review focuses on water reorientation and related dynamics in pure water, and for aqueous solutes with hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amphiphilic character, ranging from tetra-methylurea to halide ions and amino acids. Attention is given to the application of theory, simulation, and experiment in the probing of these dynamics, in usefully describing them, and in assessing the description. Special emphasis is placed on a novel sudden, large-amplitude jump mechanism for water reorientation, which contrasts with the commonly assumed Debye rotational diffusion mechanism, characterized by small-amplitude angular motion. Some open questions and directions for further research are also discussed. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Ruiz-Girons E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Sarrate J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Finite Elements in Analysis and Design | Year: 2010

The submapping method is one of the most used techniques to generate structured hexahedral meshes. This method splits the geometry into pieces logically equivalent to an hexahedron. Then, it meshes each patch keeping the mesh compatibility between pieces by solving an integer linear problem. The quality of the final discretization is governed by the objective function that defines the linear problem. Thus, in this work we propose a new objective function that better distributes the number of intervals among the edges of the geometry. In addition, special procedures have to be developed in order to apply the submapping method to volumes with holes. This article also presents two original contributions to efficiently mesh geometries that contain holes. Finally, it presents several numerical examples that show the applicability of the developed algorithms. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Castanos F.,CINVESTAV | Kunusch C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

This paper presents a nonsmooth adaptive extremum seeker that minimizes the hydrogen consumption in a fuel-cell system. The extremum seeker operates by estimating the gradient of the objective function but, unlike other seekers, it does not require a dither signal to produce such estimate. The absence of a dither signal simplifies the choice of parameter values for the seeker, and more importantly, it allows it to converge to the optimal value exactly, not only to a small neighborhood. The proper functioning of the proposed scheme is proved using nonsmooth Lyapunov analysis. The strategy is tested on the input-output map of a real polymer electrolyte fuel cell. © 2015 IEEE.

De Haro J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Amoros J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Different models of universes are considered in the context of teleparallel theories. Assuming that the universe is filled by a fluid with an equation of state P=-ρ-f(ρ), for different teleparallel theories and different equation of state we study its dynamics. Two particular cases are studied in detail: in the first one we consider a function f with two zeros (two de Sitter solutions) that mimics a huge cosmological constant at early times and a pressureless fluid at late times; in the second one, in the context of loop quantum cosmology with a small cosmological constant, we consider a pressureless fluid (P=0â‡f(ρ)=-ρ) which means there are de Sitter and anti-de Sitter solutions. In both cases one obtains a nonsingular universe that at early times is in an inflationary phase; after leaving this phase, it passes trough a matter dominated phase and finally at late times it expands in an accelerated way. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Boguna M.,University of Barcelona | Castellano C.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Castellano C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Pastor-Satorras R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We develop an analytical approach to the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model that allows us to unravel the true origin of the absence of an epidemic threshold in heterogeneous networks. We find that a delicate balance between the number of high degree nodes in the network and the topological distance between them dictates the existence or absence of such a threshold. In particular, small-world random networks with a degree distribution decaying slower than an exponential have a vanishing epidemic threshold in the thermodynamic limit. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Hernandez H.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Blum C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2011

The classical minimum energy broadcast (MEB) problem in wireless adhoc networks, which is well-studied in the scientific literature, considers an antenna model that allows the adjustment of the transmission power to any desired real value from zero up to the maximum transmission power. However, when specifically considering sensor networks, a look at the currently available hardware shows that this antenna model is not very realistic. A first contribution of this work is therefore the re-formulation of the MEB problem for an antenna model that is realistic for sensor networks. In this antenna model transmission power levels are chosen from a finite set of possible ones. The second contribution concerns the adaptation of ant colony optimization, a current state-of-the-art algorithm for the classical MEB problem, to the more realistic problem version. The obtained results show that the advantage of ant colony optimization over classical heuristics even grows when the number of possible transmission power levels decreases. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Erro D.,University of the Basque Country | Moreno A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Bonafonte A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing | Year: 2010

Any modification applied to speech signals has an impact on their perceptual quality. In particular, voice conversion to modify a source voice so that it is perceived as a specific target voice involves prosodic and spectral transformations that produce significant quality degradation. Choosing among the current voice conversion methods represents a trade-off between the similarity of the converted voice to the target voice and the quality of the resulting converted speech, both rated by listeners. This paper presents a new voice conversion method termed Weighted Frequency Warping that has a good balance between similarity and quality. This method uses a time-varying piecewise-linear frequency warping function and an energy correction filter, and it combines typical probabilistic techniques and frequency warping transformations. Compared to standard probabilistic systems, Weighted Frequency Warping results in a significant increase in quality scores, whereas the conversion scores remain almost unaltered. This paper carefully discusses the theoretical aspects of the method and the details of its implementation, and the results of an international evaluation of the new system are also included. © 2006 IEEE.

Reverter F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Casas O.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2010

This paper is a continuation of a previous work with regard to the direct connection of differential sensors to microcontrollers without using intermediate electronics between them. This paper focuses on the measurement of differential capacitive sensors, whereas the previous work dealt with the resistive counterparts. The proposed circuit is analyzed, and the main limitation seems to be the fact that the magnitude of the input parasitic capacitances of the microcontroller is similar to or even higher than the sensor capacitances. Methods to overcome this limitation are proposed, particularly when measuring low-value differential capacitive sensors such as microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors. Experimental tests of the circuit have been carried out by measuring a commercial capacitive accelerometer working as a tilt sensor. Although such a sensor has a low value (1.5 pF) and low sensitivity (0.105 pF/g), the measurement has shown a nonlinearity error of 1% full-scale span (FSS), which is a remarkable value considering the simplicity of the circuit. © 2010 IEEE.

Penella M.T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Gasulla M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2010

The sensor nodes of wireless sensor networks remain inactive most of the time to achieve longer runtimes. Power is mainly provided by batteries, which are either primary or secondary. Because of its internal impedance, a significant voltage drop can appear across the battery terminals at the activation time of the node, thus preventing the extraction of all the energy from the battery. Additionally, internal losses can also be significant. Consequently, the runtime is reduced. The addition of a supercapacitor in parallel with the battery, thus forming a hybrid-storage device, has been proposed under pulsed loads to increase the power capabilities and reduce both the voltage drop and the internal losses at the battery. However, this strategy has not yet thoroughly been analyzed and tested in low-power wireless sensor nodes. This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical analysis that extends previous works found in the literature and provides design guidelines for choosing the appropriate supercapacitor. The analysis is supported by extensive experimental results. Two low-capacity (< 200 mAh) batteries were tested together with their hybrid-storage unit counterparts when using an electronic load as a pulsed current sink. The hybrid-storage units always achieved a higher runtime. One of the batteries was also tested using a sensor node. The runtime extension was 16% and 33% when connecting the hybrid-storage unit directly and through a dcdc switching regulator to the sensor node, respectively. © 2010 IEEE.

Casas J.R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life-Cycle Optimization - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management | Year: 2010

The increasing volume of European transport urgently requires an effective road and rail system in Central European and Eastern countries (CEEC) with a major investment in building new and assessing and rehabilitating old structures. To decrease the number of bridges in CEEE to be strengthened or replaced due to lack of maintenance or increase of the trucks weight, it is essential to assess accurately their remaining capacity. It becomes important to develop more appropriate tools and procedures to avoid unnecessary interventions in bridges. Load testing carried out on bridges through years indicates that often bridges resist load in ways not always considered in the design or in the present bridge rating procedures. Therefore, substantial benefits can be realized if the bridges can be evaluated and rated based on non-destructive load tests and if the actual traffic loads can be well monitored as well, including their dynamic effect or dynamic allowance. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Lauria M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
ACM Transactions on Computation Theory | Year: 2016

Ramsey's Theorem is a cornerstone of combinatorics and logic. In its simplest formulation it says that for every k > 0 and s > 0, there is a minimum number r(k, s) such that any simple graph with at least r(k, s) vertices contains either a clique of size k or an independent set of size s. We study the complexity of proving upper bounds for the number r(k, k). In particular, we focus on the propositional proof system cutting planes; we show that any cutting plane proof of the upper bound "r(k, k) ≤ 4k" requires high rank. In order to do that we show a protection lemma which could be of independent interest. © 2016 ACM.

Galeana-Zapien H.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Ferrus R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2010

Existing base station (BS) assignment methods in cellular networks are mainly driven by radio criteria since it is assumed that the only limiting resource factor is on the air interface. However, as enhanced air interfaces have been deployed, and mobile data and multimedia traffic increases, a growing concern is that the backhaul of the cellular network can become the bottleneck in certain deployment scenarios. In this paper, we extend the BS assignment problem to cope with possible backhaul congestion situations. A backhaul-aware BS assignment problem is modeled as an optimization problem using a utility-based framework, imposing constraints on both radio and backhaul resources, and mapped into a Multiple-Choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MMKP). A novel heuristic BS assignment algorithm with polynomial time is formulated, evaluated and compared to classical schemes based exclusively on radio conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can provide the same system capacity with less backhaul resources so that, under backhaul bottleneck situations, a better overall network performance is effectively achieved. © 2010 IEEE.

Pont-Tuset J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Marques F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2016

This paper tackles the supervised evaluation of image segmentation and object proposal algorithms. It surveys, structures, and deduplicates the measures used to compare both segmentation results and object proposals with a ground truth database; and proposes a new measure: the precision-recall for objects and parts. To compare the quality of these measures, eight state-of-the-art object proposal techniques are analyzed and two quantitative meta-measures involving nine state of the art segmentation methods are presented. The meta-measures consist in assuming some plausible hypotheses about the results and assessing how well each measure reflects these hypotheses. As a conclusion of the performed experiments, this paper proposes the tandem of precision-recall curves for boundaries and for objects-and-parts as the tool of choice for the supervised evaluation of image segmentation. We make the datasets and code of all the measures publicly available. © 2015 IEEE.

Serrat C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We theoretically study the response of He atoms exposed simultaneously to an intense IR pulse and a weak extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse with photon energies far from the principal atomic He resonances. We find that XUV forward scattering from the nonstationary electronic wave packet promoted by the intense IR driving field is strongly enhanced as compared with the normal weak scattering from bound or free electrons. Based on this effect, we predict that large amplification of XUV radiation can be achieved in the cutoff spectral region of high-harmonic generation in He gas. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Cubarsi R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Solving the Boltzmann collisionless equation under the axisymmetric hypothesis introduces serious limitations on describing the kinematics of a single stellar system according to the local Galactic observables. Instead of relaxing the hypothesis of axisymmetry, one alternative is to assume a mixture model. For a finite mixture of ellipsoidal velocity distributions, the coexistence of several stellar populations sharing a common potential introduces a set of conditions of consistency that may also constrain the population kinematics. For only a few potentials, the populations may have independent mean velocities and unconstrained velocity ellipsoids. In this paper, we determine which axisymmetric potentials are connected with a more flexible superposition of the stellar populations. The conditions of consistency are checked against recent results derived from kinematic surveys of the solar neighbourhood that include RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) data. Several key observables are used to determine whether the axisymmetric mixture model is able to account for the main features of the local velocity distribution, such as the vertex deviation associated with the second central moment μÏ-θ, the population radial mean velocities, the radial gradient of the moment μÏ-z, the tilt of the velocity ellipsoids, and the existence of stars with no net rotation. In addition, the mixture moments for an arbitrary number of populations are derived in terms of the one-to-one mean velocity differences in order to study whether a more populated mixture could add any new features to the velocity distribution that remain unnoticed in a two-component mixture. According to this analysis, the quasi-stationary potential is the only potential allowing arbitrary directions of the population mean velocities. Then, the apparent vertex deviation of the total velocity distribution is due to the difference of the mean velocities of the populations whose velocity ellipsoids have no vertex deviation. For a non-separable potential, the population velocity ellipsoids have the same orientation and point towards the Galactic centre. For a potential separable in addition in cylindrical coordinates, the population velocity ellipsoids may have arbitrary tilt. © 2014 ESO.

Martinez-Velasco J.A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2011

This paper presents a methodology aimed at obtaining the equivalent circuit of regulating transformers. This aspect is insufficiently treated in most current textbooks in which the equivalent circuit of a tapped transformer is not well justified. The document shows how to obtain the equivalent circuit of a regulating transformer with control of voltage magnitude and phase angle, and how to apply it using either physical quantities or per unit (pu) quantities. The resulting equivalent circuit is adequate for steady-state calculations under balanced conditions and neglects transformer core parameters. The usage of per unit values can be made by selecting the base quantities in an arbitrary manner, which is an obvious advantage when the turns ratio must be estimated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Romero E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Alquezar R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Neural Networks | Year: 2012

Recently, error minimized extreme learning machines (EM-ELMs) have been proposed as a simple and efficient approach to build single-hidden-layer feed-forward networks (SLFNs) sequentially. They add random hidden nodes one by one (or group by group) and update the output weights incrementally to minimize the sum-of-squares error in the training set. Other very similar methods that also construct SLFNs sequentially had been reported earlier with the main difference that their hidden-layer weights are a subset of the data instead of being random. These approaches are referred to as support vector sequential feed-forward neural networks (SV-SFNNs), and they are a particular case of the sequential approximation with optimal coefficients and interacting frequencies (SAOCIF) method. In this paper, it is firstly shown that EM-ELMs can also be cast as a particular case of SAOCIF. In particular, EM-ELMs can easily be extended to test some number of random candidates at each step and select the best of them, as SAOCIF does. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the cost of the computation of the optimal output-layer weights in the originally proposed EM-ELMs can be improved if it is replaced by the one included in SAOCIF. Secondly, we present the results of an experimental study on 10 benchmark classification and 10 benchmark regression data sets, comparing EM-ELMs and SV-SFNNs, that was carried out under the same conditions for the two models. Although both models have the same (efficient) computational cost, a statistically significant improvement in generalization performance of SV-SFNNs vs. EM-ELMs was found in 12 out of the 20 benchmark problems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pinyol N.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Alonso E.E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Engineering Geology | Year: 2010

Thermally induced excess pore pressures have been included into a two-wedge evolutive model of Vaiont landslide. The problem requires the solution of a system of four coupled balance equations for the shear bands and the surrounding rock as well as the joint equation of motion of the entire slide. The model predicts the high velocities observed and is consistent with other data (slide geometry, residual strength, and conditions on the sliding surface). The interpretation of a sensitivity analysis suggests that there exists a threshold permeability band, in the range 10-8 to 10-10m/s, which separates potentially fast motions from slow motions. This conclusion is maintained if the scale of the landslide is reduced. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Marti-Cardona B.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Dolz-Ripolles J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Lopez-Martinez C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2013

Wetlands are among the most ecologically important ecosystems on Earth and their sustainability depends critically on the water resources. In a scenario of climate change and increased anthropogenic pressure, detailed monitoring of the water resources provides a fundamental tool to assess the ecosystem health and identify potential threats.Doñana wetlands, in Southwest Spain, dry out every summer and progressively flood in fall and winter to a maximum extent of 30,000. ha. The wetland filling up process was monitored in detail during the 2006-2007 hydrologic cycle by means of twenty-one Envisat/ASAR scenes, acquired at different incidence angles in order to maximize the observation frequency. Flood mapping from the two uncorrelated ASAR channel data alone was proved unfeasible due to the complex casuistic of Doñana cover backscattering. This study addresses the synergistic utilization of the ASAR data together with Doñana's digital elevation model and vegetation map in order to achieve flood mapping.Filtering and clustering algorithms were developed for the automated generation of Doñana flood maps from the ASAR images. The use of irregular filtering neighborhoods adapted to the elevation contours drastically improved the ASAR image filtering. Edge preservation was excellent, since natural edges closely follow terrain contours. Isotropic neighborhoods were assumed of a single class and their intensities were averaged. As a result, intensity fluctuations due to speckle and texture over areas of the same cover type were smoothed remarkably.The clustering and classification algorithm operate on individual sub-basins, as the pixel elevation is more accurately related to the cover classes within them. Vegetation and elevation maps plus knowledge of Doñana backscattering characteristics from preceding studies were initially used to select seed pixels with high confidence on their class membership. Next, a region growing algorithm extends the seed regions with new pixels based on their planimmetric adjacency and backscattering Mahalanobis distance to the seeds.During the seed region growth, new pixels' possible classes are not constrained to their cover type according to the vegetation map, so the algorithm is able to capture temporal changes in the vegetation spatial distribution. Comparison of the resultant classification and concurrent ground truth yielded 92% of flood mapping accuracy. The flood mapping method is applicable to the available ASAR images of Doñana from six other hydrologic cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Palacios A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Casal J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Fuel | Year: 2011

Experiments were carried out on relatively large vertical propane sonic and subsonic exit velocity jet fires (up to approximately 10 m in length and 1.5 m in width). The main geometrical features of jet fires (flame shape, length and width) were determined by analyzing infrared images. From the observations of visible and infrared images, the flame boundary was defined as that corresponding to a temperature of 800 K. Results were compared with the shapes proposed in previous research projects. In the present study, data for sonic and subsonic exit velocity flames indicated that a cylindrical shape could accurately describe the shape of a vertical propane jet fire in still air. The length of such a cylindrical jet fire was the radiant flame length and the equivalent diameter was that corresponding to a volume equal to that surrounded by the aforementioned boundary. The ratio of flame length to diameter was found to be 7. Expressions are proposed to predict the values of jet flame length and width as a function of orifice exit diameter and Reynolds number. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Van Spengen W.M.,Technical University of Delft | Roca J.B.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

We report for the first time on the thorough experimental and theoretical assessment of the noise limit of mechanical stress and temperature measurements with micro-Raman spectroscopy. A comprehensive study has been performed in which, for different incident laser light intensities and acquisition times, 1000 Raman spectra of mono-crystalline silicon were acquired per setting. Curve fitting was employed to obtain the peak positions of all the spectra, from which the standard deviations of the measured peak positions were obtained versus the total accumulated amount of laser light incident on the sample during one measurement. It has been found that the noise in the obtained peak position decreases as 1/sqrt(n) over more than three decades of the incident amount of laser light. At very low light conditions, the noise decreases as 1/n. By comparing the experimental results obtained to recent theoretical work, we show that the acquisition is limited by photon shot noise over most of the range and is limited by electronic detector noise at very low light conditions only. Pixelation errors do not play a role. It is concluded that the low electronic noise of typical Raman spectroscope detectors is overkill for the investigation of mechanical stress and temperature in silicon and other materials with comparable peaks, as it has absolutely no influence on the noise level of such an experiment. Maximum Raman signal intensity on the detector and high quantum efficiency detection are more important. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Morell M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Puiggali J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Polymers | Year: 2013

Hybrid block copolymers based on peptides and synthetic polymers, displaying different types of topologies, offer new possibilities to integrate the properties and functions of biomacromolecules and synthetic polymers in a single hybrid material. This review provides a current status report of the field concerning peptide-synthetic polymer hybrids. The first section is focused on the different synthetic approaches that have been used within the last three years for the preparation of peptide-polymer hybrids having different topologies. In the last two sections, the attractive properties, displayed in solution or in the solid state, together with the potential applications of this type of macromolecules or supramolecular systems are highlighted. © 2013 by the authors.

Codina R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Hernandez N.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2011

A numerical formulation to solve the MHD problem with thermal coupling is presented in full detail. The distinctive feature of the method is the design of the stabilization terms, which serve several purposes. First, convective dominated flows in the Navier-Stokes and the heat equation can be dealt with. Second, there is no restriction in the choice of the interpolation spaces of all the variables and, finally, flows highly coupled with the magnetic field can be accounted for. Different aspects related to the design of the final fully discrete and linearized algorithm are also discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Dellen B.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Worgotter F.,University of Gottingen
International Journal of Computer Vision | Year: 2011

A novel Fourier-based technique for local motion detection from image sequences is proposed. In this method, the instantaneous velocities of local image points are inferred directly from the global 3D Fourier components of the image sequence. This is done by selecting those velocities for which the superposition of the corresponding Fourier gratings leads to constructive interference at the image point. Hence, image velocities can be assigned locally even though position is computed from the phases and amplitudes of global Fourier components (spanning the whole image sequence) that have been filtered based on the motion-constraint equation, reducing certain aperture effects typically arising from windowing in other methods. Regularization is introduced for sequences having smooth flow fields. Aperture effects and their effect on optic-flow regularization are investigated in this context. The algorithm is tested on both synthetic and real image sequences and the results are compared to those of other local methods. Finally, we show that other motion features, i.e. motion direction, can be computed using the same algorithmic framework without requiring an intermediate representation of local velocity, which is an important characteristic of the proposed method. © The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at

Araujo-Pardo G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Balbuena C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Networks | Year: 2011

In this article, some structures in the projective plane of order q are found which allow us to construct small k-regular balanced bipartite graphs of girth 6 for all k ≤ q. When $k=q$, the order of these q-regular graphs is 2(q2-1); and when k ≤ q-1, the order of these k-regular graphs is 2(qk-2) . Moreover, the incidence matrix of a k-regular balanced bipartite graph of girth 6 having 2(qk-2) vertices, where k is an integer and q is a prime power with 3 ≤ k ≤ q-1, is provided. These graphs improve upon the best known upper bounds for the number of vertices in regular graphs of girth 6. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Carrasco J.A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
INFORMS Journal on Computing | Year: 2011

This paper is concerned with the computation of the interval availability (proportion of time in a time interval in which the system is up) distribution of a fault-tolerant system modeled by a finite (homogeneous) continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC). General-purpose methods for performing that computation tend to be very expensive when the CTMC and the time interval are large. Based on a previously available method (regenerative transformation) for computing the interval availability complementary distribution, we develop a method called bounding regenerative transformation for the computation of bounds for that measure. Similar to regenerative transformation, bounding regenerative transformation requires the selection of a regenerative state. The method is targeted at a certain class of models, including both exact and bounding failure/repair models of fault-tolerant systems with increasing structure function, with exponential failure and repair time distributions and repair in every state with failed components having failure rates much smaller than repair rates (F/R models), with a "natural" selection for the regenerative state. The method is numerically stable and computes the bounds with well-controlled error. For models in the targeted class and the natural selection for the regenerative state, computational cost should be traded off with bounds tightness through a control parameter. For large models in the class, the version of the method that should have the smallest computational cost should have small computational cost relative to the model size if the value above which the interval availability has to be guaranteed to be is close to 1. In addition, under additional conditions satisfied by F/R models, the bounds obtained with the natural selection for the regenerative state by the version that should have the smallest computational cost seem to be tight for all time intervals or not small time intervals, depending on whether the initial probability distribution of the CTMC is concentrated in the regenerative state or not. © 2011 INFORMS.

Faundez-Zanuy M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Pattern Analysis and Applications | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a multi-section vector quantization approach for on-line signature recognition. We have used a database of 330 users which includes 25 skilled forgeries performed by 5 different impostors. This database is larger than those typically used in the literature. Nevertheless, we also provide results from the SVC database. Our proposed system obtains similar results as the state-of-the-art online signature recognition algorithm, Dynamic Time Warping, with a reduced computational requirement, around 47 times lower. In addition, our system improves the database storage requirements due to vector compression, and is more privacy-friendly because it is not possible to recover the original signature using the codebooks. Experimental results reveal that our proposed multi-section vector quantization achieves a 98% identification rate, minimum Detection Cost Function value equal to 2.29% for random forgeries and 7.75% for skilled forgeries. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Graffelman J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2015

Testing genetic markers for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is an important issue in genetic association studies. The Hardy Weinberg package offers the classical tests for equilibrium, functions for power computation and for the simulation of marker data under equilibrium and disequilibrium. Functions for testing equilibrium in the presence of missing data by using multiple imputation are provided. The package also supplies various graphical tools such as ternary plots with acceptance regions, log-ratio plots and Q-Q plots for exploring the equilibrium status of a large set of diallelic markers. Classical tests for equilibrium and graphical representations for diallelic marker data are reviewed. Several data sets illustrate the use of the package. © 2015, American Statistical Association. All rights reserved.

Abdollahi A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Arias I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper presents a family of phase-field models for the coupled simulation of the microstructure formation and evolution, and the nucleation and propagation of cracks in single and polycrystalline ferroelectric materials. The first objective is to introduce a phase-field model for ferroelectric single crystals. The model naturally couples two existing energetic phase-field approaches for brittle fracture and ferroelectric domain formation and evolution. Simulations show the interactions between the microstructure and the crack under mechanical and electromechanical loadings. Another objective of this paper is to encode different crack face boundary conditions into the phase-field framework since these conditions strongly affect the fracture behavior of ferroelectrics. The smeared imposition of these conditions are discussed and the results are compared with that of sharp crack models to validate the proposed approaches. Simulations show the effects of different conditions and electromechanical loadings on the crack propagation. In a third step, the model is modified by introducing a crack non-interpenetration condition in the variational approach to fracture accounting for the asymmetric behavior in tension and compression. The modified model makes it possible to explain anisotropic crack growth in ferroelectrics under the Vickers indentation loading. This model is also employed for the fracture analysis of multilayer ferroelectric actuators, which shows the potential of the model for future applications. The coupled phase-field model is also extended to polycrystals by introducing realistic polycrystalline microstructures in the model. Inter- and trans-granular crack propagation modes are observed in the simulations. Finally, and for completeness, the phase-field theory is extended to the simulation of the propagation of conducting cracks under purely electrical loading and to the three-dimensional simulation of crack propagation in ferroelectric single crystals. Salient features of the crack propagation phenomenon predicted by the simulations of this paper are directly compared with experimental observations. © 2014, CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain.

Diaz-Gonzalez F.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Hau M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology | Sumper A.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Sumper A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Active power reserves are needed for the proper operation of an electrical system. These reserves are continuously regulated in order to match the generation and consumption in the system and thus, to maintain a constant electrical frequency. They are usually provided by synchronized conventional generating units such as hydraulic or thermal power plants. With the progressive displacement of these generating plants by non-synchronized renewable-based power plants (e.g. wind and solar) the net level of synchronous power reserves in the system becomes reduced. Therefore, wind power plants are required, according to some European Grid Codes, to also provide power reserves like conventional generating units do. This paper focuses not only on the review of the requirements set by Grid Codes, but also on control methods of wind turbines for their participation in primary frequency control and synthetic inertia. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Arias M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Balcazar J.L.,University of Cantabria
Machine Learning | Year: 2011

We describe an alternative construction of an existing canonical representation for definite Horn theories, the Guigues-Duquenne basis (or GD basis), which minimizes a natural notion of implicational size. We extend the canonical representation to general Horn, by providing a reduction from definite to general Horn CNF. Using these tools, we provide a new, simpler validation of the classic Horn query learning algorithm of Angluin, Frazier, and Pitt, and we prove that this algorithm always outputs the GD basis regardless of the counterexamples it receives. © The Author(s) 2011.

Contreras I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Diaz J.A.,Universidad de Las Americas Puebla | Fernandez E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
INFORMS Journal on Computing | Year: 2011

This paper presents a branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated hub location problem with single assignment, in which Lagrangean relaxation is used to obtain tight lower bounds of the restricted master problem. A lower bound that is valid at any stage of the column generation algorithm is proposed. The process to obtain this valid lower bound is combined with a constrained stabilization method that results in a considerable improvement on the overall efficiency of the solution algorithm. Numerical results on a battery of benchmark instances of up to 200 nodes are reported. These seem to be the largest instances that have been solved to optimality for this problem. © 2011 INFORMS.

Bock M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Gardner L.,Imperial College London | Real E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2015

An investigation into the material response and local buckling behaviour of ferritic stainless steel structural cross-sections is presented in this paper. Particular attention is given to the strain hardening characteristics and ductility since these differ most markedly from the more common austenitic and duplex stainless steel grades. Based on collated stress-strain data on ferritic stainless steel, key aspects of the material model given in Annex C of EN 1993-1-4 [1] were evaluated and found to require adjustment. Proposed modifications are presented herein. The local buckling behaviour of ferritic stainless steel sections in compression and bending was examined numerically, using the finite element (FE) package ABAQUS. The studied section types were cold-formed square hollow sections (SHS), rectangular hollow sections (RHS) and channels, as well as welded I-sections. The models were first validated against experimental data collected from the literature, after which parametric studies were performed to generate data over a wide range of section geometries and slendernesses. The obtained numerical results, together with existing experimental data from the literature were used to assess the applicability of the slenderness limits and effective width formulae set out in EN 1993-1-4 [1] to ferritic stainless steel sections. The comparisons of the generated FE results for ferritic stainless steel with the design provisions of EN 1993-1-4 [1], highlighted, in line with other stainless steel grades, the inherent conservatism associated with the use of the 0.2% proof stress as the limiting design stress. To overcome this, the continuous strength method (CSM) was developed as an alternative design approach to exploit the deformation capacity and strain hardening potential of stocky cross-sections. An extension of the method to ferritic stainless steels, including the specification of a revised strain hardening slope for the CSM material model, is proposed herein. Comparisons with test and FE data showed that the CSM predictions are more accurate and consistent than existing provisions thus leading to significant material savings and hence more efficient structural design. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Castro J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Frangioni A.,University of Pisa | Gentile C.,CNR Institute for System Analysis and Computer Science Antonio Ruberti
Operations Research | Year: 2014

Any institution that disseminates data in aggregated form has the duty to ensure that individual confidential information is not disclosed, either by not releasing data or by perturbing the released data while maintaining data utility. Controlled tabular adjustment (CTA) is a promising technique of the second type where a protected table that is close to the original one in some chosen distance is constructed. The choice of the specific distance shows a trade-off: although the Euclidean distance has been shown (and is confirmed here) to produce tables with greater "utility," it gives rise to mixed integer quadratic problems (MIQPs) with pairs of linked semi-continuous variables that are more difficult to solve than the mixed integer linear problems corresponding to linear norms. We provide a novel analysis of perspective reformulations (PRs) for this special structure; in particular, we devise a projected PR (P2R), which is piecewise-conic but simplifies to a (nonseparable) MIQP when the instance is symmetric. We then compare different formulations of the CTA problem, showing that the ones based on P2R most often obtain better computational results.

Blum C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Puchinger J.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology | Raidl G.R.,Vienna University of Technology | Roli A.,University of Bologna
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2011

Research in metaheuristics for combinatorial optimization problems has lately experienced a noteworthy shift towards the hybridization of metaheuristics with other techniques for optimization. At the same time, the focus of research has changed from being rather algorithm-oriented to being more problem-oriented. Nowadays the focus is on solving the problem at hand in the best way possible, rather than promoting a certain metaheuristic. This has led to an enormously fruitful cross-fertilization of different areas of optimization. This cross-fertilization is documented by a multitude of powerful hybrid algorithms that were obtained by combining components from several different optimization techniques. Hereby, hybridization is not restricted to the combination of different metaheuristics but includes, for example, the combination of exact algorithms and metaheuristics. In this work we provide a survey of some of the most important lines of hybridization. The literature review is accompanied by the presentation of illustrative examples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

March V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Montany J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

X-rays produced by laboratory sparks in air at atmospheric pressure for rod-rod and rod-plane configurations were observed. A total of 510 sparks were applied for both polarities. The paper shows the effects of the voltage rise time and the peak voltage in the generation of X-rays. It is found here that shorter rise times and high peak voltages tend to produce more X-rays emissions with higher energies than longer front waveforms or lower peak voltages. In a similar way, higher voltage variations produce more energetic emissions. This finding suggests that the variation of the electric field before the breakdown can play a fundamental role in the X-ray production. The results are similar with the observations of X-rays produced in natural lightning where detections have been associated to leader steps before the return stroke. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Lopez-Dekker P.,German Aerospace Center | Mallorqui J.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the use of Capon's minimum-variance method (MVM) and Amplitude and Phase EStimation (APES) spectral-estimation algorithms to synthetic aperture radar rangeazimuth focusing. The rationale of the algorithms is discussed. An implementation of a Capon or APES processing chain is explained, and processing parameters such as chip-image size, resampling factor, and diagonal loading are discussed. For multichannel cases, a joint-processing approach is presented. A set of Monte Carlo simulations are described and used to benchmark Capon- and APES-based processing against conventional matched-filter-based approaches. Both methods improve the resolution and reduce sidelobes. APES yields generally better estimates of amplitude and phase than Capon but with worse resolution. Results with RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization data over Barcelona are used to qualitatively study the real-life performance of these algorithms. © 2010 IEEE.

Cecati C.,University of L'Aquila | Citro C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Siano P.,University of Salerno
IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy | Year: 2011

The integration of renewable energy systems (RESs) in smart grids (SGs) is a challenging task, mainly due to the intermittent and unpredictable nature of the sources, typically wind or sun. Another issue concerns the way to support the consumers' participation in the electricity market aiming at minimizing the costs of the global energy consumption. This paper proposes an energy management system (EMS) aiming at optimizing the SG's operation. The EMS behaves as a sort of aggregator of distributed energy resources allowing the SG to participate in the open market. By integrating demand side management (DSM) and active management schemes (AMS), it allows a better exploitation of renewable energy sources and a reduction of the customers' energy consumption costs with both economic and environmental benefits. It can also improve the grid resilience and flexibility through the active participation of distribution system operators (DSOs) and electricity supply/demand that, according to their preferences and costs, respond to real-time price signals using market processes. The efficiency of the proposed EMS is verified on a 23-bus 11-kV distribution network. © 2011 IEEE.

Alonso E.E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Pereira J.-M.,University Paris Est Creteil | Vaunat J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Olivella S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Geotechnique | Year: 2010

Current alternative choices of stress state variables in unsaturated soils are described and compared, with a special focus on the use of an effective stress. Experimental data on stiffness and shear strength evolution with suction suggest that the proportion of suction contributing to the effective stress is often much smaller than predicted by the term 'suction times degree of saturation' generally used in effective stress expressions of the Bishop type. It is suggested that effective stress in unsaturated soils should be related to soil microstructure. An effective degree of saturation is defined as describing the volume of water partially filling the soil macroporosity. This effective degree of saturation defines the proportion of the prevailing suction that actually contributes to the effective stress. Two alternative expressions (piecewise linear and non-linear) are proposed for the effective degree of saturation. They offer a similar performance. Available data on stiffness and shear strength variation with suction of a few different soils, ranging from a markedly granular material to high-plasticity clay, have been analysed. The analysis supports the proposed microstructural interpretation of the effective stress. Indeed, for granular soils the effective degree of saturation is almost equal to the total degree of saturation, and therefore the Bishop-type expression generally used as an effective stress is recovered. As the soil becomes more plastic, the proportion of free water reduces, and the contribution of suction to the effective stress reduces. At the limit, when the proportion of free water is negligible (this is the case of high-plasticity clays at high values of suction) the proposed effective stress reduces to the net stress (excess of total stress over the air pressure). The proposed effective stress equation may be identified if information on the amount of immobile water is available for a given soil. Water retention or porosimetry data provide this information. This has been shown by comparing the present proposal with independently obtained information about immobile water in high-plasticity clays.

Duque S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Lopez-Dekker P.,German Aerospace Center | Mallorqui J.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

In this paper, bistatic interferometry using fixed-receiver configurations is addressed both theoretically and experimentally. The analytical expressions for interferometric phase and height sensitivity are derived, and a full interferometric processing chain for digital elevation model (DEM) generation is presented. The derived expressions are general, and they can be applied to two possible acquisition geometries: backscattering and forward scattering. The theoretical developments are complemented with experimental results done with the bistatic receiver Synthetic Aperture radar Bistatic Receiver for INterferometric Applications. The obtained DEMs are compared with a DEM from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and a digital terrain model from the Institut Cartografic de Catalunya. The comparison allows one to validate the results and demonstrate to which particular features of the scene that the bistatic radar is sensitive. © 2006 IEEE.

Alonso E.E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Pinyol N.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Engineering Geology | Year: 2010

Vaiont slide has been represented by a model of two interacting evolutive wedges. Mass conservation during the motion implies that the upper wedge transfers mass to the lower one through an internal shearing plane. The model respects available in situ observations. It was formulated in dynamics terms. Outcomes of the analysis are the determination of safety factors of the valley before dam impoundment, and the calculation of run-out distance once the motion starts. Rock strength degradation as motion develops has also been included. This degradation, even if it is intense, was unable to explain the very high estimated landslide velocities. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Subirana J.A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Messeguer X.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Centromere sequences in the genome are associated with the formation of kinetochores, where spindle microtubules grow in mitosis. Centromere sequences usually have long tandem repeats (satellites). In holocentric nematodes it is not clear how kinetochores are formed during mitosis; they are distributed throughout the chromosomes. For this reason it appeared of interest to study the satellites in nematodes in order to determine if they offer any clue on how kinetochores are assembled in these species. We have studied the satellites in the genome of six nematode species. We found that the presence of satellites depends on whether the nematode chromosomes are holocentric or monocentric. It turns out that holocentric nematodes are unique because they have a large number of satellites scattered throughout their genome. Their number, length and composition are different in each species: they apparently have very little evolutionary conservation. In contrast, no scattered satellites are found in the monocentric nematode Trichinella spiralis. It appears that the absence/presence of scattered satellites in the genome distinguishes monocentric from holocentric nematodes. We conclude that the presence of satellites is related to the holocentric nature of the chromosomes of most nematodes. Satellites may stabilize a higher order structure of chromatin and facilitate the formation of kinetochores. We also present a new program, SATFIND, which is suited to find satellite sequences. © 2013 Subirana, Messeguer.

Diaz-Cereceda C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Poblet-Puig J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Rodriguez-Ferran A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

The finite layer method (FLM) is presented as a discretisation technique for the computation of noise transmission through double walls. It combines a finite element method (FEM) discretisation in the direction perpendicular to the wall with trigonometric functions in the two in-plane directions. It is used for solving the Helmholtz equation at the cavity inside the double wall, while the wall leaves are modelled with the thin plate equation and solved with modal analysis. Other approaches to this problem are described here (and adapted where needed) in order to compare them with the FLM. They range from impedance models of the double wall behaviour to different numerical methods for solving the Helmholtz equation in the cavity. For the examples simulated in this work (impact noise and airborne sound transmission), the former are less accurate than the latter at low frequencies. The main advantage of FLM over the other discretisation techniques is the possibility of extending it to multilayered structures without changing the interpolation functions and with an affordable computational cost. This potential is illustrated with a calculation of the noise transmission through a multilayered structure: a double wall partially filled with absorbing material. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Santamaria-Navarro A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Andrade-Cetto J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation | Year: 2013

This paper develops a new method for uncalibrated image-based visual servoing. In contrast to traditional image-based visual servo, the proposed solution does not require a known value of camera focal length for the computation of the image Jacobian. Instead, it is estimated at run time from the observation of the tracked target. The technique is shown to outperform classical visual servoing schemes in situations with noisy calibration parameters and for unexpected changes in the camera zoom. The method's performance is demonstrated both in simulation experiments and in a ROS implementation of a quadrotor servoing task. The developed solution is tightly integrated with ROS and is made available as part of the IRI ROS stack. © 2013 IEEE.

Yaroshchuk A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Luxbacher T.,Anton Paar GmbH
Langmuir | Year: 2010

It is shown that in tangential electrokinetic measurements with porous films the porous structure makes contribution not only to the cell electric conductance (as demonstrated previously) but also to the observed streaming current. Both of these contributions give rise to dependences of streaming-potential and streaming-current coefficients on the channel height. However, due to the combined contribution of two phenomena, the dependence of streaming-potential coefficient on the channel height may be rather complicated and not allow for simple extrapolation. At the same time, the dependences of streaming-current coefficient and cell electric conductance on the channel height turn out linear and can be easily extrapolated to zero channel heights. This enables one to determine separately the contributions of external surface of porous film and of its porous structure to the streaming current and of the channel and porous structure to the cell electric conductance. This procedure is illustrated by the measurements of tangential electrokinetic phenomena and electric conductance with Millipore mixed-cellulose membrane filters of various average pore sizes (from 0.025 to 5 μm) in the so-called adjustable-gap cell of SurPASS electrokinetic instrument (Anton Paar GmbH). The design of this cell allows for easy and quasi-continuous variation of channel height as well as accurate determination of cell electric conductance, streaming-current coefficient, and channel height (from the cell hydraulic permeability). The quality of linear fits of experimental data has been found to be very good, and thus, the extrapolation procedures were quite reliable and accurate. Zeta-potentials could be determined of both external film and internal pore surfaces. It is demonstrated that the porous structures make considerable contributions to both streaming-current coefficient and cell electric conductance especially in the case of filters with larger pores. It is also found that, rather surprisingly, in filters with smaller pores the reduction in the filter electric conductivity turns out essentially stronger than could be expected proceeding from the filter porosity. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Jeltsema D.,Technical University of Delft | Doria-Cerezo A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2012

In this paper, we consider memristors, meminductors, and memcapacitors and their properties as port-Hamiltonian systems. The port-Hamiltonian formalism naturally arises from network modeling of physical systems in a variety of domains. Exposing the relation between the energy storage, dissipation, and interconnection structure, this framework underscores the physics of the system. One of the strong aspects of the port-Hamiltonian formalism is that a power-preserving interconnection between port-Hamiltonian systems results in another port-Hamiltonian system with composite energy, dissipation, and interconnection structure. This feature can advantageously be used to model, analyze, and simulate networks consisting of complex interconnections of both conventional and memory circuit elements. Furthermore, the port-Hamiltonian formalism naturally extends the fundamental properties of the memory elements beyond the realm of electrical circuits. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Vallve J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Andrade-Cetto J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Robotics and Autonomous Systems | Year: 2015

We present a decision theoretic approach to mobile robot exploration. The method evaluates the reduction of joint path and map entropy and computes a potential information field in robot configuration space using these joint entropy reduction estimates. The exploration trajectory is computed descending on the gradient of this field. The technique uses Pose SLAM as its estimation backbone. Very efficient kernel convolution mechanisms are used to evaluate entropy reduction for each sensor ray, and for each possible robot orientation, taking frontiers and obstacles into account. In the end, the computation of this field on the entire configuration space is shown to be very efficient. The approach is tested in simulations in a pair of publicly available datasets comparing favorably both in quality of estimates and in execution time against an RRT∗-based search for the nearest frontier and also against a locally optimal exploration strategy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Aradilla D.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Estrany F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Aleman C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

The electrochemical and structural properties, charge capacitance, and stability upon oxidation-reduction cycling of multilayered systems based on alternated layers of different conducting polymers have been analyzed. Parallel studies have been carried out on individual conducting polymers for comparison. In all cases, the capacitive properties of multilayered systems were better than those of individual conducting polymers, which have been attributed to both the synergistic effects at the interfaces between consecutive layers and the higher porosity of the multilayered materials. Moreover, after hundreds of consecutive oxidation-reduction processes, the porosity in multilayered systems remained relatively high, whereas it was moderate or even null in the individual materials, this difference being crucial to understanding the very different electrochemical degradation of the specific capacitance observed for these materials. Multilayered systems have been used to fabricate a supercapacitor in the type I configuration (symmetric assembly of two identical electrodes), which has been found to present a very high specific capacitance. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Pinyol N.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Alonso E.E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics | Year: 2010

Heat-induced excess pore pressures on the failure surface of a planar slide have been calculated by solving the mass and heat balance equations on the shear band. The set of differential equations and the equation of motion of the slide have been solved in closed form for the case of incompressible fluid and incompressible soil skeleton. The solution describes the accelerated motion of the slide. It has been compared with the numerical solution when soil and water stiffness terms are not disregarded. A case study, based on a well-known translational slide (Cortes slide) has been solved. Numerical and analytical solutions are compared. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicate that the permeability of the shear band is the key parameter to control the onset of a rapid motion. For a band permeability above a threshold value, in the vicinity of 10-15 m2 (10-8 m/s), fast accelerated motions are very unlikely. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Serra T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Energy Economics | Year: 2011

Previous literature on volatility links between food and energy prices is scarce and mainly based on parametric approaches. This article examines these links by using a semiparametric GARCH model recently proposed by Long et al. (2011), which is essentially a nonparametric correction of the parametric conditional covariance function. The analysis focuses on price links between crude oil, ethanol and sugar prices in Brazil. Results suggest strong volatility links between the prices studied. Parametric approximations of the conditional covariance matrix may lead to misleading results that can be improved upon by using nonparametric techniques. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ruiz B.,Technology Center | Flotats X.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Waste Management | Year: 2014

Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192. mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Diaz A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Katsarava R.,Agricultural University of Georgia | Puiggali J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)s constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amide)s derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Rosales-Guzman C.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Volke-Sepulveda K.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Torres J.P.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Torres J.P.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

Tang and Cohen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163901 (2010)] recently demonstrated a scheme to enhance the chiral response of molecules, which relies on the use of circularly polarized light in a standing wave configuration. Here we show a new type of light that possesses orbital angular momentum and enhanced chiral response. In the locations where the beams show enhanced optical chirality, only the longitudinal components of the electric and magnetic fields survive, which has unexpectedly shown what we believe is a new way to yield an enhanced optical chiral response. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Lavilla C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Martinez De Ilarduya A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Alla A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Munoz-Guerra S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2013

The carbohydrate-based bicyclic diol 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol (Manx) was made to react in the melt with ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate to produce random PExManxyT copolyesters covering the whole range of molar compositions. The copolyesters had weight-average molecular weights in the 33 000-41 000 g mol-1 interval and were thermally stable up to nearly 380°C. They displayed T g in the 81 to 137°C range with values largely increasing with the content in Manx units. Copolyesters containing minor amounts of Manx were semicrystalline whereas those with contents equal to or more than 30% of Manx were amorphous. Stress-strain parameters were affected by composition, increasing tensile strength and elastic modulus and reducing elongation at break when introducing Manx units. These bio-based PET copolyesters showed enhanced susceptibility to hydrolysis. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Carrion-Fite F.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents | Year: 2013

The objective of this research was to study the effect of the copolymer polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinylimidazole (PVP/VI) for use as a dye transfer inhibitor (DTI) during the washing of dyed polyester fabric, depending on the detergent components. The DTI was used to find its efficiency during repeated washings of polyester fabric dyed with disperse dyes. At the same time, its efficiency was tested for preventing dye migration to other fabrics, such as polyester, cellulose diacetate, acrylic, polyamide, cotton and wool. The influence of anionic (SDBS) and non-ionic (alkyl ethoxylates with 6 EO-groups) surfactants in different proportions and with zeolite as a builder and the aforementioned DTI was tested. Results of CIELAB colour differences were obtained for the dyed and undyed polyester fabrics after five washings.

Rosolen A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Millan D.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Arroyo M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2010

We present a method for the automatic adaption of the support size of meshfree basis functions in the context of the numerical approximation of boundary value problems stemming from a minimum principle. The method is based on a variational approach, and the central idea is that the variational principle selects both the discretized physical fields and the discretization parameters, here those defining the support size of each basis function. We consider local maximum-entropy approximation schemes, which exhibit smooth basis functions with respect to both space and the discretization parameters (the node location and the locality parameters). We illustrate by the Poisson, linear and non-linear elasticity problems the effectivity of the method, which produces very accurate solutions with very coarse discretizations and finds unexpected patterns of the support size of the shape functions. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ceballos Carrascosa P.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Stojanovic M.,Northeastern University
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering | Year: 2010

In this paper, frequency and time correlation of the underwater channel are exploited to obtain a low-complexity adaptive channel estimation algorithm for multiple-inputmultiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing of independent data streams. The algorithm is coupled with nonuniform Doppler prediction and tracking, which enable decision-directed operation and reduces the overhead. Performance is demonstrated on experimental data recorded in several shallow-water channels over distances on the order of 1 km. Nearly error-free performance is observed for two and four transmitters with BCH(64,10) encoded quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals. With a 24-kHz bandwidth, overall data rates of up to 23 kb/s after coding were achieved with 2048 carriers. Good results have also been observed in two other experiments with varying MIMO-OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) configurations. © 2005 IEEE.

Garcia-Villoria A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Moreno R.P.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2010

The response time variability problem (RTVP) is an NP-hard combinatorial scheduling problem that has been recently formalised in the literature. The RTVP has a wide range of real-life applications such as in the automobile industry, when models to be produced on a mixed-model assembly line have to be sequenced under a just-in-time production. The RTVP occurs whenever products, clients or jobs need to be sequenced so as to minimise variability in the time between the instants at which they receive the necessary resources. In two previous studies, three metaheuristic algorithms (a multi-start, a GRASP and a PSO algorithm) were proposed to solve the RTVP. We propose solving the RTVP by means of the electromagnetism-like mechanism (EM) metaheuristic algorithm. The EM algorithm is based on an analogy with the attraction-repulsion mechanism of the electromagnetism theory, where solutions are moved according to their associated charges. In this paper we compare the proposed EM metaheuristic procedure with the three metaheuristic algorithms aforementioned and it is shown that, on average, the EM procedure improves strongly on the obtained results. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Cotrina-Navau J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Fernandez M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2010

A fingerprinting code is a set of codewords that are embedded in each copy of a digital object with the purpose of making each copy unique. If the fingerprinting code is c-secure with ε error, then the decoding of a pirate word created by a coalition of at most c dishonest users, will expose at least one of the guilty parties with probability 1-ε. The Boneh-Shaw fingerprinting codes are n-secure codes with εB error, where n also denotes the number of authorized users. Unfortunately, the length the Boneh-Shaw codes should be of order O(n3 log (nεB)), which is prohibitive for practical applications. In this paper, we prove that the Boneh-Shaw codes are (c

Sacristan-Murga D.,Catalonia Technology Center of Telecomunications | Pascual-Iserte A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a differential quantization strategy to be used in the feedback link of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system. This algorithm is applied to the channel Gram matrix using geodesic curves and exploiting the intrinsic geometry of positive definite Hermitian matrices. It also exploits the temporal correlation of the channel, and follows on average the gradient of the cost function associated to the transmitter design criterion. A full description of the algorithm, including the computational cost and a numerical analysis of the effect of delays and errors in the feedback link is presented. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improves other techniques based on the direct quantization of the channel response matrix or the quantization of the subspace spanned by the strongest eigenmodes of the MIMO channel, i.e., Grassmannian based techniques. The main drawback of Grassmannian based algorithms is that the transmitter is constrained to apply a uniform power allocation among spatial transmission modes, which is not forced in the algorithm proposed in this paper. © 2006 IEEE.

Barneto A.G.,University of Huelva | Aracri E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Andreu G.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Vidal T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Nine phenol derivatives, p-coumaric acid (PC), vanillin (V), acetovanillone (AV), acetosyringone (AS), syringaldehyde (SA), coniferaldehyde (CLD), ferulic acid (FRC), sinapic acid (SNC), and sinapyl aldehyde (SLD) were assayed as laccase redox mediators in the biobleaching of kenaf and sisal pulps. As a general behaviour, the phenolic mediators increased the kappa number (KN) and reduced the brightness of pulps. In particular, these changes were found to depend in a linear manner on the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E HOMO) of the mediators. The phenolic mediator with the lowest E HOMO (PC) led to the highest increase of KN and the lowest reduction of brightness. On the contrary, syringyl derivatives (i.e. SA) with high E HOMO values caused small KN increases and significant losses of brightness. This behaviour was explained on the basis of a competition between grafting and polymerisation processes. The former basically affects KN, whereas the latter affects pulp brightness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Torrent-Burgues J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2012

Mixed Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of dissimilar components, arachidic acid and a phthalocyanine of zinc, have been investigated. These compounds form mixed films with phase separation, with domains at the sub-micro scale which are detected by AFM in LB films but not observed by BAM. These domains present different contrast in the surface potential images obtained with SP-AFM and in the friction images. The analysis of the isotherms and of the AFM images, at several compositions, reveals that the components are immiscible. The difference in height between the arachidic acid and the phthalocyanine of zinc phases is in accordance with the heights of the molecules, and points to the presence of a monolayer in the zinc phthalocyanine phase. AFM has revealed as a necessary technique to elucidate the miscibility in mixed films at the nanometric scale. UV-Vis spectroscopy shows changes in the spectra bands of LB films in respect to those in solution, due to the organization of the molecules in the LB film. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Here, we introduce bimodal atomic force microscopy operated with sub-nm and ultra-small, i.e., sub-angstrom, first and second mode amplitudes in ambient conditions. We show how the tip can be made to oscillate in the proximity of the surface and in perpetual contact with the adsorbed water layers while the second mode amplitude and phase provide enhanced contrast and sensitivity. Nonlinear and nonmonotonic behavior of the experimental observables is discussed theoretically with a view to high resolution, enhanced contrast, and minimally invasive mapping. Fractions of meV of energy dissipation are shown to provide contrast above the noise level. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Valls C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Vidal T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Roncero M.B.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The variation of the contents in hexenuronic acids (HexA) and lignin in Eucalyptus kraft pulp during sequences with the laccase-mediator treatment with or without xylanase pretreatment was studied. The laccase-HBT system (HBT: 1-hydroxybenzotriazole) initially oxidized lignin alone but altered cellulose in the pulp as well after some time. Once all accessible lignin was removed, the system acted on HexA. As a result, the laccase-mediator treatment reduced the HexA content of the pulp, especially if a xylanase pretreatment was applied before. A previously unseen effect was observed here: HexA removal was found to depend on the laccase and HBT doses, but not on the reaction time. In addition, the xylanase pretreatment was found to strongly boost the effects of the laccase-HBT system by facilitating their access to HexA without affecting the lignin content. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bolomey J.C.,Supelec | Capdevila S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Jofre L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Romeu J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2010

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology relies on the modulated scattering technique (MST) as a means to convey the information from the tag to the reader. The interaction mechanism between the reader and the tag is described in a physically meaningful way by the reciprocity theorem which is deeply rooted into Maxwell equations. This approach provides a simple and yet complete formulation that allows to fully describe the interaction between the reader and the tag, even in complex environments. From this formulation, a clear understanding is derived on how the different design tradeoffs affect system performance. Based on this approach, the paper is focused on several issues of practical relevance for antenna tag design such as maximum power transfer, maximum sensitivity, and nonlinearity effects. © 2006 IEEE.

Guerrero J.,University of Barcelona | Miret J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Castilla M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Garcia De Vicuna L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine | Year: 2010

Worldwide, electrical grids are expected to become smarter in the near future. In this sense, there is an increasing interest in intelligent and flexible microgrids, i.e., able to operate in island or in grid-connected modes. Black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management are the functionalities expected for these small grids. This way, the energy can be generated and stored near the consumption points, thus increasing the reliability and reducing the losses produced by the large power lines. In this article, the main concepts related to the configuration, control, and energy management of intelligent microgrids are reviewed. © 2010 IEEE.

Becue-Bertaut M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Le S.,Agrocampus Ouest
Journal of Sensory Studies | Year: 2011

Verbalization can be used as a complement in a sorting task (also known as categorization). Assessors are required to describe each item or group of items using their own words; thus, a "labeled" categorization is performed. In cross-cultural studies, several panels may use different languages. We propose to extend hierarchical multiple factor analysis (HMFA) to compare panels from, simultaneously, both categorization and verbalization tasks, even when the latter is performed in several languages. We present this methodology through a study where both a Catalan and French panels performed a labeled categorization on a set of eight Catalan wines. Either Catalan or French is used by the panelists. HMFA allows for comparing the two panels not only globally but also from either the categorization or the verbalization tasks. Although results show a noticeable similarity between both configurations of wines as defined by the panels, textual data highlight interesting differences or viewpoints between Catalan and French. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Cross-cultural studies are increasing in sensory studies, frequently including verbalization that can be performed in different languages. We propose a methodology to tackle the data issued from this kind of studies, including categorical and multilingual textual data. Our application concerns two panels, Catalan and French, who have performed a labeled sorting task, although more panels could be considered. The application shows that textual data nuance the similarities put to the fore between both configurations of wines as defined by the panels. Furthermore, this application uncovers that important concepts in the wine world are not always shared by panels issued from different backgrounds. No translation is required before the treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Franch X.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering | Year: 2015

Software requirement patterns are an increasingly popular approach to knowledge reuse in the requirements engineering phase. Several research proposals have been formulated in the last years, and this technical briefing presents them. Beyond that, a report on the current adoption of these proposals (or any other ad-hoc approach) in industry is presented. This state of the practice will show that the need to pave the road to successful adoption still persists. © 2015 IEEE.

Bianchi F.D.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Sanchez-Pena R.S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Sanchez-Pena R.S.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2010

A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) identification/invalidation method is presented. Starting from a given initial model, the proposed method modifies it and produces an LPV model consistent with the assumed uncertainty/noise bounds and the experimental information. This procedure may complement existing nominal LPV identification algorithms, by adding the uncertainty and noise bounds which produces a set of models consistent with the experimental evidence. Unlike standard invalidation results, the proposed method allows the computation of the necessary changes to the initial model in order to place it within the consistency set. Similar to previous LPV identification procedures, the initial parameter dependency is fixed in advance, but here a methodology to modify this dependency is presented. In addition, all calculations are made on state-space matrices which simplifies further controller design computations. The application of the proposed method to the identification of nonlinear systems is also discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Andreu G.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Vidal T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

This paper reports the first application of laccase-mediator systems (LMS) to kenaf pulp. Five natural phenolic compounds (acetosyringone, syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, vanillin and acetovanillone) were used as mediators in combination with laccase in an L stage in order to elucidate their effect on delignification. After LMS treatment, pulp samples were subjected to two alkaline treatments (an E or P stage). The results obtained were compared with those provided by the laccase-1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) system. All natural mediators increased kappa number, decreased brightness and changed optical properties of the pulp after the L stage, suggesting that natural mediators tend to couple to fibers during a laccase-mediator treatment. The greatest delignification and bleaching effects after the P stage were obtained with syringaldehyde and acetosyringone, providing an effective means for delignifying kenaf, whereas those based on the other three could be used to functionalize kenaf with a view to obtaining pulp with novel properties. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Aracri E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Roncero M.B.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Vidal T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Functionalization of sisal specialty pulp fibers by laccase-catalysed grafting of ferulic acid (FRC) was investigated. To this end, the extent of phenol coupling to fibers under different reaction conditions (laccase and FRC rates, and time) was evaluated in terms of pulp properties including kappa number (expressed as the combined contributions of lignin and hexenuronic acids), brightness, Klason lignin and surface anionic charge after Soxhlet extraction of acetone-treated pulp. The specific treatment resulting in the highest degree of grafting was then used in a comparative study of the effects of applying the laccase-FRC system to refined and unrefined pulp with a view to confirming whether the increased surface area obtained by effect of fibrillation would lead to enhanced grafting. Based on the results, refining the pulp prior to the enzyme treatment resulted in increased grafting which in turn led to handsheets with improved strength-related properties (particularly wet tensile strength) relative to control samples. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Serra T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Zilberman D.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Gil J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
European Review of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2011

This research evaluates price volatility transmission in the Brazilian ethanol industry over time and across markets by using a new methodological approach proposed by Seo. The main advantage of Seo's method is that it allows for joint estimation of the co-integration relationship between the price series investigated and the multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity process. It thus allows the responses of both food price levels and volatility to unanticipated shocks to be considered together. Results suggest a strong link between food and energy markets, both in terms of price levels and volatility. Copyright © 2011 Oxford University Press and the Foundation of the European Review of Agricultural Economics.

Fernandez-Francos X.,Rovira i Virgili University | Ramis X.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Serra A.,Rovira i Virgili University
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2014

The curing kinetics and network buildup during curing of epoxy-anhydride formulations using tertiary amines as initiators are reviewed in this work. A mechanism-based kinetic and structural model has been defined, showing better prediction capabilities than previous living polymerization and simple regeneration models. The curing kinetics have been analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the gelation during curing has been determined by combined thermomechanical analysis and DSC. The effect of initiator content and epoxy equivalent weight are taken into account. The network buildup has been modeled using a stochastic network buildup model based on the random combination of primary chains generated by the kinetic model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ledesma C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Ozkan U.S.,Ohio State University | Llorca J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011

Catalytic monoliths based on palladium supported on several inorganic oxides were prepared and characterized by XRD, HRTEM and NH3-TPD. The role of palladium and support in the dimethyl ether steam reforming reaction under a steam-to-carbon S/C=1.5 at 473-823K was evaluated. The best catalytic performance in terms of hydrogen yield and low CH4 production was obtained over Pd/ZrO2 catalytic monolith. There is no apparent correlation between the hydrogen yield and acidity of the support and/or palladium dispersion, indicating that the interaction between Pd particles and the support may be a key factor in determining the catalytic performance. The reaction mechanism was studied by DRIFTS experiments. In addition to favor hydrogen recombination, Pd facilitates the formation of a methoxy intermediate species and its subsequent evolution into a reactive formate species. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Torrent-Burgues J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry | Year: 2013

Classical and atomistic nucleation models have been tested in several aqueous systems dealing with electrocrystallisation. A lot of reported experimental nucleation data have been used and in a wide range of overpotentials. The critical nucleus size has been calculated in those cases not reported in the original work, and the results obtained with the classical and atomistic models have been tabulated, compared and discussed. Small values for the critical nucleus size occur in most of the systems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

De Valcarcel G.J.,University of Valencia | Staliunas K.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We propose a novel forcing technique of spatially extended self-oscillatory systems able to excite phase bistability and the dissipative structures associated with it. The forcing is time periodic at a frequency close to the oscillators' frequency and is spatially modulated. The effects of this type of forcing are demonstrated analytically and numerically in a directly driven complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. Both spatially periodic and spatially random drives prove to be effective. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Jornet J.M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Akyildiz I.F.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Akyildiz I.F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2011

Nanotechnologies promise new solutions for several applications in the biomedical, industrial and military fields. At the nanoscale, a nanomachine is considered as the most basic functional unit which is able to perform very simple tasks. Communication among nanomachines will allow them to accomplish more complex functions in a distributed manner. In this paper, the state of the art in molecular electronics is reviewed to motivate the study of the Terahertz Band (0.1-10.0 THz) for electromagnetic (EM) communication among nano-devices. A new propagation model for EM communications in the Terahertz Band is developed based on radiative transfer theory and in light of molecular absorption. This model accounts for the total path loss and the molecular absorption noise that a wave in the Terahertz Band suffers when propagating over very short distances. Finally, the channel capacity of the Terahertz Band is investigated by using this model for different power allocation schemes, including a scheme based on the transmission of femtosecond-long pulses. The results show that for very short transmission distances, in the order of several tens of millimeters, the Terahertz channel supports very large bit-rates, up to few terabits per second, which enables a radically different communication paradigm for nanonetworks. © 2011 IEEE.

Serra A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Bacon D.J.,University of Liverpool | Pond R.C.,University of Exeter
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

A Comment on the Letter by B. Li and E. Ma, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 103, 035503 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.035503. The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Lobanov V.E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Kartashov Y.V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Torner L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We put forward a new approach to generate stable, fully three-dimensional light bullets, which is based on the matching of the intrinsic material dispersion with a suitable effective diffraction. The matching is achieved in adequate waveguide arrays whose refractive index is periodically modulated along the direction of light propagation. We show that by using nonconventional, out-of-phase longitudinal modulation of the refractive index of neighboring channels, it is possible to tune the effective diffraction to match the intrinsic material group velocity dispersion. Three-dimensional light bullets are shown to form at reduced energy levels, in settings where the dispersion would be far too weak to generate bullets in the absence of array. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Zamora-Munt J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Masoller C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Garcia-Ojalvo J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Roy R.,University of Maryland University College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Crowd synchrony and quorum sensing arise when a large number of dynamical elements communicate with each other via a common information pool. Previous evidence has shown that this type of coupling leads to synchronization, when coupling is instantaneous and the number of coupled elements is large enough. Here we consider a situation in which the transmission of information between the system components and the coupling pool is not instantaneous. To that end, we model a system of semiconductor lasers optically coupled to a central laser with a delay. Our results show that, even though the lasers are nonidentical due to their distinct optical frequencies, zero-lag synchronization arises. By changing a system parameter, we can switch between two different types of synchronization transition. The dependence of the transition with respect to the delay-coupling parameters is studied. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Castellano C.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Pastor-Satorras R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We study the threshold of epidemic models in quenched networks with degree distribution given by a power-law. For the susceptible-infected-susceptible model the activity threshold λc vanishes in the large size limit on any network whose maximum degree kmax∼ diverges with the system size, at odds with heterogeneous mean-field (HMF) theory. The vanishing of the threshold has nothing to do with the scale-free nature of the network but stems instead from the largest hub in the system being active for any spreading rate λ>1/√kmax∼ and playing the role of a self-sustained source that spreads the infection to the rest of the system. The susceptible-infected-removed model displays instead agreement with HMF theory and a finite threshold for scale-rich networks. We conjecture that on quenched scale-rich networks the threshold of generic epidemic models is vanishing or finite depending on the presence or absence of a steady state. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Lopez-Benitez M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Gozalvez J.,University Miguel Hernández
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2011

Heterogeneous wireless systems are envisaged as the integration and joint cooperative management of diverse radio access networks and technologies through which network providers can satisfy the wide variety of user/service demands in a more efficient manner by exploiting their varying characteristics and properties. To achieve this objective, a key tool is common radio resource management technique designed to jointly manage the radio resources from different radio access technologies. In this context, this work proposes and optimizes new common radio resource management techniques designed to efficiently distribute traffic among the available radio access technologies while providing adequate quality of service levels under heterogeneous traffic scenarios. The obtained results demonstrate the ability of the proposed solutions to provide high user/service satisfaction levels while adequately exploiting the overall system resources. © 2011 IEEE.

Lopez-Benitez M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Casadevall F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2011

The spectrum occupancy models widely used to date in dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio (DSA/CR) research frequently rely on assumptions and oversimplifications that have not been validated with empirical measurement data. In this context, this paper presents an empirical time-dimension model of spectrum use that is appropriate for DSA/CR studies. Concretely, a two-state discrete-time Markov chain with novel deterministic and stochastic duty cycle models is proposed as an adequate mean to accurately describe spectrum occupancy in the time domain. The validity and accuracy of the proposed modeling approach is evaluated and corroborated with extensive empirical data from a multiband spectrum measurement campaign. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to accurately capture and reproduce the relevant statistical properties of spectrum use observed in real-world channels of various radio technologies. The importance of accurately modeling spectrum use in the design and evaluation of novel DSA/CR techniques is highlighted with a practical case study. © 2011 IEEE.

Comellas F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Miralles A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

We describe a technique that allows the exact analytical computation of the mean first passage time (MFPT) for infinite families of trees using their recursive properties. The method is based in the relationship between the MFPT and the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of the trees but avoids their explicit computation. We apply this technique to find the MFPT for a family of generalized deterministic recursive trees. The method, however, can be adapted to other self-similar tree families. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Pons O.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | De La Fuente A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This research paper presents a general model for integral sustainability analysis of columns. This assessment tool has been obtained by using MIVES, a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) model which considers the sustainability main plans (economic, environmental and social) and incorporates a value function concept in order to homogenize the indicators and consider the degree of satisfaction. This tool is general and could be applied to assess other structural components within the building sector after introducing minor changes. Nevertheless, for this research project, it has been designed to assess reinforced concrete columns in buildings in situ. Therefore, the influence of determining variables such as concrete compressive strength, cross-section geometry and building process have been studied based on this defined model. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kartashov Y.V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Konotop V.V.,University of Lisbon | Vysloukh V.A.,University Las AmericasPuebla | Torner L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Optics Letters | Year: 2010

We show that periodic optical lattices imprinted in cubic nonlinear media with strong two-photon absorption and localized linear gain landscapes support stable dissipative defect modes in both focusing and defocusing media. Their shapes and transverse extent are determined by the propagation constant that belongs to a gap of the lattice spectrum, which, in turn, is determined by the relation between gain and losses. One-hump and two-hump dissipative defect modes are obtained. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Starnini M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Baronchelli A.,Northeastern University | Pastor-Satorras R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of interconversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents that perform a random walk in a two-dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Chacon R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Mirambell E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2013

In this paper, a mechanism solution aimed at reproducing the ultimate load capacity of steel plate girders subjected to patch loading is provided. This mechanism is particularly useful for the cases in which the steel plate girders present closely spaced transverse stiffeners. A thorough description of the influence of the transverse stiffening on the ultimate load capacity of girders subjected to patch loading is given partly herein and in a companion paper. Presently, the formulation provided in EN1993-1-5 underestimates the ultimate load capacity of girders presenting such geometrical proportion. Comparisons between numerical and theoretical results show the accuracy of the proposed model. The results obtained with such prediction prove structurally sound and enhance satisfactorily the current formulation of EN1993-1-5. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Sanchez-Soto M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Maspoch M.L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Aerogel is a class of material characterized by its high void content and extreme lightness. Different polymer/clay aerogels have been prepared by a simply freeze-thaw process from a suspension with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and clay (Na+-MMT). Low density polymer/clay aerogels modified with flame retardant agents were prepared using a similar approach. The addition of flame retardant agents slightly increased the apparent density of the final composites whereas the compression properties were reduced due to the decrease in the polymer/clay interfacial bonding. An exception was the sample containing Al(OH)3 that exhibited higher modulus and stress at maximum deformation. Regarding thermal properties, the presence of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) or silica gel (SG) significantly slowed the rate of aerogel decomposition at the temperature range from 250°C to 500°C while the onset of polymer decomposition was not affected. Fire behavior was analyzed through cone calorimeter suggesting that either the presence of Al(OH)3 or APP reduced the heat release rate of PVOH/clay systems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gavara R.,New University of Lisbon | Llorca J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Lima J.C.,New University of Lisbon | Rodriguez L.,University of Barcelona
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

The reaction of the water soluble phosphine 1,3,5-triaza-7- phosphaadamantane (PTA) with [Au(CC-C5H4N)]n yields the highly luminescent water soluble [(PTA)Au(4-pyridylethynyl)] complex. A detailed analysis of the compound shows the formation of gel structure giving rise to very long fibers, being the first example reported with such a simple structure. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Cubarsi R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

The closure problem for the stellar hydrodynamic equations is studied by describing the family of phase space density functions, for which the collisionless Boltzmann equation is strictly equivalent to a finite subset of moment equations. It is proven that the redundancy of the higher-order moment equations and the recurrence of the velocity moments are of similar nature. The method is based on the use of maximum entropy distributions, which are afterwards generalised to phase space density functions depending on any isolating integral of motion in terms of a polynomial function of degree n in the velocities. The equivalence between the moment equations up to an order n+1 and the collisionless Boltzmann equation is proven. It is then possible to associate the complexity of a stellar system, i.e., the minimum set of velocity moments needed to describe its main kinematic features, with the number of moment equations required to model it. © 2010 ESO.

Lopez J.M.,Arizona State University | Marques F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2010

The flow in an enclosed completely filled rapidly rotating cylinder that is driven by the differential corotation of the top lid is studied numerically. Although the flow is in a very simple geometry, the fast background rotation and large differential rotation of the lid lead to very thin boundary layers with a variety of instability modes with very fine spatial scales as well as inertial waves that are sustained in the fast rotating interior flow and that interact with the viscous modes in the sidewall boundary layer, leading to complex spatiotemporal dynamics. The numerical simulations are compared and contrasted to experimental visualizations of the sidewall boundary layer instabilities reported by Hart and Kittelman ["Instabilities of the sidewall boundary layer in a differentially driven rotating cylinder," Phys. Fluids8, 692 (1996)]. The experiments report observing axisymmetric rolls propagating down the sidewall layer for small differential corotation of the top lid. As the differential rotation was increased, backward tilted diagonal rolls that precess slightly retrograde with respect to the rotating sidewall and forward tilted rolls with prograde precession significantly faster than the sidewall rotation were observed. For still larger differential rotation, a wavy turbulent state that has backward tilted structures erupting from deep within the sidewall layer into the interior and is riding on the forward tilted diagonal rolls in the deep layer was observed. Our simulations capture all of these states and strongly suggest that the observed axisymmetric rolls are unstable and were only transiently observed due to the slow and continuous increase in the differential rotation employed in the experiments. The influence of inertial waves driven by the sidewall instabilities on the three-dimensional wavy turbulent state is discussed. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Heredia F.-J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Rider M.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Corchero C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2010

This study has developed a stochastic programming model that integrates the day-ahead optimal bidding problem with the most recent regulation rules of the Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL) for bilateral contracts (BC), with a special consideration for the new mechanism to balance the competition of the production market, namely virtual power plant (VPP) auctions. The model allows a price-taking generation company (GenCo) to decide on the unit commitment of the thermal units, the economic dispatch of the BCs between the thermal units and the generic programming unit (GPU), and the optimal sale/purchase bids for all units (thermal and generic), by observing the MIBEL regulation. The uncertainty of the spot prices has been represented through scenario sets built from the most recent real data using scenario reduction techniques. The model has been solved using real data from a Spanish generation company and spot prices, and the results have been reported and analyzed. © 2010 IEEE.

Baronchelli A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Pastor-Satorras R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Diffusion is a key element of a large set of phenomena occurring on natural and social systems modeled in terms of complex weighted networks. Here, we introduce a general formalism that allows to easily write down mean-field equations for any diffusive dynamics on weighted networks. We also propose the concept of annealed weighted networks, in which such equations become exact. We show the validity of our approach addressing the problem of the random walk process, pointing out a strong departure of the behavior observed in quenched real scale-free networks from the mean-field predictions. Additionally, we show how to employ our formalism for more complex dynamics. Our work sheds light on mean-field theory on weighted networks and on its range of validity, and warns about the reliability of mean-field results for complex dynamics. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Lorente-Espin O.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

It is well known that little string theory (LST) black holes radiate a purely thermal spectrum of scalar particles. This theory lives in a Hagedorn phase with a fixed Hagedorn temperature that does not depend on its mass. Therefore, the theory keeps a thermal profile even taking into account self-gravitating effects and the backreaction of the metric. This has implications concerning the information loss paradox; one would not be able to recover any information from the LST black hole since the emission of scalar particles is totally uncorrelated. Several studies of the emission spectrum in LST concern scalar fields; it is our aim in this work to extend the study to the emission of fermions in order to verify that the most relevant conclusion for the scalar field remains valid for the fermion fields. Thus, we have calculated the emission probability, the flux, and also the greybody factor corresponding to a fermion field in LST background. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Iribarren J.I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Materials Today Communications | Year: 2016

The structural characterization of chiral nylon-3 derivative, poly (3-ethyl-3-phenyl-2- azetidinone) (PEPA) has been carried out using FTIR, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction of power and fiber samples were analyzed together with electron diffraction patterns of single crystals obtained from isothermal crystallization in solution. Two different crystalline forms were found in accordance with DSC traces, FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction diagrams. Electron microscopy corroborates the morphological and crystallographic differences between both crystalline forms. Molecular modeling was applied to characterize the two crystalline forms, which were related to different conformation and consequent space symmetry into the crystal unit cell. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Abdollahi A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Arias I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2011

Crack propagation during the indentation test of a ferroelectric single crystal is simulated using a phase-field model. This model is based on variational formulations of brittle crack propagation and domain evolution in ferroelectric materials. Due to the high compressive stresses near the indenter contact faces, a modified regularized formulation of the variational brittle fracture is coupled with the material model to prevent crack formation and interpenetration in the compressed regions. The simulation results show that the radial cracks perpendicular to the poling direction of the material propagate faster than the parallel ones, which is in agreement with experimental observations. This anisotropy in the crack propagation is due to interactions between the material microstructure and the radial cracks, as captured by the phase-field simulation. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Antolino Rivas D.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Guerrero-Zapata M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Ad Hoc Networks | Year: 2012

This article describes a scheme which to the best of our knowledge is the first one to use user signatures to share information about Points of Interest in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks. In this scheme, users rate restaurants, hotels, etc. and sign those rates with their private key. Then, they broadcast that information and other vehicles store it for future use. When another user needs a Point of Interest recommendation he queries the system for the other users stored reviews and after he visits that Points of Interest for himself, he evaluates it and his level of trust in the reviewers with rates similar to his own increases. In the end, a user will be able to request to his vehicle information on a certain Point of Interest category and it will respond with the recommendations made by other users, prioritizing the ones in the user's Web of Trust. poiSim is the tool designed to simulate this scheme. It processes a 24 h mobility trace produced by a Multi-Agent Traffic Simulator, which realistically simulates public and private traffic over regional maps of Switzerland. The result is a Chains of Trust simulation with over 260,000 nodes, which shows that the proposed scheme performs satisfactorily in a realistic scenario. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sesa-Nogueras E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Faundez-Zanuy M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2012

This paper presents a handwritten text biometric recognition system suitable to be applied to short sequences of text (words). Strokes are considered the structural units of handwriting with words being regarded as two separate sequences: one of pen-down and one of pen-up strokes. Unsupervised categorization by means of a self-organized map allows mapping strokes to integers and the efficient comparison of the sequences by means of dynamic time warping. Measures obtained from each sequence are combined in a later step. This separation gives us the opportunity to show that pen-up strokes possess a surprisingly high discriminative power, while the performance of the combination suggests they may carry non-redundant information with respect to pen-down strokes. A writer identification rate of 92.38% and a minimum of detection cost function of 0.046 (4.6%) is achieved with 370 users and just one word. Results are improved up to 96.46% and 0.033 (3.3%) when combining two words. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tallada M.G.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, PPOPP | Year: 2016

Deep neural networks (DNN) have recently achieved extraordinary results in domains like computer vision and speech recognition. An essential element for this success has been the introduction of high performance computing (HPC) techniques in the critical step of training the neural network. This paper describes the implementation and analysis of a network-agnostic and convergence-invariant coarse-grain parallelization of the DNN training algorithm. The coarse-grain parallelization is achieved through the exploitation of the batch-level parallelism. This strategy is independent from the support of specialized and optimized libraries. Therefore, the optimization is immediately available for accelerating the DNN training. The proposal is compatible with multi-GPU execution without altering the algorithm convergence rate. The parallelization has been implemented in Caffe, a state-of-the-art DNN framework. The paper describes the code transformations for the parallelization and we also identify the limiting performance factors of the approach. We show competitive performance results for two state-of-the-art computer vision datasets, MNIST and CIFAR-10. In particular, on a 16-core Xeon E5-2667v2 at 3.30GHz we observe speedups of 8× over the sequential execution, at similar performance levels of those obtained by the GPU optimized Caffe version in a NVIDIA K40 GPU. © 2016 ACM.

Kartashov Y.V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Kartashov Y.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Malomed B.A.,Tel Aviv University | Torner L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We consider bright solitons supported by a symmetric inhomogeneous defocusing nonlinearity growing rapidly enough toward the periphery of the medium, combined with an antisymmetric gain-loss profile. Despite the absence of any symmetric modulation of the linear refractive index, which is usually required to establish a parity-time (PT ) symmetry in the form of a purely real spectrum of modes, we show that the PT symmetry is never broken in the present system, and that the system always supports stable bright solitons, i.e., fundamental and multipole ones. This fact is connected to the nonlinearizability of the underlying evolution equation. The increase of the gain - loss strength results, in lieu of the PT symmetry breaking, in merger of pairs of different soliton branches, such as fundamental and dipole, or tripole and quadrupole ones. The fundamental and dipole solitons remain stable at arbitrarily large values of the gain-loss coefficient. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Silva Pereira S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Pages-Zamora A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2011

This contribution studies the convergence of consensus algorithms in random wireless sensor networks with spatially correlated links. Aiming at reducing the convergence time, we adopt an optimization criterion based on the minimization of the spectral radius of a matrix for which we derive closed-form expressions for both directed and undirected topologies. We show that the minimization of the spectral radius assuming constant link weights is a convex optimization problem. The expressions derived subsume known protocols found in literature. © 2011 IEEE.

Sole-Pareta J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Subramaniam S.,George Washington University | Careglio D.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Spadaro S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2012

Advances in optical transmission technology are driving the evolution from legacy opaque toward transparent backbone networks. Aiming at reducing the costs and energy consumption, transparent networks allow the data to be kept optical end to end and thus removing the majority of the expensive optical-electrical- optical (OEO) devices. Nonetheless, physical impairments accumulate on the signal along optical transparent paths, therefore limiting the system reach and the overall network performance. Furthermore, failures propagate in a transparent network environment and they cannot be easily localized and isolated. So then, transparent networks need to deal with a number of challenges impacting both planning and operation phases. Such challenges require the use of cross-layer approaches, which involve dynamic interactions between the physical layer and the network layer to enable the compensation for mismatching of requirements and resources. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of such challenges, reporting comparative analysis with a selection of existing solutions and to cast a glance at the open issues for future research. © 2012 IEEE.

Kolodziej J.,University of Bielsko Biala | Xhafa F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science | Year: 2011

Tasks scheduling and resource allocation are among crucial issues in any large scale distributed system, including Computational Grids (CGs). These issues are commonly investigated using traditional computational models and resolution methods that yield near-optimal scheduling strategies. One drawback of such approaches is that they cannot effectively tackle the complex nature of CGs. On the one hand, such systems account for many administrative domains with their own access policies, user privileges, etc. On the other, CGs have hierarchical nature and therefore any computational model should be able to effectively express the hierarchical architecture in the optimization model. Recently, researchers have been investigating the use of game theory for modeling user requirements regarding task and resource allocation in grid scheduling problems. In this paper we present two general non-cooperative game approaches, namely, the symmetric non-zero sum game and the asymmetric Stackelberg game for modeling grid user behavior defined as user requirements. In our game-theoretic approaches we are able to cast new requirements arising in allocation problems, such as asymmetric users relations, security and reliability restrictions in CGs. For solving the games, we designed and implemented GA-based hybrid schedulers for approximating the equilibrium points for both games. The proposed hybrid resolution methods are experimentally evaluated through the grid simulator under heterogeneity, and large-scale and dynamics conditions. The relative performance of the schedulers is measured in terms of the makespan and flowtime metrics. The experimental analysis showed high efficiency of meta-heuristics in solving the game-based models, especially in the case of an additional cost of secure task scheduling to be paid by the users.

Sevilla R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Fernandez-Mendez S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Finite Elements in Analysis and Design | Year: 2011

This paper focuses on the numerical integration of polynomial functions along non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and over 2D NURBS-shaped domains, i.e. domains with NURBS boundaries. The integration of the constant function f=1 is of special interest in computer aided design software and the integration of very high-order polynomials is a key aspect in the recently proposed NURBS-enhanced finite element method (NEFEM). Several well-known numerical quadratures are compared for the integration of polynomials along NURBS curves, and two transformations for the definition of numerical quadratures in triangles with one edge defined by a trimmed NURBS are proposed, analyzed and compared. When exact integration is feasible, explicit formulas for the selection of the number of integration points are deduced. Numerical examples show the influence of the number of integration points in NEFEM computations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Longland R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Longland R.,Institute Destudis Espacials Of Catalonia Ieec
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. Recent reaction rate evaluations include reaction rate uncertainties that have been determined in a statistically meaningful manner. Furthermore, reaction rate probability density distributions have been determined and published in the form of lognormal parameters with the specific goal of pursuing Monte Carlo nucleosynthesis studies. Aims. A variety of methods is available for randomly sampling over reaction rate probability densities. The aim of this work is to investigate these methods and determine the most accurate method for estimating elemental abundance uncertainties. Methods. Experimental Monte Carlo reaction rates are first computed for the 22Ne + α, 20Ne(p, γ)21Na, 25Mg(p, γ)26Al, and 18F(p, α) 15O reactions, which are used to calculate reference nucleosynthesis yields for 16 nuclei affected by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and classical novae. Five different methods of randomly sampling over these reaction rate probability distributions are then developed, tested, and compared with the reference nucleosynthesis yields. Results. Given that the reaction rate probability density distributions can be described accurately with a lognormal distribution, Monte Carlo nucleosynthesis variations arising from the parametrised estimates for the reaction rate variations agree remarkably well with those obtained from the true rate samples. Most significantly, the most simple parametrisation agrees within just a few percent, meaning that Monte Carlo nucleosynthesis studies can be performed reliably using lognormal parametrisations of reaction rate probability density functions. © 2012 ESO.

Moretti M.,University of Pisa | Perez-Neira A.I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

In this paper we address the problem of margin adaptive scheduling in the downlink of an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. Optimal resource allocation in MIMO systems requires the joint optimization of: a) linear transmit and receive spatial filters, b) channel assignment and c) power allocation. This problem is not convex and its complexity becomes thus intractable already for small sets of users and subcarriers. To reduce the complexity of the problem at hand, we propose a novel heuristic strategy that partitions the users in different groups according to their average channel quality and addresses the original problem by solving a succession of lower-complexity allocation problems. The spatial dimension is employed to prevent multiple access interference from hindering the performance of the sequential allocation. To further reduce the complexity burden we introduce a linear programming formulation in combination with a waterfilling-based strategy to allocate channels and power to the groups of users. Numerical results and evaluation of the computational complexity show that, though suboptimal, in most cases the proposed algorithm manages to exploit in an original way the inherent multi-user diversity of multi-carrier systems to ease the task of resource allocation with a very limited performance loss from the theoretic optimum. © 2013 IEEE.

Oliva R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Pelechano N.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Computers and Graphics (Pergamon) | Year: 2013

In this paper we introduce a novel automatic method for generating near optimal navigation meshes from a 3D multi-layered virtual environment. Firstly, a GPU voxelization of the entire scene is calculated in order to identify and extract the different walkable layers. Secondly, a high resolution render is performed with a fragment shader to obtain the 2D floor plan of each layer. Finally, a convex decomposition of each layer is calculated and layers are linked in order to create a Navigation Mesh of the scene. Results show that our method is not only faster than the previous work, but also creates more accurate NavMeshes since it respects the original shape of the static geometry. It also provides a significantly lower number of cells and avoids ill-conditioned cells and T-Joints between portals that could lead to unnatural character navigation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kartashov Y.V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Kartashov Y.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Konotop V.V.,University of Lisbon | Abdullaev F.K.,São Paulo State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We report a diversity of stable gap solitons in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a spatially periodic Zeeman field. It is shown that the solitons can be classified by the main physical symmetries they obey, i.e., symmetries with respect to parity (P), time (T), and internal degree of freedom, i.e., spin (C), inversions. The conventional gap and gap-stripe solitons are obtained in lattices with different parameters. It is shown that solitons of the same type but obeying different symmetries can exist in the same lattice at different spatial locations. PT and CPT symmetric solitons have antiferromagnetic structure and are characterized, respectively, by nonzero and zero total magnetizations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Alonso E.E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Zervos A.,University of Southampton | Pinyol N.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Geotechnique | Year: 2016

The scope of the paper encompasses planar and compound sliding motions, which may exhibit creeping behaviour during a certain period but may evolve to a very rapid motion. Thermo-mechanical interactions, at the scale of the sliding surface, are accepted as a critical aspect to explain these motion phases and their relationship. The sliding kinetics and global equilibrium are described at a large scale and the evolving shearing strength at the sliding surface derives from the local analysis of the shearing band and its vicinity. Pore pressures, temperatures and related variables are calculated by resolving a set of balance equations. The paper describes the transition from creeping motions to a rapid event. Results are found in terms of dimensionless numbers. Calculation of the slide evolution requires special numerical techniques described in the paper. Band permeability is found to be the dominant property controlling the triggering of fast motions. The creeping stage and the eventual slide blow-up are intimately linked. This relationship is explored in the paper. The models presented can be readily used to back-analyse relevant case histories or, in principle, even to carry out predictive modelling, provided an adequate calibration is available for the material parameters. © 2016, Thomas Telford Services Ltd. All rights reserved.

Orellana M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Grino R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference) | Year: 2012

The use of LCL filters with VSI converters is interesting since they present good attenuation of current ripple at high frequencies. Nevertheless, they also present a high resonance peak which can cause undesired oscillations, and even instability problems. Passive and Active Damping are methods which try to reduce those resonance effects. In this paper, Passive Damping is briefly reviewed and Active Damping is formally analyzed in continuous-time and, specially, in discrete-time. It will be shown that the one period delay included in sampled-data control systems and the grid impedance play a very important role in stability conditions. The presented results are useful to design discrete-time Active Damping controllers. Moreover, important implications for higher level controls can be deduced since the Active Damping is the first control loop in the power converter's controller. © 2012 IEEE.

Delicado P.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

Functional Data Analysis deals with samples where a whole function is observed for each individual. A relevant case of FDA is when the observed functions are density functions. Among the particular characteristics of density functions, the most of the fact that they are an example of infinite dimensional compositional data (parts of some whole which only carry relative information) is made. Several dimensionality reduction methods for this particular type of data are compared: functional principal components analysis with or without a previous data transformation, and multidimensional scaling for different interdensity distances, one of them taking into account the compositional nature of density functions. The emphasis is on the steps previous and posterior to the application of a particular dimensionality reduction method: care must be taken in choosing the right density function transformation and/or the appropriate distance between densities before performing dimensionality reduction; subsequently the graphical representation of dimensionality reduction results must take into account that the observed objects are density functions. The different methods are applied to artificial and real data (population pyramids for 223 countries in year 2000). As a global conclusion, the use of multidimensional scaling based on compositional distance is recommended. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Karami A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Guerrero-Zapata M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Neurocomputing | Year: 2015

In Content-Centric Networks (CCNs) as a possible future Internet, new kinds of attacks and security challenges - from Denial of Service (DoS) to privacy attacks - will arise. An efficient and effective security mechanism is required to secure content and defense against unknown and new forms of attacks and anomalies. Usually, clustering algorithms would fit the requirements for building a good anomaly detection system. K-means is a popular anomaly detection method to classify data into different categories. However, it suffers from the local convergence and sensitivity to selection of the cluster centroids. In this paper, we present a novel fuzzy anomaly detection system that works in two phases. In the first phase - the training phase - we propose an hybridization of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and K-means algorithm with two simultaneous cost functions as well-separated clusters and local optimization to determine the optimal number of clusters. When the optimal placement of clusters centroids and objects are defined, it starts the second phase. In this phase - the detection phase - we employ a fuzzy approach by the combination of two distance-based methods as classification and outlier to detect anomalies in new monitoring data. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve to the optimal number of clusters, well-separated clusters, as well as increase the high detection rate and decrease the false positive rate at the same time when compared to some other well-known clustering algorithms. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Vysloukh V.A.,Universidad de Las Americas Puebla | Kartashov Y.V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Kartashov Y.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We study resonant mode conversion in parity time (PT)-symmetric multimode waveguides, where symmetry breaking manifests itself in the sequential destabilization (i.e., the appearance of complex eigenvalues) of the pairs of adjacent guided modes. We show that efficient mode conversion is possible even in the presence of the resonant longitudinal modulation of the complex refractive index. The distinguishing feature of the resonant mode conversion in the PT-symmetric structure is a drastic growth of the width of the resonance curve when the gain/losses coefficient approaches a critical value, at which symmetry breaking occurs. We found that in the system with broken symmetry, the resonant coupling between the exponentially growing mode and the stable higher-order one effectively stabilizes dynamically coupled pairs of modes and remarkably diminishes the average rate of the total power growth. © 2014 Optical Society of America

Herranz J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2011

In this work we consider the following primitive, that we call restricted adaptive oblivious transfer. On the one hand, the owner of a database wants to restrict the access of users to this data according to some policy, in such a way that a user can only obtain information satisfying the restrictions imposed by the owner. On the other hand, a legitimate user wants to privately retrieve allowed parts of the data, in a sequential and adaptive way, without letting the owner know which part of the data is being obtained. After having formally described the components and required properties of a protocol for restricted adaptive oblivious transfer, we propose two generic ways to realize this primitive. The first one uses a cryptographic tool which has received a lot of attention from the literature in recent years: cryptosystems which are both multiplicatively and additively homomorphic. Our second generic construction is based on secret sharing schemes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Castro J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Cuesta J.,Rovira i Virgili University
Mathematical Programming | Year: 2011

One of the most efficient interior-point methods for some classes of primal block-angular problems solves the normal equations by a combination of Cholesky factorizations and preconditioned conjugate gradient for, respectively, the block and linking constraints. Its efficiency depends on the spectral radius-in [0,1)- of a certain matrix in the definition of the preconditioner. Spectral radius close to 1 degrade the performance of the approach. The purpose of this work is twofold. First, to show that a separable quadratic regularization term in the objective reduces the spectral radius, significantly improving the overall performance in some classes of instances. Second, to consider a regularization term which decreases with the barrier function, thus with no need for an extra parameter. Computational experience with some primal block-angular problems confirms the efficiency of the regularized approach. In particular, for some difficult problems, the solution time is reduced by a factor of two to ten by the regularization term, outperforming state-of-the-art commercial solvers. © 2010 Springer and Mathematical Programming Society.

Pereira J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Averbakh I.,University of Toronto
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2011

We consider the Assignment Problem with interval data, where it is assumed that only upper and lower bounds are known for each cost coefficient. It is required to find a minmax regret assignment. The problem is known to be strongly NP-hard. We present and compare computationally several exact and heuristic methods, including Benders decomposition, using CPLEX, a variable depth neighborhood local search, and two hybrid population-based heuristics. We report results of extensive computational experiments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Corchero C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Heredia F.-J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2011

The reorganization of the electricity industry in Spain completed a new step with the start-up of the Derivatives Market. One main characteristic of MIBEL's Derivatives Market is the existence of physical futures contracts; they imply the obligation to physically settle the energy. The market regulation establishes the mechanism for including those physical futures in the day-ahead bidding of the generation companies. The goal of this work is to optimize coordination between physical futures contracts and the day-ahead bidding which follow this regulation. We propose a stochastic quadratic mixed-integer programming model which maximizes the expected profits, taking into account futures contracts settlement. The model gives the simultaneous optimization for the Day-Ahead Market bidding strategy and power planning production (unit commitment) for the thermal units of a price-taker generation company. The uncertainty of the Day-Ahead Market price is included in the stochastic model through a set of scenarios. Implementation details and some first computational experiences for small real cases are presented. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Karami A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Guerrero-Zapata M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Neurocomputing | Year: 2015

Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising network architecture being considered as a possible replacement for the current IP-based (host-centric) Internet infrastructure. NDN can overcome the fundamental limitations of the current Internet, in particular, Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. However, NDN can be subject to new type of DoS attacks namely Interest flooding attacks and content poisoning. These types of attacks exploit key architectural features of NDN. This paper presents a new intelligent hybrid algorithm for proactive detection of DoS attacks and adaptive mitigation reaction in NDN. In the detection phase, a combination of multiobjective evolutionary optimization algorithm with PSO in the context of the RBF neural network has been applied in order to improve the accuracy of DoS attack prediction. Performance of the proposed hybrid approach is also evaluated successfully by some benchmark problems. In the adaptive reaction phase, we introduced a framework for mitigating DoS attacks based on the misbehaving type of network nodes. The evaluation through simulations shows that the proposed intelligent hybrid algorithm (proactive detection and adaptive reaction) can quickly and effectively respond and mitigate DoS attacks in adverse conditions in terms of the applied performance criteria. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Gonzalez J.A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Castro J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2011

One of the main concerns of national statistical agencies (NSAs) is to publish tabular data. NSAs have to guarantee that no private information from specific respondents can be disclosed from the released tables. The purpose of the statistical disclosure control field is to avoid such a leak of private information. Most protection techniques for tabular data rely on the formulation of a large mathematical programming problem, whose solution is computationally expensive even for tables of moderate size. One of the emerging techniques in this field is controlled tabular adjustment (CTA). Although CTA is more efficient than other protection methods, the resulting mixed integer linear problems (MILP) are still challenging. In this work a heuristic approach based on block coordinate descent decomposition is designed and applied to large hierarchical and general CTA instances. This approach is compared with CPLEX, a state-of-the-art MILP solver. Our results, from both synthetic and real tables with up to 1,200,000 cells, 100,000 of them being sensitive (resulting in MILP instances of up to 2,400,000 continuous variables, 100,000 binary variables, and 475,000 constraints) show that the heuristic block coordinate descent has a better practical behavior than a state-of-the-art solver: for large hierarchical instances it provides significantly better solutions within a specified realistic time limit, as required by NSAs in real-world. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Trullols-Cruces O.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Fiore M.,INSA Lyon | Barcelo-Ordinas J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2012

We consider a complex (i.e., nonlinear) road scenario where users aboard vehicles equipped with communication interfaces are interested in downloading large files from road-side Access Points (APs). We investigate the possibility of exploiting opportunistic encounters among mobile nodes so to augment the transfer rate experienced by vehicular downloaders. To that end, we devise solutions for the selection of carriers and data chunks at the APs, and evaluate them in real-world road topologies, under different AP deployment strategies. Through extensive simulations, we show that carry&forward transfers can significantly increase the download rate of vehicular users in urban/suburban environments, and that such a result holds throughout diverse mobility scenarios, AP placements and network loads. © 2012 IEEE.

Millan D.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Millan D.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Computacao Cientifica | Arroyo M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2013

Model reduction in computational mechanics is generally addressed with linear dimensionality reduction methods such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Hypothesizing that in many applications of interest the essential dynamics evolve on a nonlinear manifold, we explore here reduced order modeling based on nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods. Such methods are gaining popularity in diverse fields of science and technology, such as machine perception or molecular simulation. We consider finite deformation elastodynamics as a model problem, and identify the manifold where the dynamics essentially take place - the slow manifold - by nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods applied to a database of snapshots. Contrary to linear dimensionality reduction, the smooth parametrization of the slow manifold needs special techniques, and we use local maximum entropy approximants. We then formulate the Lagrangian mechanics on these data-based generalized coordinates, and develop variational time-integrators. Our proof-of-concept example shows that a few nonlinear collective variables provide similar accuracy to tens of PCA modes, suggesting that the proposed method may be very attractive in control or optimization applications. Furthermore, the reduced number of variables brings insight into the mechanics of the system under scrutiny. Our simulations also highlight the need of modeling the net effect of the disregarded degrees of freedom on the reduced dynamics at long times. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Abdollahi A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Arias I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Acta Materialia | Year: 2014

We simulate the fracture processes of ferroelectric polycrystals in three dimensions using a phase-field model. In this model, the grain boundaries, cracks and ferroelectric domain walls are represented in a diffuse way by three phase-fields. We thereby avoid the difficulty of tracking the interfaces in three dimensions. The resulting model can capture complex interactions between the crack and the polycrystalline and ferroelectric domain microstructures. The simulation results show the effect of the microstructures on the fracture response of the material. Crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and ferroelastic domain switching are observed to act as the main fracture toughening mechanisms in ferroelectric polycrystals. Our fully 3-D simulations illustrate how the combination of these mechanisms enhances the fracture toughness of the material, and pave the way for further systematic studies, including fracture homogenization. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sala M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Gutierrez-Bouzan M.C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

This study is based on the electrochemical decolouration of exhausted dyeing effluents which contain dyes and salts. The treated effluents were reconstituted and reused in a new dyeing process. Initially, synthetic effluents containing one of the reactive dyes Novacron Yellow, Ruby and Deepnight were treated in the laboratory pilot. In all cases, the dye decolouration follows a pseudo-first order reaction. Subsequently, seven industrial effluents which contain mixtures of these dyes were collected in a Spanish mill and treated in the laboratory pilot. Two methods for the electrochemical treatment and further effluent reconstitution and reuse were studied. The first method consisted of an electrochemical treatment followed by an acidification and a stripping step to remove the carbonate ions. In the second method, the acidification was carried out before the electrochemical treatment; subsequently, the generated CO 2 was removed during the decolouration process. Finally, the optimised process was applied in situ in a Spanish mill by means of a semi-industrial pilot plant (400 L). No significant colour differences were appreciated between reference dyeings and the fabrics dyed with the treated exhausted effluents. The reuse of the dyeing effluent achieves the reduction of 70% process water consumption and 60% salt discharge. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Ojalvo J.,University Pompeu Fabra | Garcia-Ojalvo J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Martinez Arias A.,University of Cambridge
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2012

The spatiotemporal organization of a developing organism requires carefully orchestrated sequences of cellular differentiation events. These events are triggered by decisions made by individual cells about their fate, which are in turn controlled by gene and protein regulation processes. While these cell fate decisions are subject to stochasticity and are not reproducible at the single-cell level, they result in highly consistent, almost deterministic patterns at the level of the whole cell population. The question of how this macroscopic order arises from a disordered microscopic behaviour is still outstanding, and is reminiscent of problems in physical systems that are readily addressed by statistical mechanics. Here we review recent studies that are beginning to provide the data needed to address this question and discuss conceptual ideas that might be used in a theoretical understanding of cell fate decision processes, emphasizing the challenges that biology poses to the application of statistical mechanics approaches to developmental biology. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Hernandez H.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Blum C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Swarm Intelligence | Year: 2012

Graph coloring-also known as vertex coloring-considers the problem of assigning colors to the nodes of a graph such that adjacent nodes do not share the same color. The optimization version of the problem concerns the minimization of the number of colors used. In this paper we deal with the problem of finding valid graphs colorings in a distributed way, that is, by means of an algorithm that only uses local information for deciding the color of the nodes. The algorithm proposed in this paper is inspired by the calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs. Male frogs use their calls to attract females. Interestingly, groups of males that are located near each other desynchronize their calls. This is because female frogs are only able to correctly localize male frogs when their calls are not too close in time. The proposed algorithm makes use of this desynchronization behavior for the assignment of different colors to neighboring nodes. We experimentally show that our algorithm is very competitive with the current state of the art, using different sets of problem instances and comparing to one of the most competitive algorithms from the literature. © 2012 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Alonso-Meijide J.M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Freixas J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper we propose a new power index useful for the evaluation of each member in a committee, or democratic institution, and the degree of influence over the voting decision making system. The proposed solution is based on the observation that democratic organizations not only tend to form coalitions which can by themselves guarantee the control of the organization, but that they also do it in an extremely efficient way that avoids the inclusion of powerful members if they can be replaced by weaker ones. The mathematical foundation of the new measure is based on two different axiomatizations. A comparison with other well-known measures is also done. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Argiles M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: To develop and test the sensitivity of an ultrasound-based sensor to assess the viewing distance of visual display terminals operators in real-time conditions. METHODS: A modified ultrasound sensor was attached to a computer display to assess viewing distance in real time. Sensor functionality was tested on a sample of 20 healthy participants while they conducted four 10-minute randomly presented typical computer tasks (a match-three puzzle game, a video documentary, a task requiring participants to complete a series of sentences, and a predefined internet search). RESULTS: The ultrasound sensor offered good measurement repeatability. Game, text completion, and web search tasks were conducted at shorter viewing distances (54.4 cm [95% CI 51.3–57.5 cm], 54.5 cm [95% CI 51.1–58.0 cm], and 54.5 cm [95% CI 51.4–57.7 cm], respectively) than the video task (62.3 cm [95% CI 58.9–65.7 cm]). Statistically significant differences were found between the video task and the other three tasks (all p < 0.05). Range of viewing distances (from 22 to 27 cm) was similar for all tasks (F = 0.996; p = 0.413). CONCLUSIONS: Real-time assessment of the viewing distance of computer users with a non-intrusive ultrasonic device disclosed a task-dependent pattern. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry

Cazorla C.,University of New South Wales | Boronat J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2015

We present a first-principles computational study of solid He4 at T=0 K and pressures up to ∼160 GPa. Our computational strategy consists in using van der Waals density functional theory (DFT-vdW) to describe the electronic degrees of freedom in this material, and the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method to solve the Schrödinger equation describing the behavior of the quantum nuclei. For this, we construct an analytical interaction function based on the pairwise Aziz potential that closely matches the volume variation of the cohesive energy calculated with DFT-vdW in dense helium. Interestingly, we find that the kinetic energy of solid He4 does not increase appreciably with compression for P≥85 GPa. Also, we show that the Lindemann ratio in dense solid He4 amounts to 0.10 almost independently of pressure. The reliability of customary quasiharmonic DFT (QH DFT) approaches in describing quantum nuclear effects in solids is also studied. We find that QH DFT simulations, although provide a reasonable equation of state in agreement with experiments, are not able to reproduce correctly these critical effects in compressed He4. In particular, we disclose huge discrepancies of at least ∼50% in the calculated He4 kinetic energies using both the QH DFT and present DFT-DMC methods. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Aracri E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Valls C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Vidal T.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

The oxidation of sisal pulp fibers by the laccase-TEMPO system was investigated and the influence of process variables including the laccase and TEMPO doses, and reaction time, on various properties of the oxidized fibers and of handsheets made from them was for the first time assessed using a three-variable statistical plan. The laccase-TEMPO system was found to oxidatively modify cellulose fibers, largely by introducing aldehyde groups and, to a much lesser extent, by introducing carboxyl groups. Based on the mathematical models used, increasing the TEMPO dose and reaction time increases the aldehyde content of the fibers, thereby also increasing their wet strength by effect of inter-fiber covalent bonding via hemiacetal linkages. Although no accurate model for the carboxyl content could be established, this property was found to peak under the specific conditions yielding the highest response in the dry tensile index model. The fact that the oxidative treatment diminished pulp viscosity is indicative of partial depolymerization of cellulose. This was especially marked under the conditions providing the highest contents in aldehyde and carboxyl groups, and the greatest improvements in the dry and wet tensile indices. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Colome A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Torras C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems | Year: 2012

Motivated by the need of a robust and practical Inverse Kinematics (IK) algorithm for the WAM robot arm, we reviewed the most used closed-loop methods for redundant robots, analysing their main points of concern: convergence, numerical error, singularity handling, joint limit avoidance, and the capability of reaching secondary goals. As a result of the experimental comparison, we propose two enhancements. The first is to filter the singular values of the Jacobian matrix before calculating its pseudoinverse in order to obtain a more numerically robust result. The second is to combine a continuous task priority strategy with selective damping to generate smoother trajectories. Experimentation on the WAM robot arm shows that these two enhancements yield an IK algorithm that improves on the reviewed state-of-the-art ones, in terms of the good compromise it achieves between time step length, Jacobian conditioning, multiple task performance, and computational time, thus constituting a very solid option in practice. This proposal is general and applicable to other redundant robots. © 2012 IEEE.

Carmona J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery | Year: 2012

Traces are everywhere from information systems that store their continuous executions, to any type of health care applications that record each patient's history. The transformation of a set of traces into a mathematical model that can be used for a formal reasoning is therefore of great value. The discovery of process models out of traces is an interesting problem that has received significant attention in the last years. This is a central problem in Process Mining, a novel area which tries to close the cycle between system design and validation, by resorting on methods for the automated discovery, analysis and extension of process models. In this work, algorithms for the derivation of a Petri net from a set of traces are presented. The methods are grounded on the theory of regions, which maps a model in the state-based domain (e.g., an automata) into a model in the event-based domain (e.g., a Petri net). When dealing with large examples, a direct application of the theory of regions will suffer from two problems: one is the state-explosion problem, i.e., the resources required by algorithms that work at the state-level are sometimes prohibitive. This paper introduces decomposition and projection techniques to alleviate the complexity of the region-based algorithms for Petri net discovery, thus extending its applicability to handle large inputs. A second problem is known as the overfitting problem for region-based approaches, which informally means that, in order to represent with high accuracy the trace set, the models obtained are often spaghetti-like. By focusing on special type of processes called conservative and for which an elegant theory and efficient algorithms can be devised, the techniques presented in this paper alleviate the overfitting problem and moreover incorporate structure into the models generated. © 2011 The Author(s).

Tamayo J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Heldring A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Rius J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2011

The Multilevel Adaptive Cross Approximation (MLACA) is proposed as a fast method to accelerate the matrix-vector products in the iterative solution of the linear system that results from the discretization of electromagnetic Integral Equations (IE) with the Method of Moments (MoM). The single level ACA, already described in the literature, is extended with a multilevel recursive algorithm in order to improve the asymptotical complexity of both the computational cost and the memory requirements. The main qualities of ACA are maintained: it is purely algebraic and independent of the integral equation kernel Green's function as long as it produces pseudo-rank-deficient matrix blocks. The algorithm is presented in such a way that it can be easily implemented on top of an existing MoM code with most commonly used Green's functions. © 2011 IEEE.

Garmendia E.,Basque Center for Climate Change 3 | Garmendia E.,University of the Basque Country | Gamboa G.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

The use of multi-criteria evaluation tools in combination with participatory approaches provides a promising framework for integrating multiple interests and perspectives in the effort to provide sustainability. However, the inclusion of diverse viewpoints requires the "compression" of complex issues, a process that is controversial. Ensuring the quality of the compression process is a major challenge, especially with regards to retaining the essential elements of the various perspectives. Based on the lessons learned during a case study that assessed sustainable management options for the Urdaibai Estuary (Basque Country-Southern Europe), we propose a process in which the explicit elicitation of weights (the prioritisation of criteria) within a participatory multi-criteria evaluation serves as a quality assurance mechanism to check the robustness of the evaluation process. The results demonstrate that diverse individual priorities can be grouped in a reduced set of social preferences by means of cluster analysis reinforced with a deliberative appraisal among a wide variety of social actors. The approach presented retains relevant information regarding extreme and sometimes irreconcilable positions, allows an explicit social sensitivity analysis of the MCE process, and enables participants to learn from and reflect upon diverse social preferences without forcing their consensus. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Riba J.-R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2015

Abstract Skin and proximity effects in single- or multi-conductor systems can notoriously affect the AC resistance in conductors intended for electrical power transmission and distribution systems and for electronic devices. This increase of the AC resistance raises power loss and limits the conductors' current-carrying capacity, being an important design parameter. There are some internationally recognized exact and approximated formulas to calculate the AC resistance of conductors, whose accuracy and applicability is evaluated in this paper. However, since these formulas can be applied under a wide range of configurations and operating conditions, it is necessary to evaluate the applicability of these models. This is done by comparing the results that they provide with experimental data and finite element method (FEM) simulation results. The results provided show that FEM results are very accurate and more general than those provided by the formulas, since FEM models can be applied to a wide range of conductors' configurations and electrical frequencies. © Elsevier B.V.

Rey R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Hynes J.T.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Hynes J.T.,CNRS PASTEUR Laboratory
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

We extend, via a reformulation in terms of Poisson brackets, the method developed previously (Rey et al., J. Phys. Chem. A, 2009, 113, 8949) allowing analysis of the pathways of an excited molecule's ultrafast vibrational relaxation in terms of intramolecular and intermolecular contributions. In particular we show how to ascertain, through the computation of power and work, which portion of an initial excess molecular energy (e.g. vibrational) is transferred to various degrees of freedom (e.g. rotational, translational) of the excited molecule itself and its neighbors. The particular case of bend excess energy relaxation in pure water is treated in detail, completing the picture reported in the work cited above. It is shown explicitly, within a classical description, that almost all of the initial water bend excitation energy is transferred - either indirectly, via Fermi resonance centrifugal coupling to the bend-excited water's rotation, or directly via intermolecular coupling - to local water librations, only involving molecules in the first two hydration shells of the vibrationally excited water molecule. Finally, it is pointed out that the Poisson bracket formulation can also be applied to elucidate the microscopic character of solvation and rotational dynamics, and should prove useful in developing a quantum treatment for energy flow in condensed phases. © the Owner Societies 2012.

Vincenti M.A.,Aegis USA | De Ceglia D.,Aegis USA | Roppo V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Scalora M.,AMR Research
Optics Express | Year: 2011

We have conducted a theoretical study of harmonic generation from a silver grating having slits filled with GaAs. By working in the enhanced transmission regime, and by exploiting phase-locking between the pump and its harmonics, we guarantee strong field localization and enhanced harmonic generation under conditions of high absorption at visible and UV wavelengths. Silver is treated using the hydrodynamic model, which includes Coulomb and Lorentz forces, convection, electron gas pressure, plus bulk X(3) contributions. For GaAs we use nonlinear Lorentz oscillators, with characteristic X(2) and X(3) and nonlinear sources that arise from symmetry breaking and Lorentz forces. We find that: (i) electron pressure in the metal contributes to linear and nonlinear processes by shifting/reshaping the band structure; (ii) TE- and TM-polarized harmonics can be generated efficiently; (iii) the X (2) tensor of GaAs couples TE- and TM-polarized harmonics that create phase-locked pump photons having polarization orthogonal compared to incident pump photons; (iv) Fabry-Perot resonances yield more efficient harmonic generation compared to plasmonic transmission peaks, where most of the light propagates along external metal surfaces with little penetration inside its volume. We predict conversion efficiencies that range from 10-6 for second harmonic generation to 10-3 for the third harmonic signal, when pump power is 2GW/cm2. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Reig M.,University of Barcelona | Puigdollers J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Velasco D.,University of Barcelona
Journal of Materials Chemistry C | Year: 2015

Charge transport in organic devices depends strongly on the molecular order and morphology of the organic semiconductor thin films. In the design of new organic semiconductors, the selection of the appropriate core plays a key role in the molecular packing and charge transport characteristics of the organic device. Four derivatives of carbazole that mainly differ in the extension of the π-conjugated core, including indolo[3,2-b]carbazole and triindole derivatives, exhibited hole mobilities ranging from 10-5 to 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1 as active layers in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). X-ray analyses of the single crystals and evaporated thin films gave insights into the molecular packing of the compounds that justified their OTFTs characteristics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Slater M.,University College London | Spanlang B.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Corominas D.,University of Barcelona
ACM Transactions on Graphics | Year: 2010

A new definition of immersion with respect to virtual environment (VE) systems has been proposed in earlier work, based on the concept of simulation. One system (A) is said to be more immersive than another (B) if A can be used to simulate an application as if it were running on B. Here we show how this concept can be used as the basis for a psychophysics of presence in VEs, the sensation of being in the place depicted by the virtual environment displays (Place Illusion, PI), and also the illusion that events occurring in the virtual environment are real (Plausibility Illusion, Psi). The new methodology involves matching experiments akin to those in color science. Twenty participants first experienced PI or Psi in the initial highest level immersive system, and then in 5 different trials chose transitions from lower to higher order systems and declared a match whenever they felt the same level of PI or Psi as they had in the initial system. In each transition they could change the type of illumination model used, or the field-of-view, or the display type (powerwall or HMD) or the extent of self-representation by an avatar. The results showed that the 10 participants instructed to choose transitions to attain a level of PI corresponding to that in the initial system tended to first choose a wide field-of-view and headmounted display, and then ensure that they had a virtual body that moved as they did. The other 10 in the Psi group concentrated far more on achieving a higher level of illumination realism, although having a virtual body representation was important for both groups. This methodology is offered as a way forward in the evaluation of the responses of people to immersive virtual environments, a unified theory and methodology for psychophysical measurement. © 2010 ACM.

Prieto G.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Concepcion P.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Martinez A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Mendoza E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Catalysis | Year: 2011

A series of 2.5% Rh/M@Al2O3 model catalysts were prepared by supporting Rh on high-area γ-Al2O3, resulting in a surface covered by a monolayer (4.5-7 atoms/nm2) of MOx promoter oxides (M = Fe, V, Nb, Ta, Ti, Y, Pr, Nd, Sm). The catalysts were extensively characterized and evaluated for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenates at 553 K, 5.0 MPa, H2/CO = 1, and space velocity adjusted to attain CO conversion around 15%. The broad range of products formed depending on the specific promoter were, for the first time, quantitatively described using the selectivity parameter (Φ) defined here, which indicates, for a given reaction product, the contribution of carbon atoms derived from dissociative (Cdis) and nondissociative (C ins) activation of CO. Both the catalytic activity and, more interestingly, the selectivity pattern given by the Φ parameter were correlated with the electronic properties of the MOx promoters (i.e., electron-donating/electron-withdrawing capacity) for an extensive series of catalysts. Low-temperature and at-work CO-FTIR experiments suggested that the high activity and hydrocarbon selectivity displayed by catalysts promoted by more electron-withdrawing (acidic) oxide promoters (e.g., TaOx) were related to a higher proportion of bridged Rh2(CO)B adsorption sites and to a higher electron density (i.e., a higher electron back-donation ability) of the Rh0 surface sites, both factors promoting CO dissociation events. In contrast, linear CO adsorption on Rh 0 sites displaying decreased electron back-donation in catalysts promoted by electron-donating (basic) oxides (e.g., PrOx, SmO x) was likely related to nondissociative CO activation and thus to the selective formation of oxygenates. TEM, XPS, and CO-FTIR results pointed to differences in morphology, rather than size or partial electronic charge, of the nanosized Rh0 crystallites as the likely cause for the different proportions of CO adsorption sites. The Rh0 NP morphology, both as-reduced and at-work, is a function of the electronic properties of the underlying promoter oxide. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Riba J.-R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
European Journal of Physics | Year: 2015

This paper analyzes the skin and proximity effects in different conductive nonmagnetic straight conductor configurations subjected to applied alternating currents and voltages. These effects have important consequences, including a rise of the ac resistance, which in turn increases power loss, thus limiting the rating for the conductor. Alternating current (ac) resistance is important in power conductors and bus bars for line frequency applications, as well as in smaller conductors for high frequency applications. Despite the importance of this topic, it is not usually analyzed in detail in undergraduate and even in graduate studies. To address this, this paper compares the results provided by available exact formulas for simple geometries with those obtained by means of two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental results. The paper also shows that FEM results are very accurate and more general than those provided by the formulas, since FEM models can be applied in a wide range of electrical frequencies and configurations. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Pigolotti S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Benzi R.,University of Rome Tor Vergata
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Lambers L.,University of Potsdam | Orejas F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Graphs are ubiquitous in Computer Science. For this reason, in many areas, it is very important to have the means to express and reason about graph properties. A simple way is based on defining an appropriate encoding of graphs in terms of classical logic. This approach has been followed by Courcelle. The alternative is the definition of a specialized logic, as done by Habel and Pennemann, who defined a logic of nested graph conditions, where graph properties are formulated explicitly making use of graphs and graph morphisms, and which has the expressive power of Courcelle's first order logic of graphs. In particular, in his thesis, Pennemann defined and implemented a sound proof system for reasoning in this logic. Moreover, he showed that his tools outperform some standard provers when working over encoded graph conditions. Unfortunately, Pennemann did not prove the completeness of his proof system. In this sense, one of the main contributions of this paper is the solution to this open problem. In particular, we prove the (refutational) completeness of a tableau method based on Pennemann's rules that provides a specific theorem-proving procedure for this logic. This procedure can be considered our second contribution. Finally, our tableaux are not standard, but we had to define a new notion of nested tableaux that could be useful for other formalisms where formulas have a hierarchical structure like nested graph conditions. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Torres R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Fayos F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Based on a previously found general class of quantum improved exact solutions composed of non-interacting (dust) particles, we model the gravitational collapse of stars. As the modeled star collapses a closed apparent 3-horizon is generated due to the consideration of quantum effects. The effect of the subsequent emission of Hawking radiation related to this horizon is taken into consideration. Our computations lead us to argue that a total evaporation could be reached. The inferred global picture of the spacetime corresponding to gravitational collapse is devoid of both event horizons and shell-focusing singularities. As a consequence, there is no information paradox and no need of firewalls. © 2015 The Authors.

Senovilla J.M.M.,University of the Basque Country | Torres R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2015

We provide a general formalism that allows us to analyze the phenomenon of tunneling in arbitrary spacetimes. We show that a flux of particles produced by tunneling through general marginally trapped surfaces (MTSs) may be perceived by some privileged observers. We discuss how this particle perception can be related to Hawking/Unruh radiation in specific cases. Our approach naturally leads to an expression for the effective surface gravity of MTSs. The procedure is applicable to general astrophysical and cosmological dynamical situations. Some practical examples for known and new cases are provided. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Casini F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Casini F.,ETH Zurich | Serri V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Springman S.M.,ETH Zurich
Canadian Geotechnical Journal | Year: 2013

This paper presents an experimental investigation aimed at studying the hydromechanical behaviour of a silty sand from a steep slope in Ruedlingen in the northeast of Switzerland, where a landslide-triggering experiment was carried out. The hydromechanical behaviour of the statically compacted Ruedlingen silty sand has been studied under saturated and unsaturated conditions, beginning with different initial void ratios and water contents. The specimens were prepared in the laboratory using static compaction, to reproduce the mean dry density and mean water content expected in natural unsaturated in situ conditions, thus promoting specimen homogeneity and test repeatability. The choice of compaction parameters was supported by a detailed physical and microstructural investigation to produce laboratory specimens with a similar microstructure to that of the natural soil. The aim of the work was to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the soil at different gravimetric water contents in a triaxial stress path apparatus and to link the mechanical behaviour with the soil-water retention curve obtained under suction-controlled conditions with different void ratios. Soil specimens with three different gravimetric water contents were exposed to conventional isotropically consolidated drained and undrained stress paths for the water phase and to stress paths simulating in situ anisotropic compression followed by a decrease of mean effective stress at constant axial load. The radial deformation of the unsaturated specimens was measured with a laser device installed in a triaxial stress path cell. Results have been interpreted using a Bishop stress approach, evaluating the suction through the water retention curve. A simple equation has been proposed to model the compressibility behaviour of the soil tested, which depends on the parameter χ and the stress ratio η. Possible unstable response along the stress path analysed has been investigated by means of second-order work and the validity of a unified framework has also been verified under unsaturated conditions.

Simo-Serra E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Torras C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Moreno-Noguer F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
International Journal of Computer Vision | Year: 2015

Recent advances in 3D shape analysis and recognition have shown that heat diffusion theory can be effectively used to describe local features of deforming and scaling surfaces. In this paper, we show how this description can be used to characterize 2D image patches, and introduce DaLI, a novel feature point descriptor with high resilience to non-rigid image transformations and illumination changes. In order to build the descriptor, 2D image patches are initially treated as 3D surfaces. Patches are then described in terms of a heat kernel signature, which captures both local and global information, and shows a high degree of invariance to non-linear image warps. In addition, by further applying a logarithmic sampling and a Fourier transform, invariance to photometric changes is achieved. Finally, the descriptor is compacted by mapping it onto a low dimensional subspace computed using Principal Component Analysis, allowing for an efficient matching. A thorough experimental validation demonstrates that DaLI is significantly more discriminative and robust to illuminations changes and image transformations than state of the art descriptors, even those specifically designed to describe non-rigid deformations. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Vallve J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Andrade-Cetto J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation | Year: 2014

We propose a method for The computation of entropy decrease in C-space. These estimates are Then used To evaluate candidate exploratory Trajectories in The context of autonomous mobile robot mapping. The method evaluates both map and path entropy reduction and uses such estimates To compute Trajectories That maximize coverage whilst minimizing localization uncertainty, hence reducing map error. Very efficient kernel convolution mechanisms are used To evaluate entropy reduction at each sensor ray, and for each possible robot position and orientation, Taking frontiers and obstacles into account. In contrast To most other exploration methods That evaluate entropy reduction at a small number of discrete robot configurations, we do it densely for The entire C-space. The computation of such dense entropy reduction maps opens The window To new exploratory strategies. In This paper we present Two such strategies. In The first one we drive exploration Through a gradient descent on The entropy decrease field. The second strategy chooses maximal entropy reduction configurations as candidate exploration goals, and plans paths To Them using RRT. Both methods use PoseSLAM as Their estimation backbone, and are Tested and compared with classical frontier-based exploration in simulations using common publicly available datasets. © 2014 IEEE.

Pons O.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Aguado A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Building and Environment | Year: 2012

This paper shows a study to find out which technology proves to be the most sustainable to use to build schools in a place where an important shortage of this type of buildings exists. This study searches for the architectural technology which has the least economic, environmental and social impact to solve the need for the urgent construction of hundreds of educational centers in Catalonia, Spain, in the early 2000s.The Integrated Value Model for Sustainable Assessment (Modelo Integrado de Valor para una Evaluación Sostenible - MIVES) has been used in this research to generate a dynamic assessment tool which has been optimized for this case study. To that end exclusively the most significant and discriminatory indicators have been considered: timeframes, initial and maintenance cost; waste, emissions and energy consumption by different life cycle phases; safety, edifice enlargements and function changes... MIVES is a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) which includes the value function concept and relies upon seminars by experts. Assigning weights and value functions during these workshops brings rigor and objectivity to the assessment.The resulting tool has been tested analyzing 4 technologies: on site concrete, prefabricated concrete, prefabricated steel and prefabricated timber; in order to obtain their sustainability indexes. This tool has proven very useful assessing these technologies and will also be helpful during decision making processes to choose which technology should be used to build the most sustainable school center. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Baronchelli A.,Northeastern University | Ferrer-i-Cancho R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Pastor-Satorras R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Chater N.,University of Warwick | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2013

Networks of interconnected nodes have long played a key role in Cognitive Science, from artificial neural networks to spreading activation models of semantic memory. Recently, however, a new Network Science has been developed, providing insights into the emergence of global, system-scale properties in contexts as diverse as the Internet, metabolic reactions, and collaborations among scientists. Today, the inclusion of network theory into Cognitive Sciences, and the expansion of complex-systems science, promises to significantly change the way in which the organization and dynamics of cognitive and behavioral processes are understood. In this paper, we review recent contributions of network theory at different levels and domains within the Cognitive Sciences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nescolarde L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background/Objectives:Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is increasingly used in clinical research to assess soft tissue hydration. It is known that physical characteristics of electrodes, such as low intrinsic impedance, low electrode/skin contact impedance and type of gel, affect the reliability of noninvasive bioimpedance assessments. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrinsic impedance of electrode on the bioimpedance vector displacement in RXc graph.Subjects/Methods:The intrinsic impedance is measured in nine pregelled disposable Ag/AgCl electrodes usually used for bioimpedance measures. The BIVA method is performed on 35 healthy volunteers using a 50 kHz phase-sensitive bioimpedance analyzer (BIA 101 Anniversary) with the lowest intrinsic impedance electrode and highest. The individual bioimpedance vector is plotted on the bivariate normal interval of reference population. The differences in the mean bioimpedance vectors obtained with each electrode are plotted, with their 95% confidence ellipses, on the dRXc graph. The paired one-sample Hotelling's T2-test is used to compare the differences of the mean bioimpedance vectors.Results:We found large variability in intrinsic resistance (11–665 Ω) and reactance (0.25–2.5 Ω) values of the electrodes analyzed and significant displacement (P<0.05) of bioimpedance vector positions in healthy adults according to the paired one-sample Hotelling's T2-test.Conclusions:A robust study of all physical characteristics of commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes is necessary to reach consensus on pregelled Ag/AgCl electrodes valid for bioimpedance measurement. This information will enable BIVA users to avoid systemic errors when performing BIVA assessments, specifically when these measurements are used for clinical interpretations.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 6 July 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.121. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Tachwali Y.,Agilent Technologies | Lo B.F.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Akyildiz I.F.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Akyildiz I.F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Agusti R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2013

In this paper, the problem of resource allocation optimization is studied for a single-cell multiuser cognitive radio network in the presence of primary user networks. The spectral access of the cognitive radio network is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). A joint bandwidth and power allocation is performed so that users' rate requirements are satisfied, and the integrity of primary user communication is preserved. In this work, two unique challenges are addressed. The first is the incorporation of primary user activity in the design of resource allocation technique, and the second is the limited hardware capabilities of cognitive terminals compared to those available at the cognitive base station. To address these problems, a novel resource allocation framework is proposed based on the bandwidth-power product minimization, which is an effective metric in evaluating the spectral resource consumption in a cognitive radio environment. The framework takes into consideration the challenges aforementioned. The results show significant enhancement in spectral efficiency by using our framework compared to classical power adaptive optimization using iterative waterfilling scheme. © 1983-2012 IEEE.

Torras J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

A new QM/MM molecular dynamics approach that can deal with the dynamics of large real systems involving several simultaneous active zones is presented. Multiple, unconnected but interacting quantum regions are treated independently in an ordinary QM/MM approach but in a manner which converges to a unique simulation. The multiple active zones in the hybrid QM/MM molecular dynamics methodology (maz-QM/MM MD) involve molecular dynamics that is driving the whole simulation with several parallel executions of energy gradients within the QM/MM approach that merge into each MD step. The Ewald-summation method is used to incorporate long-range electrostatic interactions among the active zones in conjunction with periodic boundary conditions. To illustrate and ascertain capabilities and limitations, we present several benchmark calculations using this approach. Our results show that the maz-QM/MM MD method is able to provide simultaneous treatment of several active zones of very large proteins such as the Cu-4His-ΔC∗ cage, a self-assembly of a 24-mer cage-like protein ferritin. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2015.

Trullols-Cruces O.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Barcelo-Ordinas J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Fiore M.,INSA Lyon
IEEE Communications Letters | Year: 2011

In this letter, we compute the exact probability that a receiver obtains N linearly independent packets among K ≥ N received packets, when the sender/s use/s random linear network coding over a Galois Field of size q. Such condition maps to the receiver's capability to decode the original information, and its mathematical characterization helps to design the coding so to guarantee the correctness of the transmission. Our formulation represents an improvement over the current upper bound for the decoding probability, and provides theoretical grounding to simulative results in the literature. © 2011 IEEE.

Casciati F.,University of Pavia | Rodellar J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Yildirim U.,University of Pavia
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures | Year: 2012

It is internationally recognized that structural control was introduced in civil engineering through a pioneering article by Yao and through the implementations promoted by Kobori. The concepts of active and semi-active structural control in civil and infrastructure engineering date back 40 years and much progress has been recorded during these four decades. Periodically, state-of-the-art manuscripts have been published and technical books were also printed to testify the maturation of the topic. This article only covers the period from the second semester of 2009 to the first semester of 2011, emphasizing the developments in terms of theoretical, numerical and experimental studies, as well as the use of control algorithms and devices in actual implementations. It is observed that there are still several operational limitations to prevent from the expected growth of the applications in standard design. Nevertheless, some innovative concepts help to foresee future developments within special sectors of applications. ©The Author(s) 2012.

Girardeau M.D.,University of Arizona | Astrakharchik G.E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The ground state of a one-dimensional (1D) quantum gas of dipoles oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, with a strong 1/x3 repulsive potential, is studied at low 1D densities n. Near contact the dependence of the many-body wave function on the separation x of two particles reduces to a two-body wave function Ψrel(x). Immediately after a sudden rotation of the dipoles so that they are parallel to the longitudinal axis, this wave function will still be that of the repulsive potential, but since the potential is now that of the attractive potential, it will not be stationary. It is shown that as nd2→0 the rate of change of this wave function approaches zero. It follows that for small values of nd2, this state is metastable and is an analog of the super Tonks-Girardeau state of bosons with a strong zero-range attraction. The dipolar system is equivalent to a spinor Fermi gas with spin z components σ= (perpendicular to the longitudinal axis) and σ= (parallel to the longitudinal axis). A Fermi-Fermi mapping from spinor to spinless Fermi gas followed by the standard 1960 Fermi-Bose mapping reduces the Fermi system to a Bose gas. Potential experiments realizing the sudden spin rotation with ultracold dipolar gases are discussed, and a few salient properties of these states are accurately evaluated by a MonteCarlo method. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Puentes G.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Hermosa N.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Torres J.P.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Torres J.P.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Weak measurements are a unique tool for accessing information about weakly interacting quantum systems with minimal back action. Joint weak measurements of single-particle operators with pointer states characterized by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution can provide, in turn, key information about quantum correlations that can be relevant for quantum information applications. Here we demonstrate that by employing two-dimensional pointer states endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM), it is possible to extract weak values of the higher order moments of single-particle operators, an inaccessible quantity with Gaussian pointer states only. We provide a specific example that illustrates the advantages of our method both in terms of signal enhancement and information retrieval. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Ferrer-I-Cancho R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Elvevag B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Zipf's law states that the relationship between the frequency of a word in a text and its rank (the most frequent word has rank 1, the 2nd most frequent word has rank 2,...) is approximately linear when plotted on a double logarithmic scale. It has been argued that the law is not a relevant or useful property of language because simple random texts - constructed by concatenating random characters including blanks behaving as word delimiters - exhibit a Zipf's lawlike word rank distribution. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this article, we examine the flaws of such putative good fits of random texts. We demonstrate - by means of three different statistical tests - that ranks derived from random texts and ranks derived from real texts are statistically inconsistent with the parameters employed to argue for such a good fit, even when the parameters are inferred from the target real text. Our findings are valid for both the simplest random texts composed of equally likely characters as well as more elaborate and realistic versions where character probabilities are borrowed from a real text. Conclusions/Significance: The good fit of random texts to real Zipf's law-like rank distributions has not yet been established. Therefore, we suggest that Zipf's law might in fact be a fundamental law in natural languages.

Raspall F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Computer Networks | Year: 2012

Packet sampling is needed to measure network traffic scalably at high speeds. While many sampled-based measurement techniques have been developed in the recent past, most approaches select packets uniformly, without regard to their size. We discuss that this behavior can negatively impact the performance of tools, and present a sampling scheme that, taking into account packet sizes, overcomes several weaknesses of classic sampling methods. While the idea behind of our approach is conceptually not new, the way we propose to implement it yields a cost-effective solution that is suitable at very high speeds. To see the advantages of the approach, we study the problem of estimating traffic volumes. Our analysis and experimental evaluation with real traffic traces show that sampling considering packet sizes can improve the quality of measurements and make their accuracy less dependant on the properties of the traffic, at a small additional overhead compared to traditional methods. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rota R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Boronat J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The temperature dependence of the one-body density matrix in He4 crystals presenting vacancies is computed with path integral Montei Carlo simulations. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the onset temperature T 0 of Bose-Einstein condensation in these systems. We see that T 0 depends on the vacancy concentration X v of the simulated system, but not following the law T 0∼Xv2/3 obtained assuming noninteracting vacancies. For the lowest X v we study, that is X v=1/256, we get T 0=0.15±0.05K, close to the temperatures at which a finite fraction of nonclassical rotational inertia is experimentally observed. Below T 0, vacancies do not act as classical point defects becoming completely delocalized entities. © 2012 American Physical Society.

De Haro J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Elizalde E.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Particle production from vacuum fluctuations during inflation is briefly revisited. The moduli problem occurring with light particles produced at the end of inflation is addressed, namely, the fact that some results are in disagreement with nucleosynthesis constrains. A universal solution to this problem is found which leads to reasonable reheating temperatures in all cases. It invokes the assumption that, immediately after inflation, the moduli evolve like nonrelativistic matter. The assumption is justified in the context of massive chaotic inflation where, at the end of inflation, the Universe evolves as if it were matter dominated. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Barrios R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Dios F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Optics Express | Year: 2012

Nowadays, the search for a distribution capable of modeling the probability density function (PDF) of irradiance data under all conditions of atmospheric turbulence in the presence of aperture averaging still continues. Here, a family of PDFs alternative to the widely accepted Log-Normal and Gamma-Gamma distributions is proposed to model the PDF of the received optical power in free-space optical communications, namely, the Weibull and the exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution. Particularly, it is shown how the proposed EW distribution offers an excellent fit to simulation and experimental data under all aperture averaging conditions, under weak and moderate turbulence conditions, as well as for point-like apertures. Another very attractive property of these distributions is the simple closed form expression of their respective PDF and cumulative distribution function. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Averbakh I.,University of Toronto | Pereira J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IIE Transactions (Institute of Industrial Engineers) | Year: 2012

Given a network whose edges need to be constructed, the problem is to find a construction schedule that minimizes the total recovery time of the vertices, where the recovery time of a vertex is the time when the vertex becomes connected to a special vertex (depot) that is the initial location of the construction crew. The construction speed is constant and is assumed to be incomparably slower than the travel speed of the construction crew in the already constructed part of the network. In this article, this new problem is introduced, its complexity is discussed, mixed-integer linear programming formulations are developed, fast and simple heuristics are proposed, and an exact branch-and-bound algorithm is presented which is based on specially designed lower bounds and dominance tests that exploit the problem's combinatorial structure. The results of extensive computational experiments are also presented. Connections between the problem and the Traveling Repairman Problem, also known as the Delivery Man Problem, and applications in emergency restoration operations are discussed. © 2012 "IIE".

Vilardy J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Millan M.S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Perez-Cabre E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

A new optical security system for image encryption based on a nonlinear joint transform correlator (JTC) in the Fresnel domain (FrD) is proposed. The proposal of the encryption process is a lensless optical system that produces a real encrypted image and is a simplified version of some previous JTC-based encryption systems. We use a random complex mask as the key in the nonlinear system for the purpose of increasing the security of the encrypted image. In order to retrieve the primary image in the decryption process, a nonlinear operation has to be introduced in the encrypted function. The optical decryption process is implemented through the Fresnel transform and the fractional Fourier transform. The security system proposed in this paper preserves the shift-invariance property of the JTC-based encryption system in the Fourier domain, with respect to the lateral displacement of the key random mask in the decryption process. This system shows an improved resistance to chosen-plaintext and known-plaintext attacks, as they have been proposed in the cryptanalysis of the JTC encrypting system. Numerical simulations show the validity of this new optical security system. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Revilla-Lopez G.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Biopolymers | Year: 2012

The structural consequences derived from the incorporation of either a methyl or a phenyl group at the α carbon of proline were recently investigated by quantum mechanical calculations (J Org Chem 2008, 73, 3418). In this work, the effect produced by contraction of the pyrrolidine ring on such α-substituted proline analogs has been explored using the same computational methods. Specifically, the intrinsic conformational preferences of the N-acetyl-N'-methylamide derivatives of the lower proline homolog L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze), characterized by a four- instead of a five-membered ring, and its α-methyl (αMeAze) and α-phenyl (αPhAze) derivatives have been determined using quantum mechanical calculations and compared to those observed before for the proline counterparts. Replacement of the pyrrolidine ring by an azetidine cycle leads to a reduction of the conformational flexibility, especially for the Aze and αMeAze derivatives, which should be attributed to the quasi-planar geometry of the four-membered ring. Furthermore, the azetidine nitrogen shows pyramidalization, which depending on the peptide backbone conformation favors the formation of an attractive N-H···N interaction or alleviates a severe steric hindrance. Calculations on different environments predict that the tendency of αMeAze to adopt γ-turns is higher than that of unsubstituted Aze and α-methylproline, this feature being in full agreement with the experimental observations available. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Trias F.X.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Gorobets A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Oliva A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2013

A simple approach to discretize the viscous dissipation term in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with spatially varying viscosity is presented. Unlike the case where the viscosity remains constant, its discretization may be quite cumbersome especially for high-order staggered formulations. To circumvent this problem, we propose an alternative form of the viscous term whose discretization is straightforward. Notice that this approach is also suitable for eddy-viscosity models for Large-Eddy Simulation. Moreover, since it is based on already available operators, it can be easily implemented on any structured or unstructured code. The (supra)convergence of the method is numerically shown on both a fourth-order Cartesian staggered and an unstructured collocated formulation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Khater H.A.,Assiut University | Serra A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Pond R.C.,University of Exeter
Philosophical Magazine | Year: 2013

Disconnection motion along () and () twins in Zr is investigated using atomic-scale simulation. In particular, the high mobility of glissile disconnections is studied in terms of the atomic shears and shuffles involved. Using a quasi-static simulation procedure, the displacements of individual atoms are followed as they transit from matrix sites, through interfacial sites, and hence to twin sites by repeated passages of disconnections along the interface. It is found that the overall displacements for the cases studied are those predicted by the Bilby and Crocker (1965) theory which invokes homogeneous shear deformation. However, the present work enables atomic tracks to be followed through the cores of moving disconnections. The combinations of shears and shuffles in the two twinning systems are found to be quite distinct. In addition to tracking their coordinates, the variation of hydrostatic pressure experienced by the atoms is also quantified. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Avila M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Mellibovsky F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Roland N.,Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization | Hof B.,Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization | Hof B.,Institute of Science and Technology Austria
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Although the equations governing fluid flow are well known, there are no analytical expressions that describe the complexity of turbulent motion. A recent proposition is that in analogy to low dimensional chaotic systems, turbulence is organized around unstable solutions of the governing equations which provide the building blocks of the disordered dynamics. We report the discovery of periodic solutions which just like intermittent turbulence are spatially localized and show that turbulent transients arise from one such solution branch. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Astrakharchik G.E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Brouzos I.,University of Ulm
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

Ground-state properties of a single impurity in a one-dimensional Fermi gas are investigated in uniform and trapped geometries. The energy of a trapped system is obtained (i) by generalizing the McGuire expression from a uniform to trapped system (ii) within the local density approximation (iii) using the perturbative approach in the case of a weakly interacting impurity and (iv) diffusion Monte Carlo method. We demonstrate that there is a closed formula based on the exact solution of the homogeneous case which provides a precise estimation for the energy of a trapped system even for a small number of fermions and arbitrary coupling constant of the impurity. Using this expression, we analyze energy contributions from kinetic, interaction, and potential components, as well as spatial properties such as the system size and the pair-correlation function. Finally, we calculate the frequency of the breathing mode. Our analysis is directly connected and applicable to the recent experiments in microtraps. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Sanrom G.,Rovira i Virgili University | Alquezar R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Serratosa F.,Rovira i Virgili University
Computer Vision and Image Understanding | Year: 2012

Finding correspondences between two point-sets is a common step in many vision applications (e.g., image matching or shape retrieval). We present a graph matching method to solve the point-set correspondence problem, which is posed as one of mixture modelling. Our mixture model encompasses a model of structural coherence and a model of affine-invariant geometrical errors. Instead of absolute positions, the geometrical positions are represented as relative positions of the points with respect to each other. We derive the Expectation-Maximization algorithm for our mixture model. In this way, the graph matching problem is approximated, in a principled way, as a succession of assignment problems which are solved using Softassign. Unlike other approaches, we use a true continuous underlying correspondence variable. We develop effective mechanisms to detect outliers. This is a useful technique for improving results in the presence of clutter. We evaluate the ability of our method to locate proper matches as well as to recognize object categories in a series of registration and recognition experiments. Our method compares favourably to other graph matching methods as well as to point-set registration methods and outlier rejectors. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.