Lisbon, Portugal
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Almeida I.,University of Lisbon | Martins H.M.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Marques M.F.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Magalhaes S.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Bernardo F.,Polo Universitario da Ajuda
Veterinary Research Communications | Year: 2010

The occurrence of mycotoxin-producing moulds in animal feed is a hazard for animals. When these undesirable substances contaminate laboratory animal feed, convey an additional problem in experimental animal assays confidence levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate fungal contamination and to determine natural occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in 31 samples. OTA is a mycotoxin produced by fungi of two genera: Penicillium and Aspergillus. OTA has been shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic to a number of animal species and to cause kidney and liver tumors in mice and rats. In this preliminary study, feed mould counts ranged from 3 to 4.2 log10 cfu/g (colonies forming units per gram). When these species are present, there is a significant risk of contamination with mycotoxins resulting in both acute diseases called mycotoxicoses and chronic conditions, often recognized as situations involving mycotoxins. The most frequent genus isolated was Cladosporium sp. (84%), followed by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium (81%) and Mucor sp. (77%). All rat feed samples were examined for OTA, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The detection limit was 2.0 μg OTA kg-1 and all samples revealed o be negative for this mycotoxin. These mycotoxicological researches put in evidence the importance of the use contaminant-free experimental animal feed in order to prevent any interference on the health of experimental animals and emphasizes the need for systematiccontrol of the feed as a key issue in animal experimentation. © Spriger Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Marcos C.,Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Estoril | Viegas C.,Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Estoril | de Almeida A.M.,Polo Universitario da Ajuda | de Almeida A.M.,Ross University School of Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnic Foods | Year: 2016

Traditional sausages-smoked, fermented or dried-are meat products that are part of the traditional daily diet in rural Portugal, and also highly valued in major cities with an increasing demand. These ethnic meat products are manufactured mainly by small-scale industries or artisanal producers according to and/or inspired by traditional processes. They are present in a wide variety of types, many recognized for their quality (38 certified products). Presently, cure technologies used are important for the potential they represent in transformation and diversification. Additionally, they add flavors and colors to meat that are much appreciated, surpassing meat preservation proposes. A review on the types and manufacturing technological aspects associated to Portuguese traditional sausages (PTS) is provided in this article. Additionally, nutritional composition of the products is presented. Future developments foreseen in the field, in the light of current knowledge and market trends, are finally addressed. © 2016 The Authors.


Martins H.M.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Almeida I.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Camacho C.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Costa J.M.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Bernardo F.,Polo Universitario da Ajuda
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2012

Results of a 2-year (2009-2010) survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in swine feed and in feed for laying hens in Portugal are reported. A total of 664 samples (478 swine feed, 186 feed for laying hens) were analyzed by a HPLC method using fluorescence detection with 2 μg kg-1 as detection limit. In swine feed, 31 samples (6.49%) were positive for OTA. In feed for laying hens, 12 samples (6.45%) were OTA-positive. The average levels of contamination were low, with median values of positive samples at 3-4 μg kg-1 in both years and both commodities, although a few samples contained exceptionally high levels (maximum 130 μg kg-1). Only the maximum level sample (swine feed) contained OTA at a concentration exceeding the European Commission guidance value. The remaining OTA concentrations found in feed samples were much lower than the guidance values. © 2012 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer.


Martins H.M.L.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Almeida I.F.M.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Camacho C.R.L.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Santos S.M.O.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | And 2 more authors.
Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia | Year: 2012

Background: Fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), and overall mycotoxins feed contamination may cause several effects on crops production and animal health. The contamination occurred predominantly in corn and corn-based foods and feeds. Aims: This survey intends to provide the occurrence of fumonisins in swine and equine mixed feeds in Portugal, making an overview from 2007 to 2010. Methods: A total of 363 samples were analyzed, 258 from swine feed and 105 from horse feed with HPLC method. The detection limit was 50. μg/kg for FB1 and 100. μg/kg for FB2. Results: The overall results were 13% of FB1 occurrence from 2007 to 2010. FB1 was detected in about 17.0% of swine feed samples, being more frequent in 2010 (32.9%). In this year (2010) levels ranged between 66.7 and 3815.5. μg/kg.FB2 occurred only in 2010 in swine feed (6 samples, ranging between 104.0 to 467.2. μg/kg) and in horse feed (1 sample). Conclusions: This represents an increase in occurrence through the analyzed years, but this may not be a threat to animal health, once the values were below the recommended guidance values from European Commission. . © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología.


Almeida I.F.M.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Guerra M.M.,Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Estoril | Martins H.M.L.,Inrb Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Costa J.M.G.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Bernardo F.M.A.,Polo Universitario da Ajuda
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2013

This paper presents 3 years of data (2009-2011) on the occurrence of two mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA), in samples of feedstuff for dairy cows (n = 963), ewes (n = 42), and goats (n = 131) produced in Portugal. AFB1 was found in 15 samples of cow feed (1.6 %), 3 samples of ewe feed (2.3 %) and in 2 samples of goat feed (4.8 %). All but two samples contained AFB1 at levels below the European Union maximum level (5 μg/kg). Nearly half (45 %) of the samples were contaminated with ZEA, but its levels were relatively low, at 5-136.9 μg/kg, well below the European Union guidance value (500 μg/kg). © 2013 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Polo Universitario da Ajuda
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2013

The effect of feed restriction on gene expression of regulatory enzymes of intermediary metabolism was studied in two sheep breeds (Australian Merino and Dorper) subjected to two nutritional treatments: feed restriction (85% of daily maintenance requirements) and control (ad libitum feeding), during 42 days. The experimental animals (ram lambs) were divided into four groups, n = 5 (Australian Merino control (MC), Australian Merino Restriction (MR), Dorper control (DC) and Dorper Restriction (DR)). After the trial, animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from liver tissue to quantify glucose levels and gene expression of relevant intermediary metabolism enzymes (phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase (GS), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS)) through real-time PCR. During the experimental period, the MR animals lost 12.6% in BW compared with 5.3% lost by the Dorper lambs. MC and DC rams gained, respectively, 8.8% and 14% during the same period. Within the Dorper breed, restricted feed animals revealed a significant decrease over controls in the transcription of PFK (1.95-fold) and PK (2.26-fold), both glycolytic enzymes. The gluconeogenesis showed no change in the feed restricted animals of both breeds. DR feed group presented a significant decrease over the homologous Merino sheep group on GS. In both experimental breeds, FAS mRNA expression was decreased in restricted feed groups. GDH expression was decreased only in the DR animals (1.84-fold) indicating a reduced catabolism of amino acids in these animals. Finally, CPS was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the Dorper sheep, indicating a facilitated urea synthesis in this breed. These results indicate a better adaptation of metabolic intermediate regulatory enzymes and hepatic glucose production of Dorper sheep to feed restriction concurring with the BW results in the experimental groups.

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