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Klosterneuburg, Austria

Ladenstein R.,Medical University of Vienna | Weixler S.,University Medicine Berlin | Baykan B.,University of Greifswald | Bleeke M.,University of Greifswald | And 9 more authors.
mAbs | Year: 2013

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the safety, pharmacokinetic and activity profiles of the human-mouse chimeric monoclonal anti-disialoganglioside GD2 antibody ch14.18 produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (ch14.18/CHO). Results: A total of 41 ch14.18/CHO courses were given (10 × 3 courses, 5 × 2 courses, 1 × 1 course). Side effects were similar in expectedness, frequency and magnitude to those reported for ch14.18/SP2/0. The dose level of 20 mg/m2/day was confirmed. Toxicity was reversible and no treatment-related deaths occurred. In children, the peak plasma concentration was 16.51 μg/ml ± 5.9 μg/ml and the half-life was 76.91 h ± 52.5 h. A partial response following ch14.18/CHO was observed in 2/7 patients with residual disease. In mice, the half-lives were 22.7 h ± 1.9 h for ch14.18/CHO and 25.0 h ± 1.9 h for ch14.18/SP2/0. The biodistribution of 125I-ch14.18/CHO in mice with neuroblastoma was identical to 125I-ch14.18/SP2/0, indicating GD2 targeting activity in vivo. Methods: Sixteen children with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma (median age 7.6 y) were enrolled in this Phase 1 dose-finding study. Patients received ch14.18/CHO courses of 10, 20 or 30 mg/m 2/day as an eight-hour infusion over five consecutive days. Three courses at the same dose level were allowed unless disease progressed. Clearance and biodistribution of radiolabelled ch14.18/CHO in Balb/c and A/J mice were analyzed. Ch14.18 produced in CHO cells showed an unchanged toxicity profile and pharmacokinetics in neuroblastoma patients compared with ch14.18 produced in SP2/0 cells, and evidence of clinical activity was observed. In mice, analysis of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution showed comparable results between ch14.18/CHO and ch14.18/SP2/0. Based on these results, ch14.18/CHO was accepted for prospective clinical evaluation. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Simon F.H.P.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Erhart P.,University of Heidelberg | Vcelar B.,Polymun Scientific GmbH | Scheuerle A.,University of Ulm | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: This study examined effects and functional outcome of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) and carbamylated erythropoietin fusion protein (cEPO-FC) preconditioning in a rabbit model for spinal cord ischemia and resulting paraplegia. This model was chosen because only a small surgical effect is needed to cause paraplegia in rabbits, which facilitates postoperative observation of animals. Methods: Anesthetized but spontaneously breathing New Zealand White rabbits randomly received cEPO-FC (50μg/kg; n= 8), rhEPO (5000 IU/kg; n= 10), or vehicle (control; n= 10) 30minutes before and after infrarenal aortic clamping. Ideal clamping time of 22minutes was identified from preceding clamping tests (15-25minutes). Postoperative observation time was 96hours. Spinal cord function was assessed by neurologic evaluation of hind limb motor function every 12hours using a modified Tarlov score. Spinal cord tissue damage was evaluated after 96hours using hematoxylin and eosin, elastica van Gieson, Nissl, Masson-Goldner, and hemosiderin staining. Plasma levels of cell senescence markers stathmin, chitinase 1/3, elongation factor 1-α were determined. Results: Rabbits that received rhEPO showed significant improvement of spontaneous lower limb movements until 36hours of reperfusion and improved histologic scores upon examination of the lumbar spinal cord compared with the control group. In contrast, cEPO-FC treatment showed comparable outcome to the control group concerning movements of the lower limbs and histology. Senescence markers were elevated in the control group, but not in the treatment groups, except for chitinase 3 in the rhEPO group. Only stathmin showed no significant effect. Markers for senescence might increase after acute ischemic injury. Attenuation of senescence markers might not come alone from improvement of the spinal cord. Conclusion: Preconditioning with rhEPO attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury of the spinal cord, whereas the carbamylated derivative (cEPO-FC) showed no positive effect on spinal cord function. © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery.

Simon F.,Universitatsklinikum | Scheuerle A.,Universitatsklinikum | Groger M.,Universitatsklinikum | Vcelar B.,Polymun Scientific GmbH | And 6 more authors.
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Purpose: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) attenuated ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced spinal cord damage. Since carbamylated EPO derivatives are stated to be devoid of rhEPO side effects, we tested the hypothesis that a newly developed carbamylated EPO-FC fusion protein (cEPO-FC) would compare favorably with rhEPO. Methods: Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs randomly received cEPO-FC (50 lg kg -1), rhEPO (5,000 IU kg -1) or vehicle (n = 9 per group) 30 min prior to 30 min of aortic occlusion and over the 4 h of reperfusion. During aortic occlusion, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was maintained at 80-120% of baseline values by esmolol, nitroglycerin, and adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP). During reperfusion, noradrenaline was titrated to keep MAP at pre-ischemic levels. Spinal cord function was assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEP) and lower limb reflexes. Tissue damage was evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Plasma levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and 8-isoprostanes were measured as markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Results: While only cEPO-FC restored MEP amplitude to values close to pre-occlusion levels, both cEPO-FC and rhEPO comparably restored lower limb reflexes and reduced the percentage of damaged neurons. Infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells was moderate without intergroup difference; positive TUNEL staining was barely detectable in any group. I/R injury increased blood cytokine levels without intergroup difference, whereas both cEPOFC and rhEPO significantly lowered 8-isoprostane levels. Conclusions: In a porcine model of aortic balloon occlusion-induced spinal cord I/R injury, cEPO-FC and rhEPO comparably protected against ischemic spinal cord dysfunction and neuronal damage. This effect coincided with attenuated oxidative stress. © Copyright jointly held by Springer and ESICM 2011.

Castilho A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Neumann L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Gattinger P.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Strasser R.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Hyperglycosylated proteins are more stable, show increased serum half-life and less sensitivity to proteolysis compared to non-sialylated forms. This applies particularly to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Recent progress in N-glycoengineering of non-mammalian expression hosts resulted in in vivo protein sialylation at great homogeneity. However the synthesis of multi-sialylated N-glycans is so far restricted to mammalian cells. Here we used a plant based expression system to accomplish multi-antennary protein sialylation. A human erythropoietin fusion protein (EPOFc) was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana ΔXTFT, a glycosylation mutant that lacks plant specific N-glycan residues. cDNA of the hormone was co-delivered into plants with the necessary genes for (i) branching (ii) β1,4-galactosylation as well as for the (iii) synthesis, transport and transfer of sialic acid. This resulted in the production of recombinant EPOFc carrying bi- tri- and tetra-sialylated complex N-glycans. The formation of this highly complex oligosaccharide structure required the coordinated expression of 11 human proteins acting in different subcellular compartments at different stages of the glycosylation pathway. In vitro receptor binding assays demonstrate the generation of biologically active molecules. We demonstrate the in planta synthesis of one of the most complex mammalian glycoforms pointing to an outstanding high degree of tolerance to changes in the glycosylation pathway in plants. © 2013 Castilho et al.

Matejkova S.,Universitatsklinikum | Scheuerle A.,Universitatsklinikum | Wagner F.,Universitatsklinikum | McCook O.,Universitatsklinikum | And 12 more authors.
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2013

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that a carbamylated EPO-FC fusion protein (cEPO-FC) or recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) would protect against kidney ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in pigs with atherosclerosis. Methods: Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated animals received cEPO-FC (50 μg kg-1), rhEPO (5,000 IU kg-1), or vehicle (n = 9 per group) prior to 120 min of aortic occlusion and over 4 h of reperfusion. During aortic occlusion, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was maintained at 80-120 % of baseline values by esmolol, nitroglycerin, and ATP. During reperfusion, noradrenaline was titrated to keep MAP at pre-ischemic levels. Blood creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels, creatinine clearance, fractional Na+ excretion, and HE and PAS staining were used to assess kidney function and histological damage. Plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitrate + nitrite and 8-isoprostane levels were measured to assess systemic inflammation, and nitrosative and oxidative stress. Results: I/R caused acute kidney injury with reduced creatinine clearance, increased fractional Na+ excretion and NGAL levels, moderate to severe glomerular and tubular damage and apoptosis, systemic inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress, but there were no differences between the treatment groups. Pre-ischemia nitrate + nitrite and 8-isoprostanes levels were lower and higher, respectively, than in healthy animals of a previous study, and immune histochemistry showed higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase and lower EPO receptor expression in pre-ischemia kidney biopsies than in biopsies from healthy animals. Conclusions: In swine with atherosclerosis, rhEPO and cEPO-FC failed to attenuate prolonged ischemia-induced kidney injury within an 8-h reperfusion period, possibly due to reduced EPO receptor expression resulting from pre-existing oxidative stress and/or reduced NO release. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM.

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