Klosterneuburg, Austria
Klosterneuburg, Austria

Time filter

Source Type

Moog C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dereuddre-Bosquet N.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Dereuddre-Bosquet N.,University Paris - Sud | Teillaud J.-L.,University of Paris Descartes | And 15 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2014

Definition of antibody (Ab) functions capable of preventing mucosal HIV transmission may be critical to both effective vaccine development and the prophylactic use of monoclonal Abs. Although direct antibody-mediated neutralization is highly effective against cell-free virus, increasing evidence suggests an important role for immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated inhibition of HIV replication. Thus, a panel of well-known neutralizing (NAbs) and nonneutralizing Abs (NoNAbs) were screened for their ability to block HIV acquisition and replication in vitro in either an independent or FcγR-dependent manner. Abs displaying the highest Fc-mediated inhibitory activity in various in vitro assays were selected, formulated for topical vaginal application in a microbicide gel, and tested for their antiviral activity against SHIVSF162P3 vaginal challenge in non-human primates (NHPs). A combination of three NAbs, 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10, fully prevented simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) vaginal transmission in 10 out of 15 treated NHPs, whereas a combination of two NoNAbs, 246-D and 4B3, although having no impact on SHIV acquisition, reduced plasma viral load. These results indicate that anti-HIV Abs with distinct neutralization and inhibitory functions differentially affect in vivo HIV acquisition and replication, by interfering with early viral replication and dissemination. Therefore, combining diverse Ab properties may potentiate the protective effects of anti-HIV-Ab-based strategies. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology.


PubMed | Polymun Scientific GmbH, New York University, CNRS Hubert Curien Multi-disciplinary Institute, Imperial College London and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mucosal immunology | Year: 2013

Definition of antibody (Ab) functions capable of preventing mucosal HIV transmission may be critical to both effective vaccine development and the prophylactic use of monoclonal Abs. Although direct antibody-mediated neutralization is highly effective against cell-free virus, increasing evidence suggests an important role for immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated inhibition of HIV replication. Thus, a panel of well-known neutralizing (NAbs) and nonneutralizing Abs (NoNAbs) were screened for their ability to block HIV acquisition and replication in vitro in either an independent or FcR-dependent manner. Abs displaying the highest Fc-mediated inhibitory activity in various in vitro assays were selected, formulated for topical vaginal application in a microbicide gel, and tested for their antiviral activity against SHIVSF162P3 vaginal challenge in non-human primates (NHPs). A combination of three NAbs, 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10, fully prevented simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) vaginal transmission in 10 out of 15 treated NHPs, whereas a combination of two NoNAbs, 246-D and 4B3, although having no impact on SHIV acquisition, reduced plasma viral load. These results indicate that anti-HIV Abs with distinct neutralization and inhibitory functions differentially affect in vivo HIV acquisition and replication, by interfering with early viral replication and dissemination. Therefore, combining diverse Ab properties may potentiate the protective effects of anti-HIV-Ab-based strategies.


Thomas Tayra J.,Okayama University of Science | Kameda M.,Okayama University of Science | Yasuhara T.,Okayama University of Science | Agari T.,Okayama University of Science | And 9 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2013

Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Thus the development of therapeutic neuroprotection and neurorescue strategies to mitigate disease progression is important. In this study we evaluated the neuroprotective/rescue effects of erythropoietin Fc fusion protein (EPO-Fc) and carbamylated erythropoietin Fc fusion protein (CEPO-Fc) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of EPO-Fc, CEPO-Fc or PBS. Behavioral evaluations consisted of rota-rod, cylinder and amphetamine-induced rotation tests. In the neuroprotection experiment, the CEPO-Fc group demonstrated significant improvement compared with the EPO-Fc group on the amphetamine-induced rotation test throughout the four-week follow-up period. Histologically, significantly more tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons were recognized in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta in the CEPO-Fc group than in the PBS and EPO-Fc groups. In the neurorescue experiment, rats receiving CEPO-Fc showed significantly better behavioural scores than those receiving PBS. The histological data concerning striatum also showed that the CEPO-Fc group had significantly better preservation of TH-positive fibers compared to the PBS and EPO-Fc groups. Importantly, there were no increases in hematocrit or hemoglobin levels in the CEPO-Fc group in either the neuroprotection or the neurorescue experiments. In conclusion, the newly developed CEPO-Fc might confer neuroprotective and neurorescue benefits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease without the side effects associated with polycythemia. CEPO-Fc might be a therapeutic tool for patients with Parkinson's disease. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Simon F.H.P.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Erhart P.,University of Heidelberg | Vcelar B.,Polymun Scientific GmbH | Scheuerle A.,University of Ulm | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: This study examined effects and functional outcome of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) and carbamylated erythropoietin fusion protein (cEPO-FC) preconditioning in a rabbit model for spinal cord ischemia and resulting paraplegia. This model was chosen because only a small surgical effect is needed to cause paraplegia in rabbits, which facilitates postoperative observation of animals. Methods: Anesthetized but spontaneously breathing New Zealand White rabbits randomly received cEPO-FC (50μg/kg; n= 8), rhEPO (5000 IU/kg; n= 10), or vehicle (control; n= 10) 30minutes before and after infrarenal aortic clamping. Ideal clamping time of 22minutes was identified from preceding clamping tests (15-25minutes). Postoperative observation time was 96hours. Spinal cord function was assessed by neurologic evaluation of hind limb motor function every 12hours using a modified Tarlov score. Spinal cord tissue damage was evaluated after 96hours using hematoxylin and eosin, elastica van Gieson, Nissl, Masson-Goldner, and hemosiderin staining. Plasma levels of cell senescence markers stathmin, chitinase 1/3, elongation factor 1-α were determined. Results: Rabbits that received rhEPO showed significant improvement of spontaneous lower limb movements until 36hours of reperfusion and improved histologic scores upon examination of the lumbar spinal cord compared with the control group. In contrast, cEPO-FC treatment showed comparable outcome to the control group concerning movements of the lower limbs and histology. Senescence markers were elevated in the control group, but not in the treatment groups, except for chitinase 3 in the rhEPO group. Only stathmin showed no significant effect. Markers for senescence might increase after acute ischemic injury. Attenuation of senescence markers might not come alone from improvement of the spinal cord. Conclusion: Preconditioning with rhEPO attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury of the spinal cord, whereas the carbamylated derivative (cEPO-FC) showed no positive effect on spinal cord function. © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery.


PubMed | University of Ulm, Polymun Scientific GmbH, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf and University of Heidelberg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of vascular surgery | Year: 2015

This study examined effects and functional outcome of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) and carbamylated erythropoietin fusion protein (cEPO-FC) preconditioning in a rabbit model for spinal cord ischemia and resulting paraplegia. This model was chosen because only a small surgical effect is needed to cause paraplegia in rabbits, which facilitates postoperative observation of animals.Anesthetized but spontaneously breathing New Zealand White rabbits randomly received cEPO-FC (50g/kg; n= 8), rhEPO (5000 IU/kg; n= 10), or vehicle (control; n= 10) 30minutes before and after infrarenal aortic clamping. Ideal clamping time of 22minutes was identified from preceding clamping tests (15-25minutes). Postoperative observation time was 96hours. Spinal cord function was assessed by neurologic evaluation of hind limb motor function every 12hours using a modified Tarlov score. Spinal cord tissue damage was evaluated after 96hours using hematoxylin and eosin, elastica van Gieson, Nissl, Masson-Goldner, and hemosiderin staining. Plasma levels of cell senescence markers stathmin, chitinase 1/3, elongation factor 1- were determined.Rabbits that received rhEPO showed significant improvement of spontaneous lower limb movements until 36hours of reperfusion and improved histologic scores upon examination of the lumbar spinal cord compared with the control group. In contrast, cEPO-FC treatment showed comparable outcome to the control group concerning movements of the lower limbs and histology. Senescence markers were elevated in the control group, but not in the treatment groups, except for chitinase 3 in the rhEPO group. Only stathmin showed no significant effect. Markers for senescence might increase after acute ischemic injury. Attenuation of senescence markers might not come alone from improvement of the spinal cord.Preconditioning with rhEPO attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury of the spinal cord, whereas the carbamylated derivative (cEPO-FC) showed no positive effect on spinal cord function.


Lohr V.,Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems | Genzel Y.,Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems | Jordan I.,ProBioGen AG | Katinger D.,Polymun Scientific GmbH | And 5 more authors.
BMC Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Background: Current influenza vaccines are trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated split or subunit vaccines administered intramuscularly, or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) adapted to replicate at temperatures below body temperature and administered intranasally. Both vaccines are considered safe and efficient, but due to differences in specific properties may complement each other to ensure reliable vaccine coverage. By now, licensed LAIV are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. In the near future influenza vaccines for human use will also be available from adherent MDCK or Vero cell cultures, but a scalable suspension process may facilitate production and supply with vaccines.Results: We evaluated the production of cold-adapted human influenza virus strains in the duck suspension cell line AGE1.CR.pIX using a chemically-defined medium. One cold-adapted A (H1N1) and one cold-adapted B virus strain was tested, as well as the reference strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). It is shown that a medium exchange is not required for infection and that maximum virus titers are obtained for 1 × 10-6 trypsin units per cell. 1 L bioreactor cultivations showed that 4 × 106 cells/mL can be infected without a cell density effect achieving titers of 1 × 108 virions/mL after 24 h.Conclusions: Overall, this study demonstrates that AGE1.CR.pIX cells support replication of LAIV strains in a chemically-defined medium using a simple process without medium exchanges. Moreover, the process is fast with peak titers obtained 24 h post infection and easily scalable to industrial volumes as neither microcarriers nor medium replacements are required. © 2012 Lohr et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ladenstein R.,Medical University of Vienna | Weixler S.,University Medicine Berlin | Baykan B.,University of Greifswald | Bleeke M.,University of Greifswald | And 9 more authors.
mAbs | Year: 2013

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the safety, pharmacokinetic and activity profiles of the human-mouse chimeric monoclonal anti-disialoganglioside GD2 antibody ch14.18 produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (ch14.18/CHO). Results: A total of 41 ch14.18/CHO courses were given (10 × 3 courses, 5 × 2 courses, 1 × 1 course). Side effects were similar in expectedness, frequency and magnitude to those reported for ch14.18/SP2/0. The dose level of 20 mg/m2/day was confirmed. Toxicity was reversible and no treatment-related deaths occurred. In children, the peak plasma concentration was 16.51 μg/ml ± 5.9 μg/ml and the half-life was 76.91 h ± 52.5 h. A partial response following ch14.18/CHO was observed in 2/7 patients with residual disease. In mice, the half-lives were 22.7 h ± 1.9 h for ch14.18/CHO and 25.0 h ± 1.9 h for ch14.18/SP2/0. The biodistribution of 125I-ch14.18/CHO in mice with neuroblastoma was identical to 125I-ch14.18/SP2/0, indicating GD2 targeting activity in vivo. Methods: Sixteen children with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma (median age 7.6 y) were enrolled in this Phase 1 dose-finding study. Patients received ch14.18/CHO courses of 10, 20 or 30 mg/m 2/day as an eight-hour infusion over five consecutive days. Three courses at the same dose level were allowed unless disease progressed. Clearance and biodistribution of radiolabelled ch14.18/CHO in Balb/c and A/J mice were analyzed. Ch14.18 produced in CHO cells showed an unchanged toxicity profile and pharmacokinetics in neuroblastoma patients compared with ch14.18 produced in SP2/0 cells, and evidence of clinical activity was observed. In mice, analysis of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution showed comparable results between ch14.18/CHO and ch14.18/SP2/0. Based on these results, ch14.18/CHO was accepted for prospective clinical evaluation. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.


Castilho A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Neumann L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Gattinger P.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Strasser R.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Hyperglycosylated proteins are more stable, show increased serum half-life and less sensitivity to proteolysis compared to non-sialylated forms. This applies particularly to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Recent progress in N-glycoengineering of non-mammalian expression hosts resulted in in vivo protein sialylation at great homogeneity. However the synthesis of multi-sialylated N-glycans is so far restricted to mammalian cells. Here we used a plant based expression system to accomplish multi-antennary protein sialylation. A human erythropoietin fusion protein (EPOFc) was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana ΔXTFT, a glycosylation mutant that lacks plant specific N-glycan residues. cDNA of the hormone was co-delivered into plants with the necessary genes for (i) branching (ii) β1,4-galactosylation as well as for the (iii) synthesis, transport and transfer of sialic acid. This resulted in the production of recombinant EPOFc carrying bi- tri- and tetra-sialylated complex N-glycans. The formation of this highly complex oligosaccharide structure required the coordinated expression of 11 human proteins acting in different subcellular compartments at different stages of the glycosylation pathway. In vitro receptor binding assays demonstrate the generation of biologically active molecules. We demonstrate the in planta synthesis of one of the most complex mammalian glycoforms pointing to an outstanding high degree of tolerance to changes in the glycosylation pathway in plants. © 2013 Castilho et al.


Castilho A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Strasser R.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Stadlmann J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Grass J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Many therapeutic proteins are glycosylated and require terminal sialylation to attain full biological activity. Current manufacturing methods based on mammalian cell culture allow only limited control of this important posttranslational modification, which may lead to the generation of products with low efficacy. Here we report in vivo protein sialylation in plants, which have been shown to be well suited for the efficient generation of complex mammalian glycoproteins. This was achieved by the introduction of an entire mammalian biosynthetic pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana, comprising the coordinated expression of the genes for (i) biosynthesis, (ii) activation, (iii) transport, and (iv) transfer of Neu5Ac to terminal galactose.We show the transient overexpression and functional integrity of six mammalian proteins that act at various stages of the biosynthetic pathway and demonstrate their correct subcellular localization. Co-expression of these genes with a therapeutic glycoprotein, a human monoclonal antibody, resulted in quantitative sialylation of the Fc domain. Sialylation was at great uniformity when glycosylation mutants that lack plant-specific N-glycan residues were used as expression hosts. Finally, we demonstrate efficient neutralization activity of the sialylated monoclonal antibody, indicating full functional integrity of the reporter protein. We report for the first time the incorporation of the entire biosynthetic pathway for protein sialylation in a multicellular organism naturally lacking sialylated glycoconjugates. Besides the biotechnological impact of the achievement, this work may serve as a general model for the manipulation of complex traits into plants. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Morrow R.J.,Queen's University of Belfast | Woolfson A.D.,Queen's University of Belfast | Donnelly L.,Queen's University of Belfast | Curran R.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2011

A new vaginal ring technology, the insert vaginal ring (InVR), is presented. The InVR overcomes the current shortfall of conventional vaginal rings (VRs) that are generally ineffectual for the delivery of hydrophilic and/or macromolecular actives, including peptides, proteins and antibodies, due to their poor permeation characteristics in the hydrophobic polymeric elastomers from which VRs are usually fabricated. Release of the model protein BSA from a variety of insert matrices for the InVR is demonstrated, including modified silicone rods, directly compressed tablets and lyophilised gels, which collectively provided controlled release profiles from several hours to beyond 4 weeks. Furthermore, the InVR was shown to deliver over 1 mg of the monoclonal antibody 2F5 from a single device, offering a potential means of protecting women against the transmission of HIV. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Loading Polymun Scientific GmbH collaborators
Loading Polymun Scientific GmbH collaborators